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1.  Treatment patterns of childhood diarrhoea in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey 
Background
Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death in children under five accounting for 1.8 million deaths yearly. Despite global efforts to reduce diarrhoea mortality through promotion of proper case management, there is still room for ample improvement. In order to seek options for such improvements this study explored the knowledge and practices of diarrhoea case management among health care providers at health centres and drug shops in Uganda.
Methods
Records were reviewed for case management and structured interviews concerning knowledge and practices were conducted with the staff at all health centres and at all identified drug shops in the rural district of Namutumba, Uganda.
Results
There was a significant gap between knowledge and documented practices among staff. Antibiotics, antimalarials and antipyretics were prescribed or recommended as frequently as Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). In almost a third of the health facilities, ORS was out of stock. 81% of staff in health centres and 87% of staff in drug shops stated that they prescribed antibiotics for common diarrhoea. Zinc was not prescribed or recommended in any case.
Conclusions
The findings indicate that many children presenting with diarrhoea are inadequately treated. As a result they may not get the rehydration they need and are at risk of potential side effects from unjustified usage of antibiotics. Practices must be improved at health centres and drug shops in order to reduce childhood mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases.
doi:10.1186/1472-698X-12-19
PMCID: PMC3489860  PMID: 23009176
Diarrhoea; Diarrhoea case management; Diarrhoea control; Oral rehydration; Child health; Uganda
2.  Integrating multi-origin expression data improves the resolution of deep phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:665.
The actinopterygians comprise nearly one-half of all extant vertebrate species and are very important for human well-being. However, the phylogenetic relationships among certain groups within the actinopterygians are still uncertain, and debates about these relationships have continued for a long time. Along with the progress achieved in sequencing technologies, phylogenetic analyses based on multi-gene sequences, termed phylogenomic approaches, are becoming increasingly common and often result in well-resolved and highly supported phylogenetic hypotheses. Based on the transcriptome sequences generated in this study and the extensive expression data currently available from public databases, we obtained alignments of 274 orthologue groups for 26 scientifically and commercially important actinopterygians, representing 17 out of 44 orders within the class Actinopterygii. Using these alignments and probabilistic methods, we recovered relationships between basal actinopterygians and teleosts, among teleosts within protacanthopterygians and related lineages, and also within acanthomorphs. These relationships were recovered with high confidence.
doi:10.1038/srep00665
PMCID: PMC3444750  PMID: 22993690
3.  Spatial distribution of transcript changes in the maize primary root elongation zone at low water potential 
BMC Plant Biology  2008;8:32.
Background
Previous work showed that the maize primary root adapts to low Ψw (-1.6 MPa) by maintaining longitudinal expansion in the apical 3 mm (region 1), whereas in the adjacent 4 mm (region 2) longitudinal expansion reaches a maximum in well-watered roots but is progressively inhibited at low Ψw. To identify mechanisms that determine these responses to low Ψw, transcript expression was profiled in these regions of water-stressed and well-watered roots. In addition, comparison between region 2 of water-stressed roots and the zone of growth deceleration in well-watered roots (region 3) distinguished stress-responsive genes in region 2 from those involved in cell maturation.
Results
Responses of gene expression to water stress in regions 1 and 2 were largely distinct. The largest functional categories of differentially expressed transcripts were reactive oxygen species and carbon metabolism in region 1, and membrane transport in region 2. Transcripts controlling sucrose hydrolysis distinguished well-watered and water-stressed states (invertase vs. sucrose synthase), and changes in expression of transcripts for starch synthesis indicated further alteration in carbon metabolism under water deficit. A role for inositols in the stress response was suggested, as was control of proline metabolism. Increased expression of transcripts for wall-loosening proteins in region 1, and for elements of ABA and ethylene signaling were also indicated in the response to water deficit.
Conclusion
The analysis indicates that fundamentally different signaling and metabolic response mechanisms are involved in the response to water stress in different regions of the maize primary root elongation zone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-32
PMCID: PMC2364623  PMID: 18387193
4.  Atheroprotective natural anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies of IgM subclass are decreased in Swedish controls as compared to non-westernized individuals from New Guinea 
Objective
To determine the importance of IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine (aPC), a novel protective factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), in a population with a non-western life style as compared with a Swedish control group.
Methods and results
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease were determined in a group of 108 individuals aged 40–86 years from New Guinea and 108 age-and sex-matched individuals from a population based study in Sweden. Antibodies were tested by ELISA. aPC IgM levels were significantly higher among New Guineans than among Swedish controls (p < 0.0001). This difference remained significant among both men and women when controlled for LDL and blood pressure which were lower and smoking which was more prevalent in New Guineans as compared to Swedish controls (p < 0.0001). aPC IgM was significantly and negatively associated with age and systolic blood pressure among Swedish controls and with waist circumference among New Guineans. aPC IgM levels were significantly higher among women than men in both groups. The proportion of the saturated fatty acid (FA) myristic acid in serum cholesterol esters was negatively but polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid and also lipoprotein (a) were positively associated with aPC IgM levels.
Conclusion
IgM-antibodies against PC, which have atheroprotective properties, are higher in a population from Kitava, New Guinea with a traditional lifestyle, than in Swedish Controls, and higher among women than men in both populations tested. Such antibodies could contribute to the low incidence of cardiovascular disease reported from Kitava and could also provide an explanation as to why women have a later onset of CVD than men.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-7
PMCID: PMC1852561  PMID: 17374168

Results 1-4 (4)