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1.  Cervical cancer in pregnant women: treat, wait or interrupt? Assessment of current clinical guidelines, innovations and controversies 
Cervical cancer during pregnancy is relatively uncommon. However, the incidence is expected to increase as more women delay childbearing. When preservation of the pregnancy is desired, optimal treatment is a major challenge to all. Whereas delay of treatment is an option for pre-invasive disease, and also small invasive carcinomas without lymph node involvement, management of tumours >2 cm remains experimental. Type of treatment needs to be individualized and depends mainly on gestational age, disease stage, and histology. Extensive counselling regarding the maternal and foetal risks is required. In this current review, we aim to summarize available data and treatment guidelines concerning cervical cancer in pregnancy. Controversies and research priorities are also identified.
doi:10.1177/1758834013494988
PMCID: PMC3707341  PMID: 23858330
cervical cancer; chemotherapy; neonatal; pregnancy
2.  Increased expression of placental growth factor in high-grade endometrial carcinoma 
Oncology Reports  2012;29(2):413-418.
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a homolog of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exerts pleiotropic functions in cancer by affecting tumor cells as well as endothelial and inflammatory cells. Moreover, PlGF expression correlates with tumor stage, recurrence, metastasis and patient outcome in different types of cancer. Recently, administration of anti-PlGF therapy reduced tumor growth and metastasis in preclinical tumor models. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and local expression of PlGF in primary endometrial carcinomas. PlGF levels in tumor lysates (n=128) and serum (n=88) of patients with primary endometrial cancer were determined using ELISA. PlGF mRNA expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues was quantified by quantitative qRT-PCR. Results were compared to endometrial cancer stage and grade. Systemic PlGF levels were not altered in patients with endometrial cancer (FIGO stage I-II-III) as compared to healthy controls. Only in FIGO stage IV patients, serum PlGF levels were slightly increased. Local PlGF mRNA and protein expression in endometrial tumors progressively increased with tumor grade. In endometrioid carcinomas, PlGF mRNA expression was significantly increased in endometrioid grade 3 tumors as compared to normal endometrial tissue. PlGF protein expression was significantly increased in endometrioid grade 2 and 3 carcinomas and in serous carcinomas as compared to normal endometrial tissue. Our study showed that systemic/serum PlGF levels cannot be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in endometrial cancer. However, the increased local expression of PlGF, primarily in high-grade carcinomas, underscores the possibility for preclinical assessment of anti-PlGF therapy in endometrial cancer.
doi:10.3892/or.2012.2178
PMCID: PMC3583572  PMID: 23232836
placental growth factor; angiogenic factor; endometrial cancer
3.  Physiologic variations of serum tumor markers in gynecological malignancies during pregnancy: a systematic review 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:86.
Background
Recent insights provide support for the treatment of cancer during pregnancy, a coincidence that poses both mother and fetus at risk. Our aim was to critically review studies on the physiologic variations during pregnancy, the most common tumor markers used in diagnosis and follow-up of gynecological cancers.
Methods
We conducted a systematic review of six tumor markers during normal pregnancy: carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3 (breast cancer); squamous cell carcinoma antigen (cervical cancer); and CA 125, anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B and lactate dehydrogenase (ovarian cancer).
Results
For CA 15-3, 3.3% to 20.0% of all measurements were above the cut-off (maximum 56 U/mL in the third trimester). Squamous cell carcinoma antigen values were above cut-off in 3.1% and 10.5% of the measurements (maximum 4.3 µg/L in the third trimester). Up to 35% of CA 125 levels were above cut-off: levels were highest in the first trimester, with a maximum value up to 550 U/mL. Inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone and lactate dehydrogenase levels were not elevated in maternal serum during normal pregnancy.
Conclusion
During normal pregnancy, tumor markers including CA 15.3, squamous cell carcinoma antigen and CA 125 can be elevated; inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone and lactate dehydrogenase levels remain below normal cut-off values. Knowledge of physiological variations during pregnancy can be clinically important when managing gynecological cancers in pregnant patients.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-86
PMCID: PMC3425318  PMID: 22873292
anti-Müllerian hormone; CA 125; CA 15-3; cancer; human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4); inhibin B; lactate dehydrogenase; pregnancy; squamous-cell carcinoma antigen tumor markers
4.  High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma presenting in a 28-year-old woman during pregnancy: a case report 
Introduction
To the best of our knowledge, soft tissue sarcomas have not prevously been reported as a complication during pregnancy.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a transperitoneal sarcoma during pregnancy. Morphological, immunohistochemical, chromosomal and mutational analyses pointed towards a high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Although surgery and chemotherapy are possible during pregnancy, we were unable to perform these in this case.
Conclusion
The potential to treat gynecological cancer during pregnancy should always be assessed individually.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-243
PMCID: PMC2925352  PMID: 20684773

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