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1.  Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health 
Lancet  2013;383(9925):1325-1332.
Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61613-X
PMCID: PMC3988259  PMID: 24183105
2.  Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers – An analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 
This study investigates potential explanations of the association between caring and common mental disorder, using the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. We examined whether carers are more exposed to other stressors additional to caring – such as domestic violence and debt – and if so whether this explains their elevated rates of mental disorder. We analysed differences between carers and non-carers in common mental disorders (CMD), suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, recent stressors, social support, and social participation. We used multivariate models to investigate whether differences between carers and non-carers in identifiable stressors and supports explained the association between caring and CMD, as measured by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule.
The prevalence of CMD (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.37–1.97), suicidal thoughts in the last week (OR = 2.71 95% CI 1.31–5.62) and fatigue (OR = 1.33 95% CI 1.14–1.54) was increased in carers. However, caring remained independently associated with CMD (OR = 1.58 1.30–1.91) after adjustment for other stressors and social support. Thus caring itself is associated with increased risk of CMD that is not explained by other identified social stressors. Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with. Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated. However, carers also reported higher rates of debt problems and domestic violence and perceived social support was slightly lower in carers than in non-carers. So carers are also more likely to experience stressors other than caring and it is likely that they will need support not only aimed at their caring role, but also at other aspects of their lives.
Highlights
•Caring is associated with an increased risk of depressive and anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation.•The increased risk of mental-ill-health in carers is not explained by increased life events and low social support.•Carers are exposed to more debt and domestic violence than the general population.•Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with.•Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.025
PMCID: PMC4224501  PMID: 25259657
Carers; Mental health; Stress; Common mental disorders; Social support; Suicide; Socioeconomic status
3.  Negative Aspects of Close Relationships as Risk Factors for Cognitive Aging 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2014;180(11):1118-1125.
The extent to which social relationships influence cognitive aging is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of midlife quality of close relationships with subsequent cognitive decline. Participants in the Whitehall II Study (n = 5,873; ages 45–69 years at first cognitive assessment) underwent executive function and memory tests 3 times over a period of 10 years (1997–1999 to 2007–2009). Midlife negative and positive aspects of close relationships were assessed twice using the Close Persons Questionnaire during the 8 years preceding cognitive assessment. Negative aspects of close relationships, but not positive aspects, were associated with accelerated cognitive aging. Participants in the top third of reported negative aspects of close relationships experienced a faster 10-year change in executive function (−0.04 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval: −0.08, −0.01) than those in the bottom third, which was comparable with 1 extra year of cognitive decline for participants aged 60 years after adjustment for sociodemographic and health status. Longitudinal analysis found no evidence of reverse causality. This study highlights the importance of differentiating aspects of social relationships to evaluate their unique associations with cognitive aging.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwu236
PMCID: PMC4239796  PMID: 25342204
aging; cognitive decline; longitudinal studies; social relationships
4.  Job Strain, Health and Sickness Absence: Results from the Hordaland Health Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e96025.
Objectives
While it is generally accepted that high job strain is associated with adverse occupational outcomes, the nature of this relationship and the causal pathways involved are not well elucidated. We aimed to assess the association between job strain and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), and investigate whether any associations could be explained by validated health measures.
Methods
Data from participants (n = 7346) of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), aged 40–47 at baseline, were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression to evaluate the association between job strain and LTSA over one year. Further analyses examined whether mental and physical health mediated any association between job strain and sickness absence.
Results
A positive association was found between job strain and risk of a LTSA episode, even controlling for confounding factors (HR = 1.64 (1.36–1.98); high job strain exposure accounted for a small proportion of LTSA episodes (population attributable risk 0.068). Further adjustments for physical health and mental health individually attenuated, but could not fully explain the association. In the fully adjusted model, the association between high job strain and LTSA remained significant (HR = 1.30 (1.07–1.59)).
Conclusion
High job strain increases the risk of LTSA. While our results suggest that one in 15 cases of LTSA could be avoided if high job strain were eliminated, we also provide evidence against simplistic causal models. The impact of job strain on future LTSA could not be fully explained by impaired health at baseline, which suggests that factors besides ill health are important in explaining the link between job strain and sickness absence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096025
PMCID: PMC3995988  PMID: 24755878
5.  Work Characteristics and Personal Social Support as Determinants of Subjective Well-Being 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81115.
Background
Well-being is an important health outcome and a potential national indicator of policy success. There is a need for longitudinal epidemiological surveys to understand determinants of well-being. This study examines the role of personal social support and psychosocial work environment as predictors of well-being in an occupational cohort study.
Methods
Social support and work characteristics were measured by questionnaire in 5182 United Kingdom civil servants from phase 1 of the Whitehall II study and were used to predict subjective well-being assessed using the Affect Balance Scale (range -15 to 15, SD = 4.2) at phase 2. External assessments of job control and demands were provided by personnel managers.
Results
Higher levels of well-being were predicted by high levels of confiding/emotional support (difference in mean from the reference group with low levels of confiding/emotional support  =  0.63, 95%CI 0.38–0.89, ptrend<0.001), high control at work (0.57, 95%CI 0.31–0.83, ptrend<0.001; reference low control) and low levels of job strain (0.60, 95%CI 0.31–0.88; reference high job strain), after adjusting for a range of confounding factors and affect balance score at baseline. Higher externally assessed work pace was also associated with greater well-being.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the psychosocial work environment and personal relationships have independent effects on subjective well-being. Policies designed to increase national well-being should take account of the quality of working conditions and factors that facilitate positive personal relationships. Policies designed to improve workplaces should focus not only on minimising negative aspects of work but also on increasing the positive aspects of work.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081115
PMCID: PMC3834222  PMID: 24260545
6.  Are Reports of Psychological Stress Higher in Occupational Studies? A Systematic Review across Occupational and Population Based Studies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78693.
Objectives
The general health questionnaire (GHQ) is commonly used to assess symptoms of common mental disorder (CMD). Prevalence estimates for CMD caseness from UK population studies are thought to be in the range of 14–17%, and the UK occupational studies of which we are aware indicate a higher prevalence. This review will synthesise the existing research using the GHQ from both population and occupational studies and will compare the weighted prevalence estimates between them.
Methods
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of CMD, as assessed by the GHQ, in all UK occupational and population studies conducted from 1990 onwards.
Results
The search revealed 65 occupational papers which met the search criteria and 15 relevant papers for UK population studies. The weighted prevalence estimate for CMD across all occupational studies which used the same version and cut-off for the GHQ was 29.6% (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 27.3–31.9%) and for comparable population studies was significantly lower at 19.1% (95% CIs 17.3–20.8%). This difference was reduced after restricting the studies by response rate and sampling method (23.9% (95% CIs 20.5%–27.4%) vs. 19.2% (95 CIs 17.1%–21.3%)).
Conclusions
Counter intuitively, the prevalence of CMD is higher in occupational studies, compared to population studies (which include individuals not in employment), although this difference narrowed after accounting for measures of study quality, including response rate and sampling method. This finding is inconsistent with the healthy worker effect, which would presume lower levels of psychological symptoms in individuals in employment. One explanation is that the GHQ is sensitive to contextual factors, and it seems possible that symptoms of CMD are over reported when participants know that they have been recruited to a study on the basis that they belong to a specific occupational group, as in nearly all “stress” surveys.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078693
PMCID: PMC3817075  PMID: 24223840
7.  Does social disadvantage over the life-course account for alcohol and tobacco use in Irish people? Birth cohort study 
Aims: Few studies have examined how the settlement experiences of migrant parents might impact on the downstream adult health of second-generation minority ethnic children. We used prospective data to establish if childhood adversity relating to the settlement experiences of Irish-born parents might account for downstream adverse health-related behaviours in second-generation Irish respondents in adulthood. Design, setting and participants: Cohort data from the National Child Development Study, comprising 17 000 births from a single week in 1958, from Britain, were analysed. Respondents were followed to mid-life. Dependent variables were alcohol and tobacco use. The contribution of life-course experiences in accounting for health-related behaviours was examined. Findings: Relative to the rest of the cohort, the prevalence of harmful/hazardous alcohol use was elevated in early adulthood for second-generation men and women, although it reduced by age 42. Second-generation Irish men were more likely to report binge alcohol use (odds ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval 0.99, 2.11; P = 0.05), and second-generation Irish women were more likely to smoke (odds ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval 1.23, 2.23; P = 0.001), at mid-life. Childhood disadvantage partially mediated associations between second-generation Irish status and mid-life alcohol and tobacco use, although these were modest for associations with smoking in Irish women. Conclusions: The findings suggest mechanisms for the intergenerational ‘transmission’ of health disadvantage in migrant groups, across generations. More attention needs to focus on the public health legacy of inequalities transferring from one migrant generation to the next.
doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckt122
PMCID: PMC4110955  PMID: 24022216
8.  Neighbourhood deprivation and adolescent self-esteem: Exploration of the ‘socio-economic equalisation in youth’ hypothesis in Britain and Canada 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)  2013;91(100):168-177.
Material deprivation is an important determinant of health inequalities in adults but there remains debate about the extent of its importance for adolescent wellbeing. Research has found limited evidence for an association between adolescent health and socio-economic status, leading authors to suggest that there is an ‘equalisation’ of health across socio-economic groups during the adolescent stage of the life-course. This paper explores this ‘equalisation’ hypothesis for adolescent psychological wellbeing from a geographical perspective by investigating associations between neighbourhood deprivation and self-esteem in Britain and Canada. Data from the British Youth Panel (BYP) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) on adolescents aged 11–15 for the time period 1994–2004 were used to estimate variations in low self-esteem between neighbourhoods using multilevel logistic regression. Models were extended to estimate associations between self-esteem and neighbourhood deprivation before and after adjustment for individual and family level covariates. Moderation by age, sex, urban/rural status, household income and family structure was investigated. There were no significant differences in self-esteem between the most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods (Canada unadjusted OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.76, 1.33; Britain unadjusted OR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.74, 2.13). The prevalence of low self-esteem was higher (in Canada) for boys in the least deprived neighbourhoods compared to other neighbourhoods. No other interactions were observed. The results presented here offer some (limited) support for the socio-economic equalisation in youth hypothesis from a geographical perspective: with specific reference to equalisation of the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and self-esteem and psychological health in early adolescence. This contrasts with previous research in the United States but supports related work from Britain. The lack of interactions with key social and economic variables suggests that findings might apply across a range of family circumstances and different communities in Britain and Canada. Policy implications are discussed.
Highlights
► The relationship between adolescent self-esteem and neighbourhood deprivation in Britain and Canada was studied. ► Self-esteem was not associated with neighbourhood deprivation in large, national representative British and Canadian cohorts. ► Findings contrast with previous United States studies examining adolescent self-esteem and neighbourhood deprivation.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.021
PMCID: PMC3726937  PMID: 23518228
Neighbourhood deprivation; Britain; Canada; United States; Health inequalities; Geographical inequalities; Self-esteem; Adolescent; Equalisation; Psychological health
9.  How do adolescents talk about self-harm: a qualitative study of disclosure in an ethnically diverse urban population in England 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:572.
Background
Self-harm is prevalent in adolescence. It is often a behaviour without verbal expression, seeking relief from a distressed state of mind. As most adolescents who self-harm do not seek help, the nature of adolescent self-harm and reasons for not disclosing it are a public health concern. This study aims to increase understanding about how adolescents in the community speak about self-harm; exploring their attitudes towards and experiences of disclosure and help-seeking.
Methods
This study involved 30 qualitative individual interviews with ethnically diverse adolescents aged 15–16 years (24 females, 6 males), investigating their views on coping with stress, self-harm and help-seeking, within their own social context in multicultural East London. Ten participants had never self-harmed, nine had self-harmed on one occasion and 11 had self-harmed repeatedly. Verbatim accounts were transcribed and subjected to content and thematic analysis using a framework approach.
Results
Self-harm was described as a complex and varied behaviour. Most participants who had self-harmed expressed reluctance to talk about it and many had difficulty understanding self-harm in others. Some participants normalised self-harm and did not wish to accept offers of help, particularly if their self-harm had been secretive and ‘discovered’, leading to their referral to more formal help from others. Disclosure was viewed more positively with hindsight by some participants who had received help. If help was sought, adolescents desired respect, and for their problems, feelings and opinions to be noticed and considered alongside receiving treatment for injuries. Mixed responses to disclosure from peers, family and initial sources of help may influence subsequent behaviour and deter presentation to services.
Conclusions
This study provides insight into the subjective experience of self-harm, disclosure and help-seeking from a young, ethnically diverse community sample. Accounts highlighted the value of examining self-harm in the context of each adolescent’s day-to-day life. These accounts emphasised the need for support from others and increasing awareness about appropriate responses to adolescent self-harm and accessible sources of help for adolescents.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-572
PMCID: PMC3685521  PMID: 23758739
Self-harm; Help seeking; Adolescent; Qualitative methods; Self-injury; Ethnicity
10.  Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC)† 
The British Journal of Psychiatry  2012;201(4):282-290.
Background
Aetiological mechanisms underlying ethnic density associations with psychosis remain unclear.
Aims
To assess potential mechanisms underlying the observation that minority ethnic groups experience an increased risk of psychosis when living in neighbourhoods of lower own-group density.
Method
Multilevel analysis of nationally representative community-level data (from the Ethnic Minorities Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community survey), which included the main minority ethnic groups living in England, and a White British group. Structured instruments assessed discrimination, chronic strains and social support. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire ascertained psychotic experiences.
Results
For every ten percentage point reduction in own-group density, the relative odds of reporting psychotic experiences increased 1.07 times (95% CI 1.01–1.14, P = 0.03 (trend)) for the total minority ethnic sample. In general, people living in areas of lower own-group density experienced greater social adversity that was in turn associated with reporting psychotic experiences.
Conclusions
People resident in neighbourhoods of higher own-group density experience ‘buffering’ effects from the social risk factors for psychosis.
doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.102376
PMCID: PMC3461446  PMID: 22844021
11.  Does childhood adversity account for poorer mental and physical health in second-generation Irish people living in Britain? Birth cohort study from Britain (NCDS) 
BMJ Open  2013;3(3):e001335.
Objectives
Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience elevated mortality and morbidity across generations, not accounted for through socioeconomic position. The main objective of the present study was to assess if childhood disadvantage accounts for poorer mental and physical health in adulthood, in second-generation Irish people.
Design
Analysis of prospectively collected birth cohort data, with participants followed to midlife.
Setting
England, Scotland and Wales.
Participants
Approximately 17 000 babies born in a single week in 1958. Six per cent of the cohort were of second-generation Irish descent.
Outcomes
Primary outcomes were common mental disorders assessed at age 44/45 and self-rated health at age 42. Secondary outcomes were those assessed at ages 23 and 33.
Results
Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in marked material and social disadvantage, which tracked into early adulthood. By midlife, parity was reached between second-generation Irish cohort members and the rest of the sample on most disadvantage indicators. At age 23, Irish cohort members were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.94). This had reduced slightly by midlife (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69). Although at age 23 second-generation cohort members were just as likely to report poorer self-rated health (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43), by midlife this difference had increased (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.60). Adjustment for childhood and early adulthood adversity fully attenuated differences in adult health disadvantages.
Conclusions
Social and material disadvantage experienced in childhood continues to have long-range adverse effects on physical and mental health at midlife, in second-generation Irish cohort members. This suggests important mechanisms over the life-course, which may have important policy implications in the settlement of migrant families.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001335
PMCID: PMC3612813  PMID: 23457320
Mental Health; Epidemiology; Public Health; Social Medicine
12.  Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:70.
Background
The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools?
Methods
The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches.
Results
Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates.
Conclusions
The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple classification of grocers as ‘healthy’.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-70
PMCID: PMC3567930  PMID: 23347757
Local food environment; Diet; Geographic information systems (GIS); Adolescents; Schools
13.  Associations between Nighttime Traffic Noise and Sleep: The Finnish Public Sector Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2012;120(10):1391-1396.
Background: Associations between traffic noise and sleep problems have been detected in experimental studies, but population-level evidence is scarce.
Objectives: We studied the relationship between the levels of nighttime traffic noise and sleep disturbances and identified vulnerable population groups.
Methods: Noise levels of nighttime–outdoor traffic were modeled based on the traffic intensities in the cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, Finland. In these cities, 7,019 public sector employees (81% women) responded to postal surveys on sleep and health. We linked modeled outdoor noise levels to the residences of the employees who responded to the postal survey. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of noise levels with subjectively assessed duration of sleep and symptoms of insomnia (i.e., difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night, waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep). We also used stratified models to investigate the possibility of vulnerable subgroups.
Results: For the total study population, exposure to levels of nighttime–outside (Lnight, outside) traffic noise > 55 dB was associated with any insomnia symptom ≥ 2 nights per week [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.65]. Among participants with higher trait anxiety scores, which we hypothesized were a proxy for noise sensitivity, the ORs for any insomnia symptom at exposures to Lnight, outside traffic noises 50.1–55 dB and > 55 dB versus ≤ 45 dB were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.80) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.42), respectively.
Conclusions: Nighttime traffic noise levels > 50 dB Lnight, outside was associated with insomnia symptoms among persons with higher scores for trait anxiety. For the total study population, Lnight, outside > 55 dB was positively associated with any symptoms.
doi:10.1289/ehp.1205026
PMCID: PMC3491945  PMID: 22871637
cohort study; epidemiology; sleep disturbance; traffic noise
14.  The Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of urban regeneration on young people and their families 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e001840.
Introduction
Recent systematic reviews suggest that there is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale urban regeneration programmes in improving health and well-being and alleviating health inequalities. The development of the Olympic Park in Stratford for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games provides the opportunity to take advantage of a natural experiment to examine the impact of large-scale urban regeneration on the health and well-being of young people and their families.
Design and methods
A prospective school-based survey of adolescents (11–12 years) with parent data collected through face-to-face interviews at home. Adolescents will be recruited from six randomly selected schools in an area receiving large-scale urban regeneration (London Borough of Newham) and compared with adolescents in 18 schools in three comparison areas with no equivalent regeneration (London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham). Baseline data will be completed prior to the start of the London Olympics (July 2012) with follow-up at 6 and 18 months postintervention. Primary outcomes are: pre–post change in adolescent and parent mental health and well-being, physical activity and parental employment status. Secondary outcomes include: pre–post change in social cohesion, smoking, alcohol use, diet and body mass index. The study will account for individual and environmental contextual effects in evaluating changes to identified outcomes. A nested longitudinal qualitative study will explore families’ experiences of regeneration in order to unpack the process by which regeneration impacts on health and well-being.
Ethics and dissemination
The study has approval from Queen Mary University of London Ethics Committee (QMREC2011/40), the Association of Directors of Children's Services (RGE110927) and the London Boroughs Research Governance Framework (CERGF113). Fieldworkers have had advanced Criminal Records Bureau clearance. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, national and international conferences, through participating schools and the study website (http://www.orielproject.co.uk).
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001840
PMCID: PMC3432843  PMID: 22936822
15.  Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2012;176(4):327-337.
The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.
doi:10.1093/aje/kws012
PMCID: PMC3415279  PMID: 22842719
air pollution; child psychology; cognition; environmental pollution; epidemiology; noise; public health; transportation
16.  A Lifecourse Approach to Long-Term Sickness Absence—A Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e36645.
Background
Most research on long-term sickness absence has focussed on exposure to occupational psychosocial risk factors such as low decision latitude. These provide an incomplete explanation as they do not account for other relevant factors. Such occupational risk factors may be confounded by social or temperamental risk factors earlier in life.
Methods
We analysed data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Long-term sickness absence was defined as receipt of Incapacity Benefit/Severe Disablement Allowance at age 42. In those in employment aged 33 we examined the effects of psychological distress, musculoskeletal symptoms, and low decision latitude. These were then adjusted for IQ, educational attainment, and the presence of early life somatic and neurotic symptoms.
Results
Low decision latitude predicted subsequent long-term absence, and this association remained, albeit reduced, following adjustment for psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms at age 33. Low decision latitude was no longer associated with long-term absence when IQ and educational attainment were included. Adjusting for early life somatic and neurotic symptoms had little impact.
Discussion
A greater understanding of the ways in which occupational risk factors interact with individual vulnerabilities across the life-course is required. Self reported low decision latitude might reflect the impact of education and cognitive ability on how threat, and the ability to manage threat, is perceived, rather than being an independent risk factor for long-term sick leave. This has implications for policy aimed at reducing long-term sick leave.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036645
PMCID: PMC3343027  PMID: 22570734
17.  Forced residential mobility and social support: impacts on psychiatric disorders among Somali migrants 
Background
Somali migrants fleeing the civil war in their country face punishing journeys, the loss of homes, possessions, and bereavement. On arrival in the host country they encounter poverty, hostility, and residential instability which may also undermine their mental health.
Methods
An in-depth and semi-structured interview was used to gather detailed accommodation histories for a five year period from 142 Somali migrants recruited in community venues and primary care. Post-codes were verified and geo-mapped to calculate characteristics of residential location including deprivation indices, the number of moves and the distances between residential moves. We asked about the reasons for changing accommodation, perceived discrimination, asylum status, traumatic experiences, social support, employment and demographic factors. These factors were assessed alongside characteristics of residential mobility as correlates of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders.
Results
Those who were forced to move homes were more likely to have an ICD-10 psychiatric disorder (OR = 2.64, 1.16-5.98, p = 0.02) compared with those moving through their own choice. A lower risk of psychiatric disorders was found for people with larger friendship networks (0.35, 0.14-0.84, p = 0.02), for those with more confiding emotional support (0.42, 0.18-1.0, p = 0.05), and for those who had not moved during the study period (OR = 0.21, 0.07-0.62, p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Forced residential mobility is a risk factor for psychiatric disorder; social support may contribute to resilience against psychiatric disorders associated with residential mobility.
doi:10.1186/1472-698X-12-4
PMCID: PMC3384470  PMID: 22510245
18.  Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents? 
Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas.
This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents.
Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’.
Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06.
Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health.
Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and some Black African male students and female Indian students.
doi:10.1093/ije/dys007
PMCID: PMC3396315  PMID: 22366123
Adolescents; mental health; advantage; cultural integration
19.  The association between childhood cognitive ability and adult long-term sickness absence in three British birth cohorts: a cohort study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(2):e000777.
Objectives
The authors aimed to test the relationship between childhood cognitive function and long-term sick leave in adult life and whether any relationship was mediated by educational attainment, adult social class or adult mental ill-health.
Design
Cohort study.
Setting
The authors used data from the 1946, 1958 and 1970 British birth cohorts. Initial study populations included all live births in 1 week in that year. Follow-up arrangements have differed between the cohorts.
Participants
The authors included only those alive, living in the UK and not permanent refusals at the time of the outcome. The authors further restricted analyses to those in employment, full-time education or caring for a family in the sweep immediately prior to the outcome. 2894 (1946), 15 053 (1958) and 14 713 (1970) cohort members were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures: receipt of health-related benefits (eg, incapacity benefit) in 2000 and 2004 for the 1958 and 1970 cohorts, respectively, and individuals identified as ‘permanently sick or disabled’ in 1999 for 1946 cohort.
Results
After adjusting for sex and parental social class, better cognitive function at age 10/11 was associated with reduced odds of being long-term sick (1946: 0.70 (0.56 to 0.86), p=0.001; 1958: 0.69 (0.61 to 0.77), p<0.001; 1970: 0.80 (0.66 to 0.97), p=0.003). Educational attainment appeared to partly mediate the associations in all cohorts; adult social class appeared to have a mediating role in the 1946 cohort.
Conclusions
Long-term sick leave is a complex outcome with many risk factors beyond health. Cognitive abilities might impact on the way individuals are able to develop strategies to maintain their employment or rapidly find new employment when faced with a range of difficulties. Education should form part of the policy response to long-term sick leave such that young people are better equipped with skills needed in a flexible labour market.
Article summary
Article focus
To what extent does cognitive function in childhood predict long-term sick leave.
To what extent might any association be mediated through educational attainment, adult social class or adult mental ill-health.
Key messages
There is a clear dose–response relationship between lower cognitive function in childhood and increased odds of being on long-term sick leave in adulthood.
This association applies to younger as well as older workers and holds true irrespective of the decade of birth.
This association is mediated in part by education attainment suggesting improved education, especially for those with lower cognitive abilities, may help inoculate them from the risk of long-term sickness absence.
Strengths and limitations of this study
Three large birth cohorts with data from across 50 years.
Cohorts broadly representative of the UK population born in that year.
Cognitive function assessed using well-recognised tools.
Different measures of cognitive function, long-term sickness absence and depression used across the cohorts.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000777
PMCID: PMC3323804  PMID: 22466159
20.  Long working hours and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study 
Background
Although long working hours are common in working populations, little is known about the effect of long working hours on mental health.
Method
We examined the association between long working hours and onset of depressive and anxiety symptoms in middle-aged employees. Participants were 2960 full-time employees aged 44 to 66 (2248 men, 712 women) from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study of British civil servants. Working hours, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and covariates were measured at baseline (1997–1999) followed by two subsequent measurements of depressive and anxiety symptoms (2001 and 2002–2004).
Results
In prospective analysis of participants with no depressive symptoms (n=2549) or anxiety symptoms (n=2618) at baseline, Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for baseline covariates showed a 1.66-fold (95% CI 1.06–2.61) risk of depressive symptoms and a 1.74-fold (1.15–2.61) risk of anxiety symptoms among employees working more than 55 hours a week compared with employees working 35–40 hours a week. Sex-stratified analysis showed an excess risk of depression and anxiety associated with long working hours among women [hazard ratios 2.67 (1.07–6.68) and 2.84 (1.27–6.34)] but not men [1.30 (0.77–2.19) and 1.43 (0.89–2.30)].
Conclusions
Working long hours is a risk factor for development of depressive and anxiety symptoms in women.
doi:10.1017/S0033291711000171
PMCID: PMC3095591  PMID: 21329557
Work hours; depression; anxiety; overtime work; prospective
21.  A Synthesis of the Evidence for Managing Stress at Work: A Review of the Reviews Reporting on Anxiety, Depression, and Absenteeism 
Background. Psychosocial stressors in the workplace are a cause of anxiety and depressive illnesses, suicide and family disruption. Methods. The present review synthesizes the evidence from existing systematic reviews published between 1990 and July 2011. We assessed the effectiveness of individual, organisational and mixed interventions on two outcomes: mental health and absenteeism. Results. In total, 23 systematic reviews included 499 primary studies; there were 11 meta-analyses and 12 narrative reviews. Meta-analytic studies found a greater effect size of individual interventions on individual outcomes. Organisational interventions showed mixed evidence of benefit. Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism. The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews. Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions. Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Gaps in the literature include studies of organisational outcomes like absenteeism, the influence of specific occupations and size of organisations, and studies of the comparative effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Conclusions. Individual interventions (like CBT) improve individuals' mental health. Physical activity as an organisational intervention reduces absenteeism. Research needs to target gaps in the evidence.
doi:10.1155/2012/515874
PMCID: PMC3306941  PMID: 22496705
22.  Overtime Work as a Predictor of Major Depressive Episode: A 5-Year Follow-Up of the Whitehall II Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e30719.
Background
The association between overtime work and depression is still unclear. This study examined the association between overtime work and the onset of a major depressive episode (MDE).
Methodology/Principal Findings
Prospective cohort study with a baseline examination of working hours, psychological morbidity (an indicator of baseline depression) and depression risk factors in 1991–1993 and a follow-up of major depressive episode in 1997–1999 (mean follow-up 5.8 years) among British civil servants (the Whitehall II study; 1626 men, 497 women, mean age 47 years at baseline). Onset of 12-month MDE was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at follow-up. In prospective analysis of participants with no psychological morbidity at baseline, the odds ratio for a subsequent major depressive episode was 2.43 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 5.30) times higher for those working 11+ hours a day compared to employees working 7–8 hours a day, when adjusted for socio-demographic factors at baseline. Further adjustment for chronic physical disease, smoking, alcohol use, job strain and work-related social support had little effect on this association (odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 5.65).
Conclusions/Significance
Data from middle-aged civil servants suggest that working long hours of overtime may predispose to major depressive episodes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030719
PMCID: PMC3266289  PMID: 22295106
23.  Structural and socio-psychological influences on adolescents’ educational aspirations and subsequent academic achievement 
Previous literature indicates that educational aspirations are an important predictor of achievement at school and beyond. This paper examines the factors that are associated with high educational aspirations. It also looks at the relationship between aspirations and achievement at the General Certificate of Secondary Education in a deprived area of London. The results show that educational aspirations are associated with individual characteristics. Girls were more likely than boys to express a wish to remain in education beyond the age of 16. For the most academic route post-16, there were substantial ethnic differences, with minority ethnic groups generally being more likely to state a desire to follow this path. Students who were eligible for free school meals tended to have lower aspirations. Socio-psychological variables were also shown to be of importance, particularly self-esteem and psychological distress. Importantly, educational aspirations had a strong association with actual achievement at age 16, remaining associated even after controlling for a number of other variables, including prior achievement. These findings are discussed in light of previous research and potential intervention strategies.
doi:10.1007/s11218-010-9140-0
PMCID: PMC3083719  PMID: 21532940
Aspirations; Achievement; Adolescent; Education; Ethnic groups
24.  Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on the educational achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London 
Journal of Adolescence  2011;34(3):579-588.
This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to achieve the appropriate academic achievement benchmark for their age group and bullied boys (but not girls) were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms compared to those not bullied. High levels of social support from family were important in promoting good mental health. There was evidence that high levels of support from friends and moderate (but not high) family support was able to protect bullied adolescents from poor academic achievement. Support from friends and family was not sufficient to protect adolescents against mental health difficulties that they might face as a result of being bullied. More active intervention from schools is recommended.
doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.02.007
PMCID: PMC3107432  PMID: 20637501
Achievement; Adolescents; Bullying; Depression; Mental health; School; Social support
25.  Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study 
Environmental Health  2011;10:39.
Background
Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school.
Methods
Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children.
Results
Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth) were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk.
Conclusions
Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.
doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-39
PMCID: PMC3117762  PMID: 21569605
Aircraft noise; road traffic noise; low birth weight; premature; psychological distress; mental health; SDQ

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