To compare HIV-related sexual risk behavior among temporary rural to urban migrants and non-migrants and to explore the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural area of Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Bure Woreda, West Gojam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1,310 male subjects (655 rural to urban migrants and 655 non-migrants) were selected randomly and were assessed, analyzed using SPSS version 17 software for their HIV related sexual risk behaviours including the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural Ethiopia. Two parts of questionnaires were prepared and used for comparing the above groups. The first part of the questionnaires included non-sensitive questions such as demographics and HIV knowledge while the second part comprised sensitive questions related to sexual behaviors.
When multiple sexual partners, sex with commercial sex workers, sexual transmitted infections and premarital sex compared between the two groups, the proportions of rural to urban migrants Vs non- migrants who had multiple sexual partners (31.4 % Vs 7.4 %), sex with commercial sex workers (22.3% Vs 13.3%), sexual transmitted infections (11.7% Vs 3.2%) and premarital sex (20.8% Vs 14.2 %) were significantly higher in rural to urban migrants than non-migrants. Among those who had multiple sexual partners, only 12.7 % of, rural to urban migrants and 9.8 % of non-migrants reported consistent condom use with sexual partners other than their spouse.
As both rural to urban migrants and non-migrants are at risk for HIV infection, intervention programmes targeting both groups are recommended. However, in order to contain the bridging effect on HIV transmission from urban to rural areas particular attention should be given for the rural to urban migrant population.