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1.  Two-stage procedure in anterior cruciate ligament revision surgery: a five-year follow-up prospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(7):1369-1374.
The purpose of this study was to show that this two-stage procedure for ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) revision surgery could be straight-forward and provide satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes.
This is a five-year prospective analysis of clinical and functional data on 30 patients (19 men and 11 women; average age 29.1 ± 5.4) who underwent a two-stage ACL revision procedure after traumatic re-rupture of the ACL. Diagnosis was on Lachman and pivot-shift tests, arthrometer 30-lb KT-1000 side-to-side findings, and on MRI and arthroscopic assessments.
Postoperative IKDC and Lysholm scores were significantly improved compared to baseline values (P < 0.001). At the last follow up, 20 of 30 patients (66.7 %) had returned to preoperative sport activity level (nine elite athletes, 11 county level), seven had changed to lower sport levels, and three had given up any sport activity. At the same appointment, 11 patients had degenerative changes. All these patients reported significantly lower Lysholm scores compared to patients without any degenerative change (p < 0.001).
In ACL revision surgery, when the first femoral tunnel has been correctly placed, this procedure allows safe filling of large bony defects, with no donor site comorbidities. It provides comfortable clinical, functional and imaging outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3685647  PMID: 23624910
2.  The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries 
The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended as an overview of these injury types for medical students, healthcare professionals and researchers.
PMCID: PMC4055241  PMID: 24926412
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tear; Concussion; Physeal injury; Children and adolescents
3.  Endoscopic approach for plantar fasciopathy: a long-term retrospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(6):1151-1156.
The purpose of this study was to report the long term effectiveness of endoscopic plantar fascia release for recalcitrant plantar fasciopathy.
Twenty-three consecutive patients underwent endoscopically-assisted plantar fascia release for symptomatic plantar fasciopathy unresponsive to nonoperative measures. The clinical diagnosis was supported by imaging (plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was administered to all patients. All patients underwent endoscopic plantar fascia release. Postoperatively, patients were assessed at clinical examination and the AOFAS score was administered.
Twenty-two (26 feet) of the 23 patients included in our original cohort returned to our clinic at an average final follow-up of 9.6 years. The mean preoperative AOFAS score of 51 (range, 41–63) improved to 89 (range, 41–97) at the last follow-up, with no statistically significant difference between patients with or without calcaneal bone spur (p = 0.43). At the last appointment, physically active patients reported significantly higher AOFAS scores than sedentary patients (p = .008).
This endoscopic plantar approach could be a viable alternative to more invasive procedures for management of recalcitrant plantar fasciopathy. Future randomised controlled trials are needed.
PMCID: PMC3664173  PMID: 23483259
4.  Bovine xenograft locking Puddu plate versus tricalcium phosphate spacer non-locking Puddu plate in opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a prospective double-cohort study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(5):819-826.
The aim of the study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) augmented with either xenograft or tricalcium phosphate spacer for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) with genu varum.
Between 2004 and 2007, we prospectively enrolled 52 patients with medial compartment knee OA who underwent opening-wedge HTO fixed with locking Puddu plate and xenograft (n = 26) or non-locking Puddu plate and tricalcium phosphate spacer (n = 26). The alignment of the lower limb was assessed by measuring the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Knee Society Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, SF-36 and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale. All patients were followed up at six weeks and at three, six, 12 and 24 months post-operatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively and at 24 months post-operatively.
All clinical scores improved significantly in both groups after surgery, without any significant difference between the two groups. Immediately after surgery, the HKA angle went from 9.1 ± 5.2° in varus to 3.1 ± 4.8° in valgus (P = 0.01) in the xenograft group, and from 8.5 ± 5.9° in varus to 3.4 ± 4.2° in valgus (P = 0.01) in the tricalcium phosphate group. At the last follow-up, the tricalcium phosphate group showed a significant loss of correction (P = 0.03).
HTO performed with xenograft locking plate and tricalcium phosphate non-locking plate constructs showed good clinical outcomes. However, the xenograft locking plate construct is superior to the tricalcium phosphate spacer non-locking plate to prevent the loss of correction in the middle term.
PMCID: PMC3631487  PMID: 23412369
5.  Responses to increasing exercise upon reaching the anaerobic threshold, and their control by the central nervous system 
The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been one of the most studied of all physiological variables. Many authors have proposed the use of several markers to determine the moment at with the AT is reached. The present work discusses the physiological responses made to exercise - the measurement of which indicates the point at which the AT is reached - and how these responses might be controlled by the central nervous system. The detection of the AT having been reached is a sign for the central nervous system (CNS) to respond via an increase in efferent activity via the peripheral nervous system (PNS). An increase in CNS and PNS activities are related to changes in ventilation, cardiovascular function, and gland and muscle function. The directing action of the central command (CC) allows for the coordination of the autonomous and motor systems, suggesting that the AT can be identified in the many ways: changes in lactate, ventilation, plasma catecholamines, heart rate (HR), salivary amylase and muscular electrical activity. This change in response could be indicative that the organism would face failure if the exercise load continued to increase. To avoid this, the CC manages the efferent signals that show the organism that it is running out of homeostatic potential.
PMCID: PMC4016642  PMID: 24818009
Physiological response; Exercise; Central governor; Fatigue
6.  Role of Serum Fibrinogen Levels in Patients with Rotator Cuff Tears 
Although rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a frequent pathology of the shoulder, the real understanding of its aetiopathogenesis is still unclear. Several studies showed that RC tendinopathy is more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. This paper aims to evaluate the serum concentration of fibrinogen in patients with RC tears. Metabolic disorders have been related to high concentration of serum fibrinogen and the activity of fibrinogen has been proven to be crucial in the development of microvascular damage. Thus, it may produce progression of RC degeneration by reducing the vascular supply of tendons. We report the results of a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study comparing the serum concentration of fibrinogen of patients with RC tears with that of a control group of patients without history of RC tears who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. We choose to enrol in the control group patients with pathology of the lower limb with a likely mechanic, not metabolic, cause, different from tendon pathology. We found no statistically significant differences in serum concentration of fibrinogen when comparing patients with RC tears and patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy (P = 0.5). Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fibrinogen in RC disease.
PMCID: PMC4003788  PMID: 24817887
7.  Achilles tendon: functional anatomy and novel emerging models of imaging classification 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(4):715-721.
Ideally, a classification should have some prognostic value, and should therefore include precise information upon extent and location of the Achilles tendon disorders. We propose a new imaging and anatomical system to classify Achilles tendon disorders at imaging using US and MRI.
We consider the non-insertional region as the tendon mid-portion, and distinguish the insertional component into a pre-insertion site, located about two centimetres above the calcaneum, and a calcaneal insertion, where the tendon is attached to the bone. On sagittal scans, we introduced a new classification which considers two main portions: “musculotendinous” and “insertional”. In the context of the muscolotendinous portion, it is possible to find muscle fibres proximally, and the free tendon distally. This latter is made up of proximal, middle and distal portions. We also propose a 5 grade Doppler classification system to quantify blood flow, in which Grades I and II are respectively characterised by the presence of one and two vessels within the tendon; in Grades III, IV and V, the neovascularisation respectively involves less than 50 %, from 50 to 90 %, and more than 90 % of the tendon tissue. These proposed systems will require validation and possible modification to be applied to different tendons.
PMCID: PMC3609991  PMID: 23254856
8.  Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions 
This review analyzes the literature of bone grafts and introduces tissue engineering as a strategy in this field of orthopedic surgery. We evaluated articles concerning bone grafts; analyzed characteristics, advantages, and limitations of the grafts; and provided explanations about bone-tissue engineering technologies. Many bone grafting materials are available to enhance bone healing and regeneration, from bone autografts to graft substitutes; they can be used alone or in combination. Autografts are the gold standard for this purpose, since they provide osteogenic cells, osteoinductive growth factors, and an osteoconductive scaffold, all essential for new bone growth. Autografts carry the limitations of morbidity at the harvesting site and limited availability. Allografts and xenografts carry the risk of disease transmission and rejection. Tissue engineering is a new and developing option that had been introduced to reduce limitations of bone grafts and improve the healing processes of the bone fractures and defects. The combined use of scaffolds, healing promoting factors, together with gene therapy, and, more recently, three-dimensional printing of tissue-engineered constructs may open new insights in the near future.
PMCID: PMC3995444  PMID: 24628910
Bone graft; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Three-dimensional printing; Orthopedic research
10.  ISMuLT Guidelines for muscle injuries 
Muscle injuries are frequent in high demand sports. No guidelines are available in the scientific literature. ISMuLT, the “Italian Society of Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons”, in line with its multidisciplinary mission, is proud to cover this gap.
PMCID: PMC3940495  PMID: 24596685
muscles injuries; classification; guidelines
11.  Muscle, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field science research 
The design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation and report of research is a key important for the science. The research required minimize the uncertainty, therefore we encourage all authors of respect how much can possible the contents in this official editorial also in order to stimulate interest and debate about constructive change in the use of statistics in our disciplines1,2. Authors are required to confirm that these standards and laws have been adhered to by formally citing this editorial within the methods section of their own manuscript.
PMCID: PMC3940496  PMID: 24596686
statistical analysis; case report; experimental approach; design; ethical standard; best practice; sample size; performance indicators; reliability of the measures
12.  Surgical repair of muscle laceration: biomechanical properties at 6 years follow-up 
Muscle injuries are challenging problems for surgeons. Muscle trauma is commonly treated conservatively with excellent outcome results while surgical repair is advocated for larger tears/lacerations, where the optimal goal is restore of function. Repair of muscle belly lacerations is technically demanding because the sutures pull out and the likelihood of clinical failure is high. Different suture techniques have been described but still the best suture is debated. We show a case of a pure vastus medialis muscle laceration surgically repaired at 6 years of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3940505  PMID: 24596695
muscle belly lesion; skeletal muscle laceration; muscle repair; epimysium; fibrous scar
14.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2013 
Contributing reviewers
The Editors of Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 7 (2013).
PMCID: PMC3916063
15.  Exercise Training in Athletes with Bicuspid Aortic Valve Does Not Result in Increased Dimensions and Impaired Performance of the Left Ventricle 
Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is one of the most common congenital heart disease (0.9%–2%) and is frequently found in the athletes and in the general population. BAV can lead to aortic valve dysfunction and to a progressive aortic dilatation. Trained BAV athletes exhibit a progressive enlargement of the left ventricle (LV) compared to athletes with normal aortic valve morphology. The present study investigates the possible relationship between different aortic valve morphology and LV dimensions. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2011, we investigated a total of 292 BAV subjects, divided into three different groups (210 athletes, 59 sedentaries, and 23 ex-athletes). A 2D echocardiogram exam to classify BAV morphology and measure the standard LV systo-diastolic parameters was performed. The study was conducted as a 5-year follow-up echocardiographic longitudinal and as cross-sectional study. Results. Typical BAV was more frequent in all three groups (68% athletes, 67% sedentaries, and 63% ex-athletes) than atypical. In BAV athletes, the typical form was found in 51% (107/210) of soccer players, 10% (21/210) of basketball players, 10% track and field athletics (20/210), 8% (17/210) of cyclists, 6% (13/210) swimmers, and 15% (32/210) of rugby players and others sport. Despite a progressive enlargement of the LV (P < 0.001) observed during the follow-up study, no statistical differences of the LV morphology and function were evident among the diverse BAV patterns either in sedentary subjects or in athletes. Conclusion. In a large population of trained BAV athletes, with different prevalence of typical and atypical BAV type, there is a progressive nonstatistically significant enlargement of the LV. In any case, the dimensions of the LV remained within normal range. The metabolic requirements of the diverse sport examined in the present investigations do not seem to produce any negative impact in BAV athletes
PMCID: PMC3926276  PMID: 24600528
16.  Positive Effect of the Use of Accelerometry on Lifestyle Awareness of Overweight Hypertensive Patients 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):241-248.
Sedentary habits are strongly associated with increase of cardiovascular risk factors. The present study aimed to verify the role of accelerometry in identifying sedentary behavior, and the possible short term positive effect of this intervention on some anthropometric variables in a group of patients with cardiovascular risks factors.
To quantify daily Spontaneous Motor Activity (SMA) levels and identify sedentary behavior, an accelerometer was employed, in addition to a simple questionnaire, in a group of overweight, hypertensive subjects. A personalized unsupervised 3 month long physical exercise program was planned. After this time, acceleroometry was again undertaken to analyze the impact of the intervention on some life style parameters, including the number of the steps taken daily, and Physical Activity Level (PAL). In addition, body water balance, weight, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were also evaluated.
Assessment of physical activity by accelerometry identifies sedentary behaviors in a larger number of individuals. After three months of regular unsupervised aerobic exercise, PAL improved from 1.56 ±0.1 to 1.68±0.2 with P<0.005, weight (kg) reduced from 85.13 ± 20 to 83.10 ± 19 (P<0.05), BMI from 29.58 to 28.7 (P<0.05).
Accelerometry allows to objectify PAL, and can be used to monitor improvement of variables strongly related to cardiovascular risk.
PMCID: PMC3977207  PMID: 24799998
Lifestyle; Accelerometer; Exercise as Prescription Therapy; Body Composition
17.  Acetabular rim lesions: arthroscopic assessment and clinical relevance 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2235-2241.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acetabular morphology may influence both pathogenesis and prognosis of the acetabular rim lesions and to propose a new system to classify labral tears.
We assessed radiographic and arthroscopic findings in 81 patients (40 male and 41 female patients, 86 hips) aged from 16 to 74 years (median, 31 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy.
Acetabular rim lesions were associated with four different hip morphologies. Eleven (32 %) of 34 patients with severe rim lesions underwent hip arthroplasty for progressive symptoms, whereas no patient with early rim lesion reported significant progression of symptoms. The strategy of treatment was changed in 33 % of the patients undergoing arthroscopy before undertaking peri-acetabular osteotomy.
Hip arthroscopy avoids more invasive procedures in patients with early acetabular rim lesions.
PMCID: PMC3479281  PMID: 22729666
18.  Light microscopic histology of quadriceps tendon ruptures 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2367-2371.
To assess histological changes and possible differences in the quadriceps of patients undergoing open repair of the tendon after spontaneous rupture, and subjects with no history of tendon pathology.
Biopsies were harvested from the quadriceps tendon of 46 patients (34 men, 12 women) who had reported unilateral atraumatic quadriceps tendon rupture and had undergone surgical repair of the tendon. Samples were also harvested from both the tendons in 11 (N = 11 × 2) patients, nine males and two females, dying from cardiovascular disorders. For each tendon, three slides were randomly selected and examined under light microscopy, and assessed using a semiquantitative grading scale (range 0–21) which considers fibre structure, fibre arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, and hyalinisation.
The pathological sum-score averaged 19.2 ± 3.7 in ruptured tendons and 5.6 ± 2.0 in controls, and all variables considered were significantly different between the two groups, showing an association between tendon abnormalities and rupture (0.05 < P < 0.001).
This study confirms that the presence of histological degenerative changes in torn quadriceps tendons increases the risk of rupture.
PMCID: PMC3479299  PMID: 22878910
19.  Z-shortening of healed, elongated Achilles tendon rupture 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(10):2087-2093.
A rupture of the Achilles tendon may heal in continuity, resulting in a lengthened Achilles tendon. The elongated structure must be shortened to restore effective push off. We report the results of a longitudinal study using Z-shortening of ruptured Achilles tendons that healed in continuity but were elongated.
Nine patients underwent surgery for elongation of a healed Achilles tendon rupture. All participants were prospectively followed up for two to five years, and final review was performed at 32 ± 14 months from operation. Clinical and functional assessment (anthropometric measurements, isometric strength, postoperative total rupture score) was performed.
All patients were able to walk on tiptoes, and no patient used a heel lift or walked with a visible limp. No patient developed clinically evident deep-vein thrombosis or sustained a rerupture. Two patients were managed conservatively following a superficial surgical wound infection. At final review, maximum calf circumference remained significantly decreased in the operated leg. The operated limb was significantly weaker than the nonoperated one.
Managing a healed Achilles tendon rupture using Z-shortening is safe and effective, providing good recovery and early weight bearing and active ankle mobilisation. Such patients should be warned that they are at risk for postoperative complications and that their ankle–plantar flexion strength is likely to be permanently reduced.
PMCID: PMC3460090  PMID: 22782374
20.  Clinical management and surgical treatment of distal fibular tumours: a case series and review of the literature 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(9):1907-1913.
Study reports clinical and functional outcomes of surgical treatment in a case series of nine patients with distal fibular tumours.
Nine patients with distal fibular tumours were observed between 2005 and 2010. A PubMed search was performed using the terms “fibula”, “lower limb tumour [cancer]”, “sarcoma”, “Ewing”, “peroneal”, “fibular metastasis”, and “limb-salvage surgery”.
In all our patients, lesions were unilateral. All patients complained of pain; limping was present in 5 of 9 tumours. Patients were managed surgically, except one who underwent local radiotherapy. In six patients, a benign or tumor-like lesion was detected. Malignancies consisted of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma (two cases) or multifocal mesenchymal cancer (one case). Non-malignant lesions were treated by curettage and filling, followed by internal fixation when needed. In malignant or locally aggressive lesions, metadiaphyseal fibular resection was performed. The literature search retrieved either case reports or small case series, reflecting the rarity of distal fibular tumours. Surgical treatment was successful in all patients with benign lesions, whereas the rate of success was 40–100 % in case of malignancies.
Given the low incidence of distal fibular tumours, controversies exist about the optimal surgical management. Clinical observation and imaging should be reserved to asymptomatic benign lesions. In non-malignant tumours causing pain, limping, and pathological fractures; in malignancies, surgery is recommended. Finally, in patients with asymptomatic lesions of uncertain nature, biopsy and histological examination should be performed to plan appropriate management.
PMCID: PMC3427430  PMID: 22527336
21.  Sample size determination for clinical research 
Calculating the sample size is a most important determinant of statistical power of a study. A study with inadequate power, unless being conducted as a safety and feasibility study, is unethical. However, sample size calculation is not an exact science, and therefore it is important to make realistic and well researched assumptions before choosing an appropriate sample size accounting for dropouts and also including a plan for interim analyses during the study to amend the final sample size.
PMCID: PMC3838318  PMID: 24367769
randomized control trials; statistics; sample size
22.  Matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact portion of those tendons 
We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation of chronic rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear. Supraspinatus specimens were harvested en bloc from the arthroscopically intact middle portion of the tendon, more than 1 cm lateral to the torn edge, from the lateral edge of the tear, and from the superior margin of the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon, used as control. The collagenases, the stromelysins, and the tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease arrays were analyzed blindly by multiplex sandwich ELISA in each specimen. Histological evidence of tendinopathy was present in all patients with a rotator cuff tear, but not in the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon. There were significantly increased levels of MMP 1, MMP 2, MMP 3, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in all specimens examined, including the macroscopically intact portion of the supraspinatus tendon and the subscapularis (control specimens). The levels of specific matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact tendons. These changes extended medially to the site of tendon tear, and to other tendons.
PMCID: PMC3838321  PMID: 24367772
gene expression; rotator cuff; surgery; outcome
23.  The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance 
in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance.
we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals.
most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes.
genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these.
PMCID: PMC3838326  PMID: 24367777
sports injuries; athletic performance; genetics; single nucleotide polymorphisms
24.  The intercalated BSc in sports and exercise medicine at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry 
To report about the intercalated Bsc(Hons) in Sports and Exercise Medicine at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (BLSMD), Queen Mary University of London.
Educational study.
The course is currently in its tenth year, providing medical students with the opportunity to develop knowledge in the field of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) during one academic year of full time study.
There have been more than 150 graduates, and 22 students are enrolled for the 2012–13 academic year on what has been the most popular and largest intercalated degree at BLSMD in recent years. External applicants typically make up 30–40% of entrants.
Equal weighting on taught modules and a portfolio of research activity provides a strong foundation in Sports and Exercise Medicine, and equips successful students with evidence based translational skills, and the opportunity to perform publishable research.
This article outlines the increasing demand for Sports and Exercise Medicine education, and how the course prepares graduates for practising SEM as a sub-specialist interest or to compete for entry into the Specialist Trainee training route.
PMCID: PMC3838327  PMID: 24367778
education; curriculum; sports (and exercise) medicine
25.  Impingement is not impingement: the case for calling it “Rotator Cuff Disease” 
Historically, many causes have been proposed for rotator cuff conditions. The most prevalent theory is that the rotator cuff tendons, especially the supraspinatus, make contact with the acromion and coracoacromial ligament, resulting in pain and eventual tearing of the tendon. However, more recent evidence suggests that this concept does not explain the changes in rotator cuff tendons with age. The role of acromioplasty and coracoacromial ligament release in the treatment of rotator cuff disease has become questioned. Evidence now suggests that tendinopathy associated with aging may be a predominant factor in the development of rotator cuff degeneration. We propose that the overwhelming evidence favors factors other than “impingement” as the major cause of rotator cuff disease and that a paradigm shift in the way the development of rotator cuff pathology is conceptualized allows for a more comprehensive approach to the care of the patient with rotator cuff disease.
PMCID: PMC3838328  PMID: 24367779
acromioplasty; impingement; rotator cuff; shoulder; tendinopathy surgery; treatment

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