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1.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2014 
Contributing reviewers
The Editors of Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 8 (2014).
doi:10.1186/s13018-015-0167-y
PMCID: PMC4321336  PMID: 25643637
2.  Exercise as Prescription Therapy: Benefits in Cancer and Hypertensive Patients 
PURPOSE Exercise therapy in patients with metabolic chronic disease produces several positive response. This study aims to verify the effects of fast walking associated to a resistance exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: Two groups of subjects (10 cancer survivors and 19 hypertensive patients) were evaluated by 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), bioimpedance, the Sit & Reach Test (S&R) evaluate the flexibility, Handgrip and 30” Chair Test for muscular strength. Patients were tested before and after 3 months of regular physical exercise. RESULTS: A significant change in anthropometric parameters was observed (BMI: T0 = 29.2±6.8, T3= 27.4±4.4 kg/m2 p<.001; waist circumference: T0=92.5±14.1, T3=92.1±12.8 cm, p<.05) in the hypertensive population. A predominant improvement of the cardiovascular parameters was observed in the cancer survivors (rest DBP T0=76.4±6.5, T3=72.2±7.1 mmhg p<.05; 6MWT: T0=487.8±116.0, T3= 525.6±117.3 m p<.05; S&R: T0= 0.4±7.4, T3=4.1±6.1 cm p<.05). CONCLUSION: A combined aerobic and resistance exercise programme can improve cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive subjects. The same programme induces improvement in exercise tolerance and flexibility variables in cancer survivors.
PMCID: PMC4309654
exercise therapy; life style; chronic disease; body composition
3.  Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists. 
The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Body Mass Index was similar between the groups, while total body water and extracellular water were significantly higher in the soccer player group (soccer players: 63.8±1.96%; cyclists : 59.8 ± 8.7%; and soccer players 43.9±3.1%, cyclists 43.8 ±2.1%, respectively). Fatty mass of the soccer player group (14.5±2.9%) was significantly lower than that of the cyclist group (19.5±3.6%). Daily food intake was similar between the two groups (2844 kCal/die for soccer players /2630 kcal/die for cyclists), and lower than recommended. There was a low intake of Calcium (soccer players 1120±128.9 mg/die, cyclists 718±309 mg/die) for both groups, and a low intake of Potassium for soccer player (2576 mg/die ± 52.4) The caloric intake of adolescent athletes is lower than recommended. Body composition is significantly different between soccer players and cyclists.
PMCID: PMC4309655
nutrition; young athletes; eating habits; soccer players; cyclists
6.  Thyroid hormones increase collagen I and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) expression in vitro human tenocytes 
Summary
Background:
we previously demonstrated the presence of high levels of thyroid hormones (THs) receptors isoforms in healthy tendons, their protective action during tenocyte apoptosis, and the capability to enhance tenocyte proliferation in vitro. In the present study we tested the ability of THs to influence ECM protein tenocyte secretion in an in vitro system.
Methods:
primary tenocyte-like cells were cultivated for 1, 7 and 14 days in the presence of T3 or T4 individually or in combination with ascorbic acid (AA).
Results:
THs (T3 or T4) in synergism with AA increase significantly the total collagen production after 14 days. THs in synergism with AA increase significantly the expression of collagen I,biglycan and COMP, after some days.
Conclusion:
THs play a role on the extra cellular matrix of tendons, enhancing in vitro the production of several proteins such as collagen I, biglycan and COMP. THs receptors are active on human tenocytes, and can play a role in tendon ailments.
PMCID: PMC4241417  PMID: 25489544
ascorbic acid; collagen I; COMP; tenocytes; thyroid hormones; tendons
7.  Epidemiology of the rotator cuff tears: a new incidence related to thyroid disease 
Summary
Background:
in the last years the incidence of rotator cuff tears increased and one main cause still waiting to be clarified. Receptors for thyroid hormones in rotator cuff tendons suggest possible effects on tendons metabolism and status. We undertook a retrospective, observational cohort study of 441 patients who underwent arthroscopic and mini-open repair for non traumatic degenerative rotator cuff tears.
Methods:
all the patients, predominantly females (63%), were interview to assess the relationship (frequency for class age “20 yrs” and factor analysis) between lesions of the rotator cuff with the following variables: gender, thyroid disease, smoker, taking medications for diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol; presence of associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia).
Results:
thyroid disease is highly frequently (until 63% for 60<80 yrs) in females group independent to the age. Conversely, males showed a high frequency for smoker 37<62% until 80 yrs and 50% hypercholesterolemia over 80 yrs for the clinical variable studied.
Conclusions:
this is the first clinical report that shown a relationship between thyroid pathologies and non-traumatic rotator cuff tear as increased risk factors.
PMCID: PMC4241421  PMID: 25489548
age-group; clinical field; epidemiology; gender; healthcare; musculoskeletal disorders; rotator cuff tears; tendons; thyroid hormones; upper extremity
8.  Microfractures at the rotator cuff footprint: a randomised controlled study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(11):2165-2171.
Purpose
Microfractures at the footprint may be a potential additional source of growth factor and enhance the tendon healing at the bone-tendon junction when repairing rotator cuff tears.
Methods
Fifty-seven patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for repair of complete rotator cuff tears were randomly divided into two groups, using a block randomisation procedure. Patients underwent microfracture at the footprint in the treatment group. The patients in the control group (n = 29) did not receive that treatment. All patients had the same post-operative rehabilitation protocol.
Results
The two groups were homogeneous. There was a significant improvement from baseline to the last minimum follow-up of two years. At three months from the index procedure, visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM) and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant scores were significantly better in group 1 than in group 2 (P < .05). At the last follow-up (minimum two years), clinical and functional outcomes were further improved in both the groups but inter-group differences were not significant. No technique-related complications were recorded.
Conclusions
Microfractures at the footprint are simple, safe, inexpensive and effective at producing less pain in the short term in patients who undergo rotator cuff repair, but at two years they do not result in significantly different outcomes, either clinically or at imaging, compared to traditional rotator cuff repair.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1952-z
PMCID: PMC3824902  PMID: 23760681
Rotator cuff; Repair; Cuff footprint; Microfractures; Randomised controlled trial
9.  Obesity as a Risk Factor for Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review 
Purpose. In the last few years, evidence has emerged to support the possible association between increased BMI and susceptibility to some musculoskeletal diseases. We systematically review the literature to clarify whether obesity is a risk factor for the onset of tendinopathy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, and Embase Biomedical databases using the keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” and “body mass index” linked in different combinations with the terms “tendinopathy,” “tendinitis,” “tendinosis,” “rotator cuff,” “epicondylitis,” “wrist,” “patellar,” “quadriceps,” “Achilles,” “Plantar Fascia,” and “tendon.” Results. Fifteen studies were included. No level I study on this subject was available, and the results provided are ambiguous. However, all the 5 level II studies report the association between obesity measured in terms of BMI and tendon conditions, with OR ranging between 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and 5.6 (1.9–16.6). Conclusions. The best evidence available to date indicates that obesity is a risk factor for tendinopathy. Nevertheless, further studies should be performed to establish the real strength of the association for each type of tendinopathy, especially because the design of the published studies does not allow identifying a precise cause-effect relationship and the specific role of obesity independently of other metabolic conditions.
doi:10.1155/2014/670262
PMCID: PMC4156974  PMID: 25214839
10.  Articular-sided rotator cuff tears: which is the best repair? A three-year prospective randomised controlled trial 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(8):1487-1493.
Purpose
To compare two groups of patients who underwent two different arthroscopic procedures for repair of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs).
Materials this is a comparative prospective study of two methods for repair of partial cuff tears
Thirty-two patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with a transtendon technique (group 1); 28 underwent arthroscopic full-thickness conversion and repair of the lesion (group 2). ROM measures, clinical findings, MRI features (tendon healing and re-tear), Constant–Murley and ASES scores were assessed pre- and postoperatively and compared. Patients were also asked about return to sport and level of activity.
Results
At the last appointment, patients of both the groups were significantly improved for clinical findings, ROM measures, imaging features, Constant–Murley and ASES scores than at baseline, without any significant inter-group difference. In group 1, 15 of 20 patients (75 %) who practiced recreational sport activities had returned to sport at the same level as before the onset of symptoms, without any discomfort. In group 2, 12 of 18 patients (67 %) had returned to the same level of sport activity they practiced before symptoms. At the last follow up, MRI showed rotator cuff healing in 31 patients of Group 1 and 27 patients of Group 2 (p = 0.83).
Conclusions
The two procedures are safe, effective, and comparable.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1882-9
PMCID: PMC3728419  PMID: 23580030
11.  High volume image-guided Injections for patellar tendinopathy: a combined retrospective and prospective case series 
Summary
Background:
the aim was to quantify the effect of a novel high volume-image guided injection (HVIGI) technique for recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy (PT).
Methods:
twenty patients (8 prospective; 12 retrospective) with ultrasonographically confirmed proximal PT were recruited. A HVIGI under ultra-sound guidance of 10 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, 25 mg Hydrocortisone and 30 ml normal saline at the interface of the patellar tendon and Hoffa’s fat pad was administered. A standardised eccentric loading rehabilitation protocol was prescribed.
Results:
the VISA-P score improved from 45.0 to 64.0 (p<0.01) for all subjects, likely to be clinically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the increase in the retrospective group of 19.9 (± 23.5) and the prospective of 16.4 (± 11.3) p = 0.7262.5% of prospective subjects agreed that they had significantly improved, with 37.5% returning to sport within 12 weeks.
Conclusions:
HVIGI should be considered in the management of recalcitrant PT. Randomised controlled trials are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4187599  PMID: 25332938
injection; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; ultrasound; VISA-P
12.  Six-months pain relief and functional recovery after intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid (mw 500–730 KDa) in trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis 
Summary
Background:
this retrospective open label study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of intra-articular injections of Hyaluronic Acid (HA) (MW 500–730 KDa - Hyalgan®) for the treatment of pain and disability of trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis (TMCJ OA).
Methods:
fifty eight patients, 50 females (86%) and 8 male (14%), aged between 40–75 years, suffering from TMCJ OA according to Kellgren-Laurence grades 2–3 on standard plain radiography, were included. Patients with known inflammatory arthritis, previous thumb trauma and intra-articular (i.a.) injections with corticosteroids were excluded. Primary endpoints were: pain (VAS), NSAID intake, radial and palmar ab-/adduction, pinch strength. All patients received an i.a. injection of 0.8 mL of HA (MW 500–730 KDa) once weekly for three weeks. Control examinations were carried out at 1, 3, and 6 months.
Results:
intra-articular HA injections have significantly reduced spontaneous and provoked pain and improved hand mobility. At 1,3, and 6 months from baseline, the spontaneous and provoked pain revealed a statistically significant improvement (p<0,0001). NSAID’s intake evidenced a statistically significant reduction against baseline (p<0.017). The adverse events (21%) were related to local symptoms such as pain during or following HA administration.
Conclusions:
this study shows that i.a. HA injections for TMCJ OA can induce a significant improvement of function associated to stiffness decrease and pain relief.
PMCID: PMC4178462  PMID: 25332944
trapeziometacarpal joint; osteoarthritis; hyaluronic acid
13.  Two-stage procedure in anterior cruciate ligament revision surgery: a five-year follow-up prospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(7):1369-1374.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to show that this two-stage procedure for ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) revision surgery could be straight-forward and provide satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes.
Materials
This is a five-year prospective analysis of clinical and functional data on 30 patients (19 men and 11 women; average age 29.1 ± 5.4) who underwent a two-stage ACL revision procedure after traumatic re-rupture of the ACL. Diagnosis was on Lachman and pivot-shift tests, arthrometer 30-lb KT-1000 side-to-side findings, and on MRI and arthroscopic assessments.
Results
Postoperative IKDC and Lysholm scores were significantly improved compared to baseline values (P < 0.001). At the last follow up, 20 of 30 patients (66.7 %) had returned to preoperative sport activity level (nine elite athletes, 11 county level), seven had changed to lower sport levels, and three had given up any sport activity. At the same appointment, 11 patients had degenerative changes. All these patients reported significantly lower Lysholm scores compared to patients without any degenerative change (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
In ACL revision surgery, when the first femoral tunnel has been correctly placed, this procedure allows safe filling of large bony defects, with no donor site comorbidities. It provides comfortable clinical, functional and imaging outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1886-5
PMCID: PMC3685647  PMID: 23624910
14.  The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries 
The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended as an overview of these injury types for medical students, healthcare professionals and researchers.
doi:10.1186/2052-1847-6-22
PMCID: PMC4055241  PMID: 24926412
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tear; Concussion; Physeal injury; Children and adolescents
15.  Endoscopic approach for plantar fasciopathy: a long-term retrospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(6):1151-1156.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to report the long term effectiveness of endoscopic plantar fascia release for recalcitrant plantar fasciopathy.
Materials
Twenty-three consecutive patients underwent endoscopically-assisted plantar fascia release for symptomatic plantar fasciopathy unresponsive to nonoperative measures. The clinical diagnosis was supported by imaging (plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was administered to all patients. All patients underwent endoscopic plantar fascia release. Postoperatively, patients were assessed at clinical examination and the AOFAS score was administered.
Results
Twenty-two (26 feet) of the 23 patients included in our original cohort returned to our clinic at an average final follow-up of 9.6 years. The mean preoperative AOFAS score of 51 (range, 41–63) improved to 89 (range, 41–97) at the last follow-up, with no statistically significant difference between patients with or without calcaneal bone spur (p = 0.43). At the last appointment, physically active patients reported significantly higher AOFAS scores than sedentary patients (p = .008).
Conclusions
This endoscopic plantar approach could be a viable alternative to more invasive procedures for management of recalcitrant plantar fasciopathy. Future randomised controlled trials are needed.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1847-z
PMCID: PMC3664173  PMID: 23483259
16.  Bovine xenograft locking Puddu plate versus tricalcium phosphate spacer non-locking Puddu plate in opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a prospective double-cohort study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(5):819-826.
Purpose
The aim of the study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) augmented with either xenograft or tricalcium phosphate spacer for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) with genu varum.
Methods
Between 2004 and 2007, we prospectively enrolled 52 patients with medial compartment knee OA who underwent opening-wedge HTO fixed with locking Puddu plate and xenograft (n = 26) or non-locking Puddu plate and tricalcium phosphate spacer (n = 26). The alignment of the lower limb was assessed by measuring the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Knee Society Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, SF-36 and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale. All patients were followed up at six weeks and at three, six, 12 and 24 months post-operatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively and at 24 months post-operatively.
Results
All clinical scores improved significantly in both groups after surgery, without any significant difference between the two groups. Immediately after surgery, the HKA angle went from 9.1 ± 5.2° in varus to 3.1 ± 4.8° in valgus (P = 0.01) in the xenograft group, and from 8.5 ± 5.9° in varus to 3.4 ± 4.2° in valgus (P = 0.01) in the tricalcium phosphate group. At the last follow-up, the tricalcium phosphate group showed a significant loss of correction (P = 0.03).
Conclusions
HTO performed with xenograft locking plate and tricalcium phosphate non-locking plate constructs showed good clinical outcomes. However, the xenograft locking plate construct is superior to the tricalcium phosphate spacer non-locking plate to prevent the loss of correction in the middle term.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1817-5
PMCID: PMC3631487  PMID: 23412369
17.  Responses to increasing exercise upon reaching the anaerobic threshold, and their control by the central nervous system 
The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been one of the most studied of all physiological variables. Many authors have proposed the use of several markers to determine the moment at with the AT is reached. The present work discusses the physiological responses made to exercise - the measurement of which indicates the point at which the AT is reached - and how these responses might be controlled by the central nervous system. The detection of the AT having been reached is a sign for the central nervous system (CNS) to respond via an increase in efferent activity via the peripheral nervous system (PNS). An increase in CNS and PNS activities are related to changes in ventilation, cardiovascular function, and gland and muscle function. The directing action of the central command (CC) allows for the coordination of the autonomous and motor systems, suggesting that the AT can be identified in the many ways: changes in lactate, ventilation, plasma catecholamines, heart rate (HR), salivary amylase and muscular electrical activity. This change in response could be indicative that the organism would face failure if the exercise load continued to increase. To avoid this, the CC manages the efferent signals that show the organism that it is running out of homeostatic potential.
doi:10.1186/2052-1847-6-17
PMCID: PMC4016642  PMID: 24818009
Physiological response; Exercise; Central governor; Fatigue
18.  Role of Serum Fibrinogen Levels in Patients with Rotator Cuff Tears 
Although rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a frequent pathology of the shoulder, the real understanding of its aetiopathogenesis is still unclear. Several studies showed that RC tendinopathy is more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. This paper aims to evaluate the serum concentration of fibrinogen in patients with RC tears. Metabolic disorders have been related to high concentration of serum fibrinogen and the activity of fibrinogen has been proven to be crucial in the development of microvascular damage. Thus, it may produce progression of RC degeneration by reducing the vascular supply of tendons. We report the results of a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study comparing the serum concentration of fibrinogen of patients with RC tears with that of a control group of patients without history of RC tears who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. We choose to enrol in the control group patients with pathology of the lower limb with a likely mechanic, not metabolic, cause, different from tendon pathology. We found no statistically significant differences in serum concentration of fibrinogen when comparing patients with RC tears and patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy (P = 0.5). Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fibrinogen in RC disease.
doi:10.1155/2014/685820
PMCID: PMC4003788  PMID: 24817887
19.  Osteitis pubis: can early return to elite competition be contemplated? 
Background and purpose
In elite athletes, osteitis pubis is a common painful degenerative process of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues and tendons. We report the diagnostic pathway and the rehabilitation protocol of six elite athletes with osteitis pubis in three different sports, and compare protocol stages and time to return to competition.
Methods
6 athletes (2 soccer, 2 basketball, 2 rugby players) were diagnosed with osteitis pubis stage III and IV according to Rodriguez classification using standard clinical and imaging criteria. After performing a baseline lumbo-pelvic assessment, the rehabilitation protocol described by Verrall was adapted to each individual athlete.
Results
The length of time for each stage of the protocol was as follows; Stage 1 (rest from sport) was 26 +/− 5 days, Stage 2 (to achieve pain free running), 18 +/− 5 days, Stage 3 (squad training) 63 +/− 7, Stage 4 (return to competition) 86 +/− 15. Soccer players took longer to return to competition than basketball and rugby players. No recurrences were reported at 2 year follow-up.
Conclusion
The protocol presented ensures a safe return to elite athletes. The time from diagnosis to full recovery is longer in football players, and seems to increase with age.
PMCID: PMC4140431  PMID: 25147768
Osteitis pubis; Rehabilitation; Lumbo-pelvic stabilization; sport
20.  Achilles tendon: functional anatomy and novel emerging models of imaging classification 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(4):715-721.
Purpose
Ideally, a classification should have some prognostic value, and should therefore include precise information upon extent and location of the Achilles tendon disorders. We propose a new imaging and anatomical system to classify Achilles tendon disorders at imaging using US and MRI.
Approach
We consider the non-insertional region as the tendon mid-portion, and distinguish the insertional component into a pre-insertion site, located about two centimetres above the calcaneum, and a calcaneal insertion, where the tendon is attached to the bone. On sagittal scans, we introduced a new classification which considers two main portions: “musculotendinous” and “insertional”. In the context of the muscolotendinous portion, it is possible to find muscle fibres proximally, and the free tendon distally. This latter is made up of proximal, middle and distal portions. We also propose a 5 grade Doppler classification system to quantify blood flow, in which Grades I and II are respectively characterised by the presence of one and two vessels within the tendon; in Grades III, IV and V, the neovascularisation respectively involves less than 50 %, from 50 to 90 %, and more than 90 % of the tendon tissue. These proposed systems will require validation and possible modification to be applied to different tendons.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1743-y
PMCID: PMC3609991  PMID: 23254856
21.  Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions 
This review analyzes the literature of bone grafts and introduces tissue engineering as a strategy in this field of orthopedic surgery. We evaluated articles concerning bone grafts; analyzed characteristics, advantages, and limitations of the grafts; and provided explanations about bone-tissue engineering technologies. Many bone grafting materials are available to enhance bone healing and regeneration, from bone autografts to graft substitutes; they can be used alone or in combination. Autografts are the gold standard for this purpose, since they provide osteogenic cells, osteoinductive growth factors, and an osteoconductive scaffold, all essential for new bone growth. Autografts carry the limitations of morbidity at the harvesting site and limited availability. Allografts and xenografts carry the risk of disease transmission and rejection. Tissue engineering is a new and developing option that had been introduced to reduce limitations of bone grafts and improve the healing processes of the bone fractures and defects. The combined use of scaffolds, healing promoting factors, together with gene therapy, and, more recently, three-dimensional printing of tissue-engineered constructs may open new insights in the near future.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-9-18
PMCID: PMC3995444  PMID: 24628910
Bone graft; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Three-dimensional printing; Orthopedic research
23.  ISMuLT Guidelines for muscle injuries 
Summary
Muscle injuries are frequent in high demand sports. No guidelines are available in the scientific literature. ISMuLT, the “Italian Society of Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons”, in line with its multidisciplinary mission, is proud to cover this gap.
PMCID: PMC3940495  PMID: 24596685
muscles injuries; classification; guidelines
24.  Muscle, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field science research 
Summary
The design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation and report of research is a key important for the science. The research required minimize the uncertainty, therefore we encourage all authors of respect how much can possible the contents in this official editorial also in order to stimulate interest and debate about constructive change in the use of statistics in our disciplines1,2. Authors are required to confirm that these standards and laws have been adhered to by formally citing this editorial within the methods section of their own manuscript.
PMCID: PMC3940496  PMID: 24596686
statistical analysis; case report; experimental approach; design; ethical standard; best practice; sample size; performance indicators; reliability of the measures
25.  Surgical repair of muscle laceration: biomechanical properties at 6 years follow-up 
Summary
Muscle injuries are challenging problems for surgeons. Muscle trauma is commonly treated conservatively with excellent outcome results while surgical repair is advocated for larger tears/lacerations, where the optimal goal is restore of function. Repair of muscle belly lacerations is technically demanding because the sutures pull out and the likelihood of clinical failure is high. Different suture techniques have been described but still the best suture is debated. We show a case of a pure vastus medialis muscle laceration surgically repaired at 6 years of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3940505  PMID: 24596695
muscle belly lesion; skeletal muscle laceration; muscle repair; epimysium; fibrous scar

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