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1.  RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of vascular endothelial growth factor in colon cancer cells 
AIM: To inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colon cancer cell line by RNA interference (RNAi).
METHODS: Followed the service of E-RNAi, we designed and constructed two kinds of shRNA expression vectors aiming at the VEGF gene, then transfected them into colon cancer HT29 cells by lipofectamineTM 2000. The level of VEGF mRNA was investigated by RT-PCR and Northern blotting. The protein expression of VEGF was observed by immunofluoresence staining and Western blotting.
RESULTS: We got two kinds of VEGF specific shRNA expression vectors which could efficiently inhibit the expression of VEGF in HT29 cells. RT-PCR, Northern blotting, immunofluoresence staining and Western blotting showed that inhibition rate for VEGF expression was up to 42%, 89%, 73% and 82%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF can be inhibited by RNA interference in HT29 cells.
PMCID: PMC4171319  PMID: 17879399
RNA interference; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Colon cancer; Northern blotting; Western blotting
2.  Gene therapy that inhibits NF-κB results in apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma by recombinant adenovirus 
AIM: To investigate whether the recombinant adenovirus induces the TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in vivo.
METHODS: Human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells were transfected into BALB/c nude mice, and the tumor growth curve was drawn. We analyzed apoptosis in HepG2 cells by TUNEL, HE staining and electron microscopy.
RESULTS: AdIκBαM was expressed stably and efficiently in HepG2 and could not be degraded by induction of TNF-α. Tumor growth in mice could be reduced remarkably if treated by AdIκBαM plus TNF-α. There was apoptosis of > 70% of cells treated with AdIκBαM plus TNF-α and about 50% of cells treated with AdIκBαM. In contrast, there was few cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells treated with phosphate buffered saline and AdIκBα. HepG2 cells in mice also exhibited a high level of apoptosis after in vivo injection with AdIκBαM. The tumor growth curve indicated the tumor transfected with AdIκBαM could be restrained.
CONCLUSION: AdIκBαM gene therapy greatly enhances apoptosis due to inhibition of an NF-κB-mediated antiapoptosis signaling pathway.
PMCID: PMC4088193  PMID: 16981256
NF-κB; IκBα; Adenovirus
3.  Effects of reducing dietary protein on the expression of nutrition sensing genes (amino acid transporters) in weaned piglets*  
The effects of crude protein (CP) levels in the diet on the mRNA expression of amino acid (AA) transporters were studied in a 45-d trial. Eighteen piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 9.57 kg were assigned to three groups (14%, 17%, and 20% CP in the diet) in a completely randomized design (six replicates per treatment). Diets were supplemented with crystalline AA to achieve equal standardized ileal digestible contents of Lys, Met plus Cys, Thr, and Trp, and were provided ad libitum. After 45 d, all piglets were slaughtered to collect small intestine samples. Compared with the values in the 14% CP group, the expressions of ASCT2, 4F2hc, and ATB0 mRNA in the jejunum were increased by 23.00%, 12.00%, 6.00% and 48.00%, 47.00%, 56.00% in the 17% and 20% CP groups, respectively. These results indicate that a 14% CP diet supplemented with crystalline AA may not transport enough AA into the body and maintain growth performance of piglets. However, a reduction of dietary 17% CP may reduce the excretion of nitrogen into the environment while supporting the development of piglets. Therefore, the 17% CP level is more suitable than 14% CP level.
PMCID: PMC4471601  PMID: 26055911
Crude protein; Amino acid balance; Amino acid transporters
4.  Briarane Diterpenoids from the Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea 
Marine Drugs  2014;12(12):6178-6189.
Seven new briarane diterpenoids, gemmacolides AS-AY (1–7), were isolated together with ten known analogues (8–17) from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with reported data. The absolute configuration of compounds was determined based on electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments and genetic correlations as well. Compounds 15 and 16 were reported for the first time for the gorgonian. In the preliminary in vitro bioassays, compound 5 showed potential growth inhibitory activity against MG63 cells.
PMCID: PMC4278224  PMID: 25528959
structure elucidation; briarane diterpenoids; tumor cell growth inhibitory activity; gorgonian; Dichotella gemmacea
5.  Two cases of multiple ossifying fibromas in the jaws 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:75.
The clinicopathologic characteristics of multiple ossifying fibroma (OF) are unclear due to the condition’s rarity, making diagnosis challenging. Sporadic multiple OFs must be distinguished from hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT) related OF and other fibro-osseous lesions.
Multiple OF cases were identified from ossifying fibroma cases. Clinical data including age, sex, anatomic site, radiographic features, clinical impression, treatment and available follow-up data as well as serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were recorded. GNAS and HRPT2 genetic mutations were examined in the two present cases. Case reports of sporadic multiple ossifying fibroma and HPT-JT-related OF were also reviewed.
The two present cases were confirmed as sporadic multiple OF, with no genetic GNAS and HRPT2 mutations found. The incidence of sporadic multiple ossifying fibroma was 2.0% (2/102). The total 18 sporadic multiform OF cases were characterized as followed: 13 (72.2%) female; 5 (27.8%) male; mean age 28.6 years; 2/16 (11.1%) cases only in the mandible; 4/18 (22.2%) cases only in the maxilla; and 12/18 (66.7%) cases in both the maxilla and mandible. Radiographically, the lesions were radiolucent in 5/18 (27.8%) cases and mixed density in 13/18 (72.2%) cases. Along with 24 cases of HPT-JT related OF were reviewed, sixteen (66.7%) patients were diagnosed with a single lesion, and 8 patients (33.3%) were diagnosed with multiple jaw lesions.
Sporadic multiple OFs are very rare, but must be distinguished from HPT-JT related OF. We strongly recommend that patients diagnosed with multiple ossifying fibromas receive serum PTH testing and mutation screening of HRPT2.
Virtual slides
PMCID: PMC3974450  PMID: 24678936
Multiple ossifying fibroma; HPT-JT; Fibrous dysplasia; GNAS gene; HRPT2 gene; Osseous dysplasia
6.  Identification of the involvement of LOXL4 in generation of keratocystic odontogenic tumors by RNA-Seq analysis 
Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) are benign, locally aggressive intraosseous tumors of odontogenic origin. KCOT have a higher stromal microvessel density (MVD) than dentigerous cysts (DC) and normal oral mucosa. To identify genes in the stroma of KCOT involved in tumor development and progression, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed using samples from KCOT and primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from gingival tissues. Seven candidate genes that possess a function potentially related to KCOT progression were selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), the only candidate gene that encodes a secreted protein, was enhanced at both the mRNA and protein levels in KCOT stromal tissues and primary KCOT stromal fibroblasts compared to control tissues and primary fibroblasts (P<0.05). In vitro, high expression of LOXL4 could enhance proliferation and migration of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). There was a significant, positive correlation between LOXL4 protein expression and MVD in stroma of KCOT and control tissues (r=0.882). These data suggest that abnormal expression of LOXL4 of KCOT may enhance angiogenesis in KCOT, which may help to promote the locally aggressive biological behavior of KCOT.
PMCID: PMC3967310  PMID: 24357854
angiogenesis; keratocystic odontogenic tumor; lysyl oxidase-like 4; RNA-sequencing; tumor stromal fibroblast
7.  A clinicopathologic study on calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: with special reference to Langerhans cell variant 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:37.
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic tumour, and its Langerhans cell variant is even rarer. Due to the limited number of recorded cases, the biological behaviour and histogenesis of the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT are not yet fully understood. Thus, the correlation between conventional CEOT and the Langerhans cell variant remains to be clarified.
Material (cases)
Eight cases of CEOT including 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant were clinicopathologically studied and the English language literature was reviewed. Langerhans cells were detected in 2 cases of conventional CEOT and in 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant by immunohistochemistry.
Results and findings
In the 6 cases of conventional CEOT, 5 tumours involved the premolar and molar region and the anterior portion of the mandible was affected in 1 case. Four patients were followed for 2–7 years and did not show any sign of recurrence. A review of the English language literature revealed 5 cases; combined with the present 2 new cases, a total of 7 cases of Langerhans cell variant of CEOT were collected. The patients were all Asian. Six tumours occurred in the maxilla and 1 in mandible; all mainly involved the anterior region of the jaws. Five patients were followed for 2-10 years and did not show any evidence of recurrence. Langerhans cells can be seen in both the conventional and the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT; however, increased numbers of Langerhans cells are seen in the latter.
Although the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT is a rare entity and behaves similarly to the conventional type, it could show unique clinical and histologic features that may pose problems for differential diagnosis.
Virtual slides
PMCID: PMC3932507  PMID: 24555881
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour; Langerhans cell variant; Jaws; Histogenesis; Behaviour
8.  Correction: PTCH1 Gene Mutations in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: A Study of 43 Chinese Patients and a Systematic Review 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):10.1371/annotation/6f3dfecd-6a37-44d3-9ee4-472d1eacc9a5.
PMCID: PMC3879385
9.  PTCH1 Gene Mutations in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors: A Study of 43 Chinese Patients and a Systematic Review 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77305.
The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive cystic jaw lesion that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH1, the gene responsible for NBCCS, may play an important role in sporadic KCOTs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the distribution pattern of PTCH1 mutations in patients with sporadic and NBCCS-associated KCOTs.
We detected PTCH1 mutations in 14 patients with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 29 patients with sporadic KCOTs by direct sequencing. In addition, five electronic databases were searched for studies detecting PTCH1 mutations in individuals with NBCCS-associated or sporadic KCOTs, published between January 1996 and June 2013 in English language.
We identified 15 mutations in 11 cases with NBCCS-associated KCOTs and 19 mutations in 13 cases with sporadic KCOTs. In addition, a total of 204 PTCH1 mutations (187 mutations from 210 cases with NBCCS-associated and 17 mutations from 57 cases with sporadic KCOTs) were compiled from 78 published papers.
Our study indicates that mutations in transmembrane 2 (TM2) are closely related to the development of sporadic KCOTs. Moreover, for the early diagnosis of NBCCS, a genetic analysis of the PTCH1 gene should be included in the new diagnostic criteria.
PMCID: PMC3804548  PMID: 24204797
10.  Chemistry and Tumor Cell Growth Inhibitory Activity of 11,20-Epoxy-3Z,5(6)E-diene Briaranes from the South China Sea Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea 
Marine Drugs  2013;11(5):1565-1582.
Eighteen new 11,20-epoxy-3Z,5E-dien briaranes, gemmacolides AA–AR (1–18), were isolated together with three known analogs, dichotellides F (19) and I (20), and juncenolide C (21), from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configuration was determined based on the ECD experiment. In the in vitro bioassay, compounds 1–3, 5, 6, 8–12, and 14–19 exhibited different levels of growth inhibition activity against A549 and MG63 cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that 12-O-isovalerate may increase the activity whereas 13- or 14-O-isovalerate may decrease the activity. Contribution of substitutions at C-2 and C-16 remains uncertain.
PMCID: PMC3707162  PMID: 23697947
structure activity relationship; briarane diterpenoids; biological activity; Dichotella gemmacea; gorgonian
11.  CD133+CXCR4+ colon cancer cells exhibit metastatic potential and predict poor prognosis of patients 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:85.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which frequently metastasizes to the liver, is one of the three leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that a subset of cells exists among cancer stem cells. This distinct subpopulation is thought to contribute to liver metastasis; however, it has not been fully explored in CRC yet.
Flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect distinct subsets with CD133 and CXCR4 markers in human primary and metastatic CRC tissues. The 'stemness' and metastatic capacities of different subpopulations derived from the colon cancer cell line HCT116 were compared in vitro and in vivo. The roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the metastatic process were also investigated. A survival curve was used to explore the correlation between the content of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells and patient survival.
In human specimens, the content of CD133+CXCR4+ cells was higher in liver metastases than in primary colorectal tumors. Clonogenic and tumorigenic cells were restricted to CD133+ cells in the HCT116 cell line, with CXCR4 expression having no impact on the 'stemness' properties. We found that CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells had a high metastatic capacity in vitro and in vivo. Compared with CD133+CXCR4- cells, CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells experienced EMT, which contributed partly to their metastatic phenotype. We then determined that SDF-1/CXCL12 treatment could further induce EMT in CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells and enhance their invasive behavior, while this could not be observed in CD133+CXCR4- cancer cells. Blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction with a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 (1,10-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-1,4,8,11 -tetraazacyclotetradecane octahydrochloride), inhibited metastatic tumor growth in a mouse hepatic metastasis model. Finally, a high percentage of CD133+CXCR4+ cells in human primary CRC was associated with a reduced two-year survival rate.
Strategies targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction may have important clinical applications in the suppression of colon cancer metastasis. Further investigations on how high expression of CXCR4 and EMT occur in this identified cancer stem cell subset are warranted to provide insights into our understanding of tumor biology.
PMCID: PMC3424958  PMID: 22871210
colorectal cancer; cancer stem cell; CXCR4; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; liver metastasis
12.  Identification of Known and Novel PTCH Mutations in Both Syndromic and Non-syndromic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors 
To clarify the role of PTCH in patients with NBCCS-related and non-sydromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors.
Mutation analysis was undertaken in 8 sporadic and 4 NBCCS-associated KCOTs.
Four novel and two known mutations were identified in 2 sporadic and 3 syndromic cases, two of which being germline mutations (c.2179delT, c.2824delC) and 4 somatic mutations (c.3162dupG, c.1362–1374dup, c.1012 C>T, c.403C>T).
Our findings suggest that defects of PTCH are associated with the pathogenesis of syndromic as well as a subset of non-syndromic KCOTs.
PMCID: PMC3735790  PMID: 20690502
keratocystic odontogenic tumor; mutation; nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; PTCH

Results 1-12 (12)