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1.  State of progress in treating cystic fibrosis respiratory disease 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:88.
Since the discovery of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been tremendous progress in the care of patients with this disease. New therapies have entered the market and are part of the standard treatment of patients with CF, and have been associated with marked improvement in survival. Now there are even more promising therapies directed at different components of the pathophysiology of this disease. In this review, our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of lung disease in patients with CF is described, along with the current treatment of CF lung disease, and the therapies in development that offer great promise to our patients.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-88
PMCID: PMC3425089  PMID: 22883684
cystic fibrosis; pathophysiology; treatment
2.  Pharmacokinetics and Safety of MP-376 (Levofloxacin Inhalation Solution) in Cystic Fibrosis Subjects▿ 
The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of nebulized MP-376 (levofloxacin inhalation solution [Aeroquin]) were determined in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. Ten CF subjects received single 180-mg doses of two formulations of MP-376, followed by a multiple-dose phase of 240 mg once daily for 7 days. Serum and expectorated-sputum samples were assayed for levofloxacin content. Safety was evaluated following the single- and multiple-dose study phases. Nebulized MP-376 produced high concentrations of levofloxacin in sputum. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) ranged between 2,563 and 2,932 mg/liter for 180-mg doses of the 50- and 100-mg/ml formulations, respectively. After 7 days of dosing, the mean Cmax for the 240-mg dose was 4,691 mg/liter. The mean serum levofloxacin Cmax ranged between 0.95 and 1.28 for the 180-mg doses and was 1.71 for the 240-mg dose. MP-376 was well tolerated. Nebulized MP-376 produces high sputum and low serum levofloxacin concentrations. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability were similar for the two formulations. MP-376 240 mg (100 mg/ml) is being advanced into late-stage clinical development.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01744-10
PMCID: PMC3101414  PMID: 21444699
3.  Linezolid Pharmacokinetics in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis 
The pharmacokinetics of many drugs are altered in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), often necessitating different dosage requirements than those used in non-CF patients. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of linezolid, an antibiotic with good activity against gram-positive organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in patients with CF so that dosage requirements could be established. Twelve adult patients (6 male) ranging in age from 22 to 39 years were studied. A single 600-mg dose was administered intravenously over 0.5 h, and plasma samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. Linezolid concentrations were determined with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using standard noncompartmental methods. Blood chemistry and hematologic indices were determined before and after the study for safety purposes. All patients completed the study without encountering any adverse reactions. The pharmacokinetic parameters, while variable, with half-lives varying from 1.76 to 8.36 h, were similar to those previously described in other populations. Mean (± standard deviation) values for pharmacokinetic parameters of interest were as follows: elimination rate constant, 0.21 (0.11) h−1; half-life, 4.41 (2.43); volume of distribution at steady state, 0.87 (0.19) liters/kg of body weight; and total body clearance, 0.12 (0.06) liters/h/kg. No patient would have achieved the pharmacodynamic target of an area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratio of 83 h for pathogens for which the MIC was 4 μg/ml. Patients with inadequate clinical responses to linezolid may require more frequent dosing.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.1.281-284.2004
PMCID: PMC310170  PMID: 14693551

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