Niemann-Pick Type C2 (NPC2) plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis via direct binding with free cholesterol. However, little is known about the significance of NPC2 in cancer. In this study, we have pinpointed the impact of various different cancers on NPC2 expression. A series of anti-NPC2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the IgG2a isotype were generated and peptide screening demonstrated that the reactive epitope were amino acid residues 31-40 of the human NPC2 protein. The specificity of these mAbs was confirmed by Western blotting using shRNA mediated knock-down of NPC2 in human SK-Hep1 cells. By immunohistochemical staining, NPC2 is expressed in normal kidney, liver, breast, colon, lung, esophageal, uterine cervical, pancreatic and stomach tissue. Strong expression of NPC2 was found in the distal and proximal convoluted tubule of kidney and the hepatocytes of liver. Normal esophageal, uterine cervical, pancreatic, stomach, breast, colon and lung tissue stained moderately to weakly. When compared to their normal tissue equivalents, NPC2 overexpression was observed in cancers of the breast, colon and lung. Regarding to breast cancer, NPC2 up-regulation is associated with estrogen receptor (-), progesterone receptor (-) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (+). On the other hand, NPC2 was found to be down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma, liver cirrhosis and hepatoma tissues. By antigen-capture enzyme immunoassay ELISA, the serum NPC2 is increased in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer. According to western blot data, the change of glycosylated pattern of NPC2 in serum is associated with cirrhosis and liver cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive immunohistochemical and serological study investigating the expression of NPC2 in a variety of different human cancers. These novel monoclonal antibodies should help with elucidating the roles of NPC2 in tumor development, especially in liver and breast cancers.
Androgen plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCa (prostate cancer). Previously, we identified GNMT (glycine N-methyltransferase) as a tumour susceptibility gene and characterized its promoter region. Besides, its enzymatic product-sarcosine has been recognized as a marker for prognosis of PCa. The goals of this study were to determine whether GNMT is regulated by androgen and to map its AREs (androgen response elements). Real-time PCR analyses showed that R1881, a synthetic AR (androgen receptor) agonist induced GNMT expression in AR-positive LNCaP cells, but not in AR-negative DU145 cells. In silico prediction showed that there are four putative AREs in GNMT-ARE1, ARE2 and ARE3 are located in the intron 1 and ARE4 is in the intron 2. Consensus ARE motif deduced from published AREs was used to identify the fifth ARE-ARE5 in the coding region of exon 1. Luciferase reporter assay found that only ARE5 mediated the transcriptional activation of R1881. ARE3 overlaps with a YY1 [Yin and Yang 1 (motif (CaCCATGTT, +1118/+1126)] that was further confirmed by antibody supershift and ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assays. EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and ChIP assay confirmed that AR interacts with ARE5 in vitro and in vivo. In summary, GNMT is an AR-targeted gene with its functional ARE located at +19/+33 of the first exon. These results are valuable for the study of the influence of androgen on the gene expression of GNMT especially in the pathogenesis of cancer.
androgen receptor; androgen response element; chromatin immunoprecipitation; electrophoretic mobility shift assay; GNMT; prostate cancer; Yin and Yang 1; AR, androgen receptor; ARE, androgen response element; ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation; CS, charcoal-stripped; CT, cycle threshold; EMSA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GNMT, glycine N-methyltransferase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NF-Y, nuclear factor-Y; PCa, prostate cancer; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKB, protein kinase B (also called Akt); RGA, reporter gene assay; RT–PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; SAH, S-adenosylhomocysteine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SV40, simian virus 40; TBP, TATA-box-binding protein; wt, wild-type; YY1, Yin and Yang 1
HIV-1; CRF07_BC; injecting drug user; harm reduction; Taiwan; letter
Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in connecting innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, DCs have been regarded as a major target for the development of immunomodulators. In this study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan (DXM), a common cough suppressant with a high safety profile, on the activation and function of DCs. In the presence of DXM, the LPS-induced expression of the costimulatory molecules in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was significantly suppressed. In addition, DXM treatment reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in maturing BMDCs that were activated by LPS. Therefore, DXM abrogated the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to induce Ag-specific T-cell activation, as determined by their decreased proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in mixed leukocyte cultures. Moreover, the inhibition of LPS-induced MAPK activation and NF-κB translocation may contribute to the suppressive effect of DXM on BMDCs. Remarkably, DXM decreased the LPS-induced surface expression of CD80, CD83, and HLA-DR and the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). These findings provide a new insight into the impact of DXM treatment on DCs and suggest that DXM has the potential to be used in treating DC-related acute and chronic diseases.
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD).
Frequencies of TLR7-expressing precursor of myeloid dendritic cells (pre-mDCs) and mDCs in 28 AOSD patients, 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 12 healthy controls (HC) were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Transcript and protein levels of TLR7 signaling molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated by quantitative PCR and western blotting respectively. Serum cytokines levels were measured by ELISA.
Significantly higher median frequencies of TLR7-expressing pre-mDCs and mDCs were observed in AOSD patients (65.5% and 14.9%, respectively) and in SLE patients (60.3% and 14.4%, respectively) than in HC (42.8% and 8.8%, respectively; both P <0.001). Transcript and protein levels of TLR7-signaling molecules, including MyD88, TRAF6, IRAK4 and IFN-α, were upregulated in AOSD patients and SLE patients compared with those in HC. Disease activity scores were positively correlated with the frequencies of TLR7-expressing mDCs and expression levels of TLR7 signaling molecules in both AOSD and SLE patients. TLR7 ligand (imiquimod) stimulation of PBMCs resulted in significantly enhanced levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and IFN-α in AOSD and SLE patients. Frequencies of TLR7-expressing mDCs and expression levels of TLR7 signaling molecules significantly decreased after effective therapy.
Elevated levels of TLR7 signaling molecules and their positive correlation with disease activity in AOSD patients suggest involvement of the TLR7 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of this disease. The overexpression of TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling molecules may be a common pathogenic mechanism for both AOSD and SLE.
Germinal center kinase-like kinase (GLK, also termed MAP4K3), a member of the MAP4K family, may regulate gene transcription, apoptosis and immune inflammation in response to extracellular signals. The enhanced expression of GLK has been shown to correspond with disease severity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We investigated the role of GLK in the pathogenesis of adult-onset Still's disease, which shares some similar clinical characteristics with systemic lupus erythematosus.
The frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells in 24 patients with active adult-onset Still's disease and 12 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The expression levels of GLK proteins and transcripts were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR. Serum levels of T helper (Th)17-related cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α, were measured by ELISA.
Significantly higher median frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells were observed in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (31.85%) than in healthy volunteers (8.93%, P <0.001). The relative expression levels of GLK proteins and transcripts were also significantly higher in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (median, 1.74 and 2.35, respectively) compared with those in healthy controls (0.66 and 0.92, respectively, both P <0.001). The disease activity scores were positively correlated with the frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells (r = 0.599, P <0.005) and the levels of GLK proteins (r = 0.435, P <0.05) or GLK transcripts (r = 0.452, P <0.05) in patients with adult-onset Still's disease. Among the examined Th17-related cytokines, elevated levels of serum IL-6 and IL-17 were positively correlated with the frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells and the levels of GLK proteins as well as transcripts in patients with adult-onset Still's disease. GLK expression levels decreased significantly after effective therapy in these patients.
Elevated expression levels of GLK and their positive correlation with disease activity in patients with adult-onset Still's disease indicate that GLK may be involved in the pathogenesis and act as a novel activity biomarker of this disease.
Adult-onset Still's disease; GCK-like kinase (GLK, MAP4K3); mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs); pathogenesis; Th17-related cytokines
The prevalence of and risk factors for lipodystrophy (LD) among patients receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in the Asia-Pacific region are largely unknown. LD diagnosis was based on the adverse event definition from the US NIH Division of AIDS (2004 version), and only cases with a severity grade of ≥ 3 were included. TAHOD patients who had recently commenced cART with ≥ 3 drugs after 1996 from sites which had ever reported LD were included in the analysis. Covariates for the forward multivariate logistic regression model included demographic variables, CDC disease classification, baseline CD4 and viral load, hepatitis B/C virus co-infection, and regimen and duration of cART. LD was diagnosed in 217 (10.5%) of 2072 patients. The median duration of cART was 3.8 (interquartile range, 2.2–5.3) years (stavudine, 2.0 (1.0–3.5) years; zidovudine, 1.8 (0.6–3.9) years; and protease inhibitors (PI), 2.6 (1.3–4.5) years). In the multivariate model, factors independently associated with LD included use of stavudine (≤ 2 years vs. no experience: OR 25.46, p<0.001, > 2 years vs. no experience: OR 14.92, p<0.001), use of PI (> 2.6 years vs. no experience: OR 0.26, p<0.001), and total duration of cART (> vs. ≤ 3.8 years: OR 4.84, p<0.001). The use of stavudine was strongly associated with LD in our cohort. Stavudine-sparing cART strategies are warranted to prevent the occurrence of LD in the Asia-Pacific region.
Lipodystrophy; HIV; Adverse effects; Combined antiretroviral therapy; Asia-Pacific
The mechanism underlying the dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism and inflammation in atherogenesis is not understood fully. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) has been implicated in hepatic lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, little is known about the significance of GNMT in atherosclerosis. We showed the predominant expression of GNMT in foamy macrophages of mouse atherosclerotic aortas. Genetic deletion of GNMT exacerbated the hyperlipidemia, inflammation and development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. In addition, ablation of GNMT in macrophages aggravated oxidized low-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells by downregulating the expression of reverse cholesterol transporters including ATP-binding cassette transporters-A1 and G1 and scavenger receptor BI. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α–induced inflammatory response was promoted in GNMT-null macrophages. Collectively, our data suggest that GNMT is a crucial regulator in cholesterol metabolism and in inflammation, and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This finding may reveal a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.
This study examined characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) from treatment and care. Time from last clinic visit to 31 March 2009 was analysed to determine the interval that best classified LTFU. Patients defined as LTFU were then categorised into permanently LTFU (never returned) and temporary LTFU (re-entered later), and these groups compared. A total of 3626 patients were included (71% male). No clinic visits for 180 days was the best-performing LTFU definition (sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 92.3%). During 7697 person-years of follow-up, 1648 episodes of LFTU were recorded (21.4 per 100-person-years). Patients LFTU were younger (P = 0.002), had HIV viral load ≥500 copies/mL or missing (P = 0.021), had shorter history of HIV infection (P = 0.048), and received no, single- or double-antiretroviral therapy, or a triple-drug regimen containing a protease inhibitor (P < 0.001). 48% of patients LTFU never returned. These patients were more likely to have low or missing haemoglobin (P < 0.001), missing recent HIV viral load (P < 0.001), negative hepatitis C test (P = 0.025), and previous temporary LTFU episodes (P < 0.001). Our analyses suggest that patients not seen at a clinic for 180 days are at high risk of permanent LTFU, and should be aggressively traced.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the development of metabolic syndromes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cholesterol accumulation is related to NAFLD, whereas its detailed mechanism is not fully understood. Previously, we reported that glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout (Gnmt−/−) mice develop chronic hepatitis and HCC. In this study, we showed that Gnmt−/− mice had hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis. Single photon emission computed tomography images of mice injected with 131I-labeled 6β-iodocholesterol demonstrated that Gnmt−/− mice had slower hepatic cholesterol uptake and excretion rates than wild-type mice. In addition, genes related to cholesterol uptake (scavenger receptor class B type 1 [SR-B1] and ATP-binding cassette A1 [ABCA1]), intracellular trafficking (Niemann-Pick type C1 protein [NPC1] and Niemann-Pick type C2 protein [NPC2]) and excretion (ATP-binding cassette G1 [ABCG1]) were downregulated in Gnmt−/− mice. Yeast two-hybrid screenings and coimmunoprecipitation assays elucidated that the C conserved region (81–105 amino acids) of NPC2 interacts with the carboxyl-terminal fragment (171–295 amino acids) of GNMT. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that when cells were treated with low-density lipoprotein, NPC2 was released from lysosomes and interacts with GNMT in the cytosol. Overexpression of GNMT doubled the half-lives of both NPC2 isoforms and reduced cholesterol accumulation in cells. Furthermore, GNMT was downregulated in the liver tissues from patients suffering with NAFLD as well as from mice fed a high-fat diet, high-cholesterol diet or methionine/choline-deficient diet. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GNMT regulates the homeostasis of cholesterol metabolism, and hepatic cholesterol accumulation may result from downregulation of GNMT and instability of its interactive protein NPC2. Novel therapeutics for steatohepatitis and HCC may be developed by using this concept.
Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a tumor suppressor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). High rates of Gnmt knockout mice developed HCC. Epigenetic alteration and dysregulation of several pathways including wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) are associated with HCC development in Gnmt knockout mice. We hypothesized that GNMT may regulate signal transduction through interacting with other proteins directly. In this report, we identified a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (DEP domain containing MTOR-interacting protein [DEPDC6/DEPTOR]) as a GNMT-binding protein by using yeast two-hybrid screening. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay demonstrated that the C-terminal half of GNMT interact with the PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain of DEPDC6/DEPTOR. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 27.5% (14/51) of HCC patients had higher expression levels of DEPDC6/DEPTOR in the tumorous tissues than in tumor-adjacent tissues, especially among HCC patients with hepatitis B viral infection (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–11.3) or patients with poor prognosis (death hazard ratio 4.51, 95% CI 1.60–12.7). In terms of molecular mechanism, knockdown of DEPDC6/DEPTOR expression in HuH-7 cells caused S6K and 4E-BP activation, but suppressed Akt. Overexpression of DEPDC6/DEPTOR activated Akt and increased survival of HCC cells. Overexpression of GNMT caused activation of mTOR/raptor downstream signaling and delayed G2/M cell cycle progression, which altogether resulted in cellular senescence. Furthermore, GNMT reduced proliferation of HuH-7 cells and sensitized them to rapamycin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, GNMT regulates HCC growth in part through interacting with DEPDC6/DEPTOR and modulating mTOR/raptor signaling pathway. Both GNMT and DEPDC6/DEPTOR are potential targets for developing therapeutics for HCC.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors on circulating T helper-type 17 (Th17) cells and Th17-related cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
The frequencies of circulating Th17 cells and serum levels of Th17-related cytokines were determined using flow cytometry analysis and ELISA, respectively, in 48 RA patients both before (baseline) and six months after anti-TNF-α therapy. Therapeutic response was evaluated using European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria.
Significantly higher baseline frequencies of circulating Th17 cells and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TNF-α were observed in active RA patients than in 12 healthy controls (all P < 0.001). After anti-TNF-α therapy, 36 patients (75%) were EULAR responders (20 good responders and 16 moderate responders) and 12 (25.0%) were non-responders. The mean levels of circulating Th17 cells and IL-17 significantly decreased (1.13% vs. 0.79%; 43.1 pg/ml vs. 27.8 pg/ml; respectively, both P < 0.001) in parallel with clinical remission in responders. Levels of IL-6, IL-21, IL-23 and TNF-α were significantly decreased after anti-TNF-α therapy in responders. In contrast, the mean levels of circulating Th17 cells and IL-17 significantly increased after anti-TNF-α therapy (2.94% vs. 4.23%; 92.1 pg/ml vs. 148.6 pg/ml; respectively, both P < 0.05) in non-responders. Logistic regression analysis identified a high baseline level of IL-17 as a significant predictor of poor therapeutic response.
The beneficial effect of anti-TNF-α therapy might involve a decrease in Th17-related cytokines in responders, whereas rising levels of circulating Th17-cells and IL-17 were observed in patients with an inadequate response to anti-TNF-α therapy.
The goal of the present study was to estimate the risk ratio of herpes zoster among systemic lupus erythematosus patients after disease onset compared with a cohort of patients without systemic lupus erythematosus over a three-year period.
A nationwide population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database identified 10,337 new cases of systemic lupus erythematosus as the study cohort. In addition, 62,022 patients without systemic lupus erythematosus, who were matched for age, gender, and date of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis, were used as the comparison cohort. These cohorts were followed-up for three years. A Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to estimate the risk ratio of herpes zoster, with adjustments for age, gender, level of insurance, urbanization level, geographic region, comorbid medical conditions, average daily dosage of corticosteroids, and the use of immune-modulation agents.
Compared to patients without systemic lupus erythematosus, the crude risk ratio and adjusted risk ratio of herpes zoster among systemic lupus erythematosus patients were 7.37 (95% confidence interval 6.75-8.04) and 2.45 (95% confidence interval 1.77-3.40), respectively. Stratified by gender, the adjusted risk ratio of herpes zoster was 2.10 (95% confidence interval 1.45-2.99) in women and 7.51 (95% confidence interval 2.89-19.52) in men. Stratified by age, the adjusted risk ratio peaked in systemic lupus erythematosus patients who were aged 18 to 24 years (risk ratio 8.78, 95% confidence interval 3.08-24.97).
Based on nationwide population-based data, there is an increased risk of herpes zoster in systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared with non-systemic lupus erythematosus patients, particularly among males and patients aged 18 to 24 years. Further research on the associated risk factors for herpes zoster in systemic lupus erythematosus patients is needed.
Herpes Zoster; Risk; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Population-Based Cohort Study; Database
To investigate the association of body cell mass loss with disease activity and disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Rheumatoid cachexia, defined as the loss of body cell mass, is important but under-recognized and contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
One hundred forty-nine rheumatoid arthritis patients and 53 healthy, non-rheumatoid arthritis control subjects underwent anthropometric measurements of body mass index and waist and hip circumferences. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine the subjects' body compositions, including fat mass, skeletal lean mass, and body cell mass. The disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis was assessed using C-reactive protein serum, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the 28-joint disease activity score, while disability was evaluated using a health assessment questionnaire.
Rheumatoid arthritis patients had lower waist-to-hip ratio (0.86±0.07 vs. 0.95±0.06; p<0.001) and lower skeletal lean mass indexes (14.44±1.52 vs. 15.18±1.35; p = 0.002) than those in the healthy control group. Compared with rheumatoid arthritis patients with higher body cell masses, those with body cell masses lower than median had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates (40.10±27.33 vs. 25.09±14.85; p<0.001), higher disease activity scores (5.36±3.79 vs. 4.23±1.21; p = 0.022) and greater disability as measured by health assessment questionnaire scores (1.26±0.79 vs. 0.87±0.79; p = 0.004).
The loss of body cell mass is associated with higher disease activity and greater disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Body composition determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis can provide valuable information for a rheumatologist to more rapidly recognize rheumatoid cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Body cell mass; Rheumatoid arthritis; Bioelectrical impedance analysis; Disease activity; Disability
The seroincidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Taiwan has drastically increased since 2004, particularly among injection drug users and prisoners. The major purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected male prisoners.
In 2006, data were collected from all of HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 535) in seven prisons in Taiwan. This collection was performed using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire in group settings directed by our interviewers. Psychiatric morbidity was measured using the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale in 535 participants, which represented an 85% response rate. After excluding incomplete data, 479 participants were included in the analysis.
Psychiatric morbidity was present in 46% of participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that correlates of the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale defined cases included the following: being a recidivist, having poor self-rated health status, and having experienced psychiatric symptoms in one’s lifetime (e.g. significant physical pain or discomfort, depression for 2 weeks or longer, serious anxiety or tension, trouble understanding, concentrating, or remembering, and serious thoughts of suicide), with a Nagelkerke R2 equal to 0.365.
Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations.
HIV; incarcerated population; morbidity; prevalence; psychiatric
Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a major hepatic enzyme that converts S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine while generating sarcosine from glycine, hence it can regulate mediating methyl group availability in mammalian cells. GNMT is also a major hepatic folate binding protein that binds to, and, subsequently, may be inhibited by 5-methyltetrafolate. GNMT is commonly diminished in human hepatoma; yet its role in cellular folate metabolism, in tumorigenesis and antifolate therapies, is not understood completely. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of GNMT expression on cell growth, folate status, methylfolate-dependent reactions and antifolate cytotoxicity. GNMT–diminished hepatoma cell lines transfected with GNMT were cultured under folate abundance or restriction. Folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation fluxes were investigated using stable isotopic tracers and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Folate status was compared between wild-type (WT), GNMT transgenic (GNMTtg) and GNMT knockout (GNMTko) mice. In the cell model, GNMT expression increased folate concentration, induced folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation, and reduced antifolate methotrexate cytotoxicity. In the mouse models, GNMTtg had increased hepatic folate significantly, whereas GNMTko had reduced folate. Liver folate levels correlated well with GNMT expressions (r = 0.53, P = 0.002); and methionine synthase expression was reduced significantly in GNMTko, demonstrating impaired methylfolate-dependent metabolism by GNMT deletion. In conclusion, we demonstrated novel findings that restoring GNMT assists methylfolate-dependent reactions and ameliorates the consequences of folate depletion. GNMT expression in vivo improves folate retention and bioavailability in the liver. Studies on how GNMT expression impacts the distribution of different folate cofactors and the regulation of specific folate dependent reactions are underway.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases with gender differences in prevalence and clinical presentation. This study aimed to examine whether such gender differences are correlated with cumulative healthcare utilization in Taiwan.
The National Health Insurance Research Database supplied claim records of one million individuals from 1996 to 2007. Selected cases included patients aged ≥16 years. Certified rheumatologists diagnosed the patients in three or more visits and gave prescriptions for AS. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the influence of gender on cumulative healthcare utilization associated with AS.
The study included 228 women and 636 men. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, men had more cumulative outpatient visits associated with AS (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 -2.23; p = 0.008). Men also exhibited a trend for higher frequency of AS-related hospitalization (p = 0.054).
Men are more likely to have high cumulative AS-associated healthcare utilization than women. Further investigation of the causal factors is warranted.
Administrative database; Ankylosing spondylitis; Gender difference; Health-care utilization; Population-based study
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between trends in CD4 counts (slope) and HIV viral load (VL) after initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in Asian patients in The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD).
Treatment-naive HIV-infected patients who started cART with three or more and had three or more CD4 count and HIV VL tests were included. CD4 count slopes were expressed as changes of cells per microliter per year. Predictors of CD4 count slopes from 6 months after initiation were assessed by random-effects linear regression models.
A total of 1676 patients (74% male) were included. The median time on cART was 4.2 years (IQR 2.5-5.8 years). In the final model, CD4 count slope was associated with age, concurrent HIV VL and CD4 count, disease stage, hepatitis B or C co-infection, and time since cART initiation. CD4 count continues to increase with HIV VL up to 20 000 copies/mL during 6-12 months after cART initiation. However, the HIV VL has to be controlled below 5 000, 4 000 and 500 copies/mL for the CD4 count slope to remain above 20 cells/microliter per year during 12-18, 18-24, and beyond 24 months after cART initiation.
After cART initiation, CD4 counts continued to increase even when the concurrent HIV VL was detectable. However, HIV VL needed to be controlled at a lower level to maintain a positive CD4 count slope when cART continues. The effect on long-term outcomes through the possible development of HIV drug resistance remains uncertain.
This retrospective survey describes types of cancers diagnosed in HIV-infected subjects in Asia, and assesses risk factors for cancer in HIV-infected subjects using contemporaneous HIV-infected controls without cancer.
TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) sites retrospectively reviewed clinic medical records to determine cancer diagnoses since 2000. For each diagnosis, the following data were recorded: date, type, stage, method of diagnosis, demographic data, medical history, and HIV-related information. For risk factor analyses, two HIV-infected control subjects without cancer diagnoses were also selected. Cancers were grouped as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), and non-ADCs. Non-ADCs were further categorized as being infection related (NADC-IR) and unrelated (NADC-IUR).
A total of 617 patients were included in this study: 215 cancer cases and 402 controls from 13 sites. The majority of cancer cases were male (71%). The mean age (SD) for cases was 39 (10.6), 46 (11.5) and 44 (13.7) for ADCs, NADC-IURs and NADCs-IR, respectively. The majority (66%) of cancers were ADCs (16% Kaposi sarcoma, 40% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 9% cervical cancer). The most common NADCs were lung (6%), breast (5%) and hepatocellular carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma (2% each). There were also three (1.4%) cases of leiomyosarcoma reported in this study. In multivariate analyses, individuals with CD4 counts above 200 cells/mm3 were approximately 80% less likely to be diagnosed with an ADC (p < 0.001). Older age (OR: 1.39, p = 0.001) and currently not receiving antiretroviral treatment (OR: 0.29, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of NADCs overall, and similarly for NADCs-IUR. Lower CD4 cell count and higher CDC stage (p = 0.041) were the only independent predictors of NADCs-IR.
The spectrum of cancer diagnoses in the Asia region currently does not appear dissimilar to that observed in non-Asian HIV populations. One interesting finding was the cases of leiomyosarcoma, a smooth-muscle tumour, usually seen in children and young adults with AIDS, yet overall quite rare. Further detailed studies are required to better describe the range of cancers in this region, and to help guide the development of screening programmes.
Regimens containing protease inhibitors (PI) are less commonly used in developing countries due to high cost and less availability. We evaluated characteristics of patients initiating PI-based therapy according to previous antiretroviral (ARV) exposure; factors associated with initiating a PI-containing regimen using newer versus older PIs, and proportion of patients with detectable viral loads (VL) after initiating a PI-based regimen.
This analysis includes all patients who have initiated a PI-based regimen. ARV exposure was categorised: naïve (no previous ARV), 1st, 2nd, ≥ 3rd switches; a switch was defined as starting or stopping any drug in a regimen. Newer PIs were defined as those approved by the US FDA after 1 January 2000. Detectable VL at 12 months was defined as VL ≥ 400 copies/mL. Characteristics at PI initiation were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with initiating a newer PI and detectable VL at 12 months after PI initiation.
1106 patients initiated PI-based therapy; of these, 618 (56%) were naïve patients. Overall, 22% (176) of patients had detectable VL at 12 months following the PI initiation. Being from a high income country (vs. mid/low income, OR = 1.80, p = 0.034) were more likely to be associated with detectable VL.
The use of PIs in this cohort is dictated by accessibility and affordability issues particularly for the newer PIs. Short-term virological outcomes following PI-therapy in our cohort were good, and were associated with CD4 count at time of initiation.
HIV; HAART; Disease progression; Protease inhibitor
The TREAT Asia (Therapeutics, Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia) Network is building capacity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in the region. The objective of the TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme – designated TAQAS – is to standardize HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing (HIV genotyping) among laboratories to permit rigorous comparison of results from different clinics and testing centres. TAQAS has evaluated three panels of HIV-1-positive plasma from clinical material or low-passage, culture supernatant for up to 10 Asian laboratories. Laboratory participants used their standard protocols to perform HIV genotyping. Assessment was in comparison to a target genotype derived from all participants and the reference laboratory’s result. Agreement between most participants at the edited nucleotide sequence level was high (>98%). Most participants performed to the reference laboratory standard in detection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). However, there was variation in the detection of nucleotide mixtures (0–83%) and a significant correlation with the detection of DRMs (p < 0.01). Interpretation of antiretroviral resistance showed ~70% agreement among participants when different interpretation systems were used but >90% agreement with a common interpretation system, within the Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Using the principles of external quality assessment and a reference laboratory, TAQAS has demonstrated high quality HIV genotyping results from Asian laboratories.
HIV; Drug resistance; TAQAS; Quality assessment; Genotyping
The aim of our study was to develop, on the basis of simple clinical data, predictive short-term risk equations for AIDS or death in Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were included in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database.
Inclusion criteria were highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation and completion of required laboratory tests. Predictors of short-term AIDS or death were assessed using Poisson regression. Three different models were developed: a clinical model, a CD4 cell count model, and a CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level model. We separated patients into low-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups according to the key risk factors Identified.
In the clinical model, patients with severe anemia or a body mass index (BMI; calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) ≤18 were at very high risk, and patients who were aged <40 years or were male and had mild anemia were at high risk. In the CD4 cell count model, patients with a CD4 cell count <50 cells/µL, severe anemia, or a BMI ≤18 were at very high risk, and patients who had a CD4 cell count of 51–200 cells/µL, were aged <40 years, or were male and had mild anemia were at high risk. In the CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level model, patients with a CD4 cell count <50 cells/µL, a detectable viral load, severe anemia, or a BMI ≤18 were at very high risk, and patients with a CD4 cell count of 51–200 cells/µL and mild anemia were at high risk. The incidence of new AIDS or death in the clinical model was 1.3, 4.9, and 15.6 events per 100 person-years in the low-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively. In the CD4 cell count model the respective incidences were 0.9, 2.7, and 16.02 events per 100 person-years; in the CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level model, the respective incidences were 0.8, 1.8, and 6.2 events per 100 person-years.
These models are simple enough for widespread use in busy clinics and should allow clinicians to identify patients who are at high risk of AIDS or death in Asia and the Pacific region and in resource-poor settings.
Natural herbal medicine (NHM) has been used to control infectious diseases for thousands of years. In view of the possible beneficial effect of NHM on SARS, we conducted this study to examine whether NHM is of any benefit as a supplementary treatment of SARS or SARS-like infectious disease. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-eight patients fulfilled the WHO inclusion criteria and our exclusion criteria. All enrolled patients received routine western-medicine treatment. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three supplementary treatment groups: NHM A (Group A, n = 9) NHM B (Group B, n = 9) or placebo (Group C, n = 10). Chest X-ray was done every 1 or 2 days for every patient. Reading radiologists use a standard 0–3 scoring system (0: no infiltration; 1: focal haziness or even small patchy lesion; 2: ground glass picture; 3: lobar consolidation) according to the severity of infiltration in each lung field (three lung fields in both right and left lungs). The main outcome measurements were the improving chest radiographic scores (IRS) and the duration (days) till improvement (DI). One patient from the placebo group passed away. Patients from NHM A took less days before showing improvement (6.7 ± 1.8) compared with placebo group (11.2 ± 4.9), which showed statistical significance (P = 0.04). The cases were too few to be conclusive, the initial observations seem to indicate NHM appears to be safe in non-criticallly ill patients and clinical trials are feasible in the setting of pandemic outbreaks.
avian influenza; nature herbal medicine; SARS
The severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) uses dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) to facilitate cell entry via cellular receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. For this project, we used recombinant baculoviruses expressing different lengths of SARS-CoV spike (S) protein in a capture assay to deduce the minimal DC-SIGN binding region. Our results identified the region location between amino acid (aa) residues 324 to 386 of the S protein. We then generated nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the S protein to map the DC-SIGN-binding domain using capture assays with pseudotyped viruses and observed that MAb SIa5 significantly blocked S protein-DC-SIGN interaction. An enhancement assay using the HKU39849 SARS-CoV strain and human immature dendritic cells confirmed our observation. Data from a pepscan analysis and M13 phage peptide display library system mapped the reactive MAb SIa5 epitope to aa residues 363 to 368 of the S protein. Results from a capture assay testing three pseudotyped viruses with mutated N-linked glycosylation sites of the S protein indicate that only two pseudotyped viruses (N330Q and N357Q, both of which lost glycosylation sites near the SIa5 epitope) had diminished DC-SIGN-binding capacity. We also noted that MAb SIb4 exerted a neutralizing effect against HKU39849; its reactive epitope was mapped to aa residues 435 to 439 of the S protein. We offer the data to facilitate the development of therapeutic agents and preventive vaccines against SARS-CoV infection.