Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) induce T cell activation as well as T cell tolerance. The molecular basis of the regulation of this critical ‘decision’ is not well understood. Here we show that HDAC11, a member of the HDAC histone deacetylase family with no prior defined physiological function, negatively regulated expression of the gene encoding interleukin 10 (IL-10) in APCs. Overexpression of HDAC11 inhibited IL-10 expression and induced inflammatory APCs that were able to prime naive T cells and restore the responsiveness of tolerant CD4+ T cells. Conversely, disruption of HDAC11 in APCs led to upregulation of expression of the gene encoding IL-10 and impairment of antigen-specific T cell responses. Thus, HDAC11 represents a molecular target that influences immune activation versus immune tolerance, a critical ‘decision’ with substantial implications in autoimmunity, transplantation and cancer immunotherapy.
Genetic alterations activating K-RAS and PI3K/AKT signaling are also known to induce the activity of mTOR kinase through TORC1 and TORC2 complexes in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, we determined the effects of the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235), and the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (PS) against human PDAC cells. Treatment with BEZ235 or PS inhibited cell cycle progression with induction of the cell cycle inhibitory proteins, p21 waf1 and p27 kip1. BEZ235 and PS also dose dependently induced loss of cell viability of the cultured PDAC cells, associated with depletion of phosphorylated (p) AKT, as well as of the TORC1 substrates 4EBP1 and p70S6 kinase. While inhibiting p-AKT, treatment with PS induced the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins BIM and BAK. Co-treatment with BEZ235 and PS synergistically induced apoptosis of the cultured PDAC cells. This was accompanied by marked attenuation of the levels of p-AKT and Bcl-xL but induction of BIM. Although in vivo treatment with BEZ235 or PS reduced tumor growth, co-treatment with BEZ235 and PS was significantly more effective in controlling the xenograft growth of Panc1 PDAC cells in the nude mice. Furthermore, co-treatment with BEZ235 and PS more effectively blocked tumor growth of primary PDAC heterotransplants (possessing K-RAS mutation and AKT2 amplification) subcutaneously implanted in the nude mice than each agent alone. These findings demonstrate superior activity and support further in vivo evaluation of combined treatment with BEZ235 and PS against PDAC that possess heightened activity of RAS-RAF-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways.
Pancreatic cancer; pan-HDAC inhibitor; BEZ235; mTOR; AKT
Inhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins are epigenetic “readers” that recognize trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4Me3) and target histone acetyl transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes to chromatin.
Methods and Principal Findings
Here we asked whether dysregulating two epigenetic pathways with chemical inhibitors showed synergistic effects on breast cancer cell line killing. We also tested whether ING1 could synergize better with chemotherapeutics that target the same epigenetic mechanism such as the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) or a different epigenetic mechanism such as 5-azacytidine (5azaC), which inhibits DNA methyl transferases. Simultaneous treatment of breast cancer cell lines with LBH589 and 5azaC did not show significant synergy in killing cells. However, combination treatment of ING1 with either LBH589 or 5azaC did show synergy. The combination of ING1b with 5azaC, which targets two distinct epigenetic mechanisms, was more effective at lower doses and enhanced apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). ING1b plus 5azaC also acted synergistically to increase γH2AX staining indicating significant levels of DNA damage were induced. Adenoviral delivery of ING1b with 5azaC also inhibited cancer cell growth in a murine xenograft model and led to tumor regression when viral concentration was optimized in vivo.
These data show that targeting distinct epigenetic pathways can be more effective in blocking cancer cell line growth than targeting the same pathway with multiple agents, and that using viral delivery of epigenetic regulators can be more effective in synergizing with a chemical agent than using two chemotherapeutic agents. This study also indicates that the ING1 epigenetic regulator may have additional activities in the cell when expressed at high levels.
A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs) in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI), through a competitive criteria based process. The process identified a number of opportunities and challenges for health R&D and innovation in the continent: i) it provides a direct evidence for the existence of innovation capability that can be leveraged to fill specific gaps in the continent; ii) it revealed a research and financing pattern that is largely fragmented and uncoordinated, and iii) it highlights the most frequent funders of health research in the continent. The CoEs are envisioned as an innovative network of public and private institutions with a critical mass of expertise and resources to support projects and a variety of activities for capacity building and scientific exchange, including hosting fellows, trainees, scientists on sabbaticals and exchange with other African and non-African institutions.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a critical role in chromatin modification and gene expression. Recent evidence indicates that HDACs can also regulate functions of nonhistone proteins by catalyzing the removal of acetylated lysine residues. Here, we show that the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 down-regulates DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein expression in the nucleus of human breast cancer cells. Cotreatment with the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 abolishes the ability of LBH589 to reduce DNMT1, suggesting that the proteasomal pathway mediates DNMT1 degradation on HDAC inhibition. Deletion of the NH2-terminal 120 amino acids of DNMT1 diminishes LBH589-induced ubiquitination, indicating that this domain is essential for its proteasomal degradation. DNMT1 recruits the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to form a chaperone complex. Treatment with LBH589 induces hyperacetylation of Hsp90, thereby inhibiting the association of DNMT1 with Hsp90 and promoting ubiquitination of DNMT1. In addition, inactivation of HDAC1 activity by small interfering RNA and MS-275 is associated with Hsp90 acetylation in conjunction with reduction of DNMT1 protein expression. We conclude that the stability of DNMT1 is maintained in part through its association with Hsp90. Disruption of Hsp90 function by HDAC inhibition is a unique mechanism that mediates the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for DNMT1 degradation. Our studies suggest a new role for HDAC1 and identify a novel mechanism of action for the HDAC inhibitors as down-regulators of DNMT1.
Generation of hepatocyte from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) holds great promise for hepatocyte replacement therapy to treat liver diseases. Achieving high efficiency of directed differentiation of ESCs to hepatocyte is of critical importance. Previously, Wnt3a has been reported to promote Activin A-induced human definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation, the early stage of hepatocyte differentiation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. Growing evidence demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators involved in various important biological processes including the regulation of stem cell differentiation. In the present study, we profiled genome wide miRNA expression during Wnt3a and Activin A induced mouse DE differentiation. We uncovered distinct miRNA expression patterns during DE differentiation with the identification of a subset of miRNAs whose expression is synergistically regulated by Wnt3a/Activin A treatment at different stages of DE differentiation. Forced expression of a pool of such synergistically regulated miRNAs alone could partially promote DE differentiation, indicating a regulatory role of them. Using TargetScan and GeneGO pathway analyses, the synergistically regulated miRNAs are predicted to regulate key pathways involved in DE differentiation; among them includes the regulation of histone acetylation. Consistently, Wnt3a and Activin A treatment increased global histone acetylation which can be partially mimicked by over expression of the pooled miRNAs. Chromatin IP (ChIP) experiments demonstrated that the promoter regions of Sox17 and Foxa2 are subjected to histone acetylation regulation. Administration of Hdac inhibitors greatly augmented DE differentiation. Our data uncovered a novel epigenetic mechanism of Wnt3a and Activin A induced DE differentiation, whereby the treatment of growth factors induced histone acetylation at least in part by the regulation of miRNA expression.
Specific inhibitors towards Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) have been developed and demonstrate potential as treatments for patients with advanced and/or metastatic and castrate resistant prostate cancer (PCa). Further, deregulation of HDAC expression and mTORC1 activity are documented in PCa and provide rational targets to create new therapeutic strategies to treat PCa. Here we report the use of the c-Myc adenocarcinoma cell line from the c-Myc transgenic mouse with prostate cancer to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the combination of the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat with the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus. Panobinostat/everolimus combination treatment resulted in significantly greater antitumor activity in mice bearing androgen sensitive Myc-CaP and castrate resistant Myc-CaP tumors compared to single treatments. We identified that panobinostat/everolimus combination resulted in enhanced anti-tumor activity mediated by decreased tumor growth concurrent with augmentation of p21 and p27 expression and the attenuation of angiogenesis and tumor proliferation via androgen receptor, c-Myc and HIF-1α signaling. Also, we observed altered expression of microRNAs associated with these three transcription factors. Overall, our results demonstrate that low dose concurrent panobinostat/everolimus combination therapy is well tolerated and results in greater anti-tumor activity compared to single treatments in tumor bearing immuno-competent mice. Finally, our results suggest that response of selected miRs could be utilized to monitor panobinostat/everolimus in vivo activity.
Bortezomib (BZ) induces unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as well as exhibits clinical activity in patients with relapsed and refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL). Here, we determined the molecular basis of the improved in vitro and in vivo activity of the combination of pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (HDI) panobinostat (PS) and BZ against human, cultured and primary MCL cells.
Immunoblot analyses, RT-PCR and immunofluorescent and electron microscopy were utilized to determine the effects of PS on BZ-induced aggresome formation and ER stress in MCL cells.
Treatment with PS treatment induced heat shock protein (hsp) 90 acetylation, depleted the levels of hsp90 client proteins, CDK4, c-RAF and AKT, as well as abrogated BZ-induced aggresome formation in MCL cells. PS also induced lethal UPR, associated with induction of CHOP. Conversely, knockdown of CHOP attenuated PS-induced cell death of MCL cells. Compared to each agent alone, co-treatment with PS increased BZ-induced CHOP and NOXA expressions, as well as increased BZ-induced UPR and apoptosis of cultured and primary MCL cells. Co-treatment with PS also increased BZ-mediated in vivo tumor growth inhibition and improved survival of mice bearing human Z138C MCL cell xenograft.
These findings suggest that increased UPR and induction of CHOP are involved in enhanced anti-MCL activity of the combination of PS and BZ.
Panobinostat; ER stress; MCL; Bortezomib; CHOP
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically heterogeneous disease, which to date remains fatal. Finding a common mechanism for initiation and progression of MM continues to be challenging. By means of integrative genomics, we identified an underexpressed gene signature in MM patient cells compared to normal counterpart plasma cells. This profile was enriched for previously defined H3K27-tri-methylated genes, targets of the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins in human embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, the silenced gene signature was more pronounced in ISS stage III MM compared to stage I and II. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay on purified CD138+ cells from four MM patients and on two MM cell lines, we found enrichment of H3K27me3 at genes selected from the profile. As the data implied that the Polycomb-targeted gene profile would be highly relevant for pharmacological treatment of MM, we used two compounds to chemically revert the H3K27-tri-methylation mediated gene silencing. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor 3-Deazaneplanocin (DZNep) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat), reactivated the expression of genes repressed by H3K27me3, depleted cells from the PRC2 component EZH2 and induced apoptosis in human MM cell lines. In the immunocompetent 5T33MM in vivo model for MM, treatment with LBH589 resulted in gene upregulation, reduced tumor load and increased overall survival. Taken together, our results reveal a common gene signature in MM, mediated by gene silencing via the Polycomb repressor complex. The importance of the underexpressed gene profile in MM tumor initiation and progression should be subjected to further studies.
The PRC2 complex protein EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that is known to bind and recruit DNMT1 to the DNA to modulate DNA methylation. Here, we determined that the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) treatment depletes DNMT1 and EZH2 protein levels, disrupts the interaction of DNMT1 with EZH2, as well as de-represses JunB in human acute leukemia cells. Similar to treatment with the hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG, treatment with panobinostat also inhibited the chaperone association of heat shock protein 90 with DNMT1 and EZH2, which promoted the proteasomal degradation of DNMT1 and EZH2. Unlike treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine, which demethylates JunB promoter DNA, panobinostat treatment mediated chromatin alterations in the JunB promoter. Combined treatment with panobinostat and decitabine caused greater attenuation of DNMT1 and EZH2 levels than either agent alone, which was accompanied by more JunB de-repression and loss of clonogenic survival of K562 cells. Co-treatment with panobinostat and decitabine also caused more loss of viability of primary AML but not normal CD34+ bone marrow progenitor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that co-treatment with panobinostat and decitabine targets multiple epigenetic mechanisms to de-repress JunB and exerts antileukemia activity against human acute myeloid leukemia cells.
The role of ROS production on DNA damage and potentiation of fludarabine (F) lethality by the HDAC inhibitor LAQ-824 was investigated in human leukemia cells. Pre-exposure (24 h) of U937, HL-60, Jurkat, or K562 cells to LAQ-824 (40nM) followed by F (0.4µM) dramatically potentiated apoptosis (≥75%). LAQ-824 triggered an early reactive oxygen species (ROS) peak (30′- 3 h), which declined by 6 h, following LAQ-824 induced Mn-SOD2. LAQ-824/F lethality was significantly diminished by either ROS scavengers NAC (N-acetylcysteine) or Mn-TBAP (manganese[III]-tetrakis 4-benzoic acid porphyrin) or ectopic Mn-SOD2 expression and conversely, increased by Mn-SOD2 antisense knockdown. During this interval, LAQ-824 induced early (4-8 h) increases in γ-H2AX which persisted (48 h) secondary to LAQ-824-mediated inhibition of DNA repair (e.g., down-regulation of Ku86 and Rad50, increased Ku70 acetylation, diminished Ku70 and Ku86 DNA binding activity, and downregulated DNA repair genes BRCA1, CHEK1, and RAD51). Addition of fludarabine further potentiated DNA damage which was incompatible with cell survival, and triggered multiple pro-apoptotic signals including activation of nuclear caspase 2 and release of histone H1.2 into the cytoplasm. The latter event induced activation of Bak and culminated in pronounced mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the role of early HDACI-induced ROS generation and modulation of DNA repair processes in potentiation of nucleoside analog-mediated DNA damage and lethality in leukemia. Moreover, they demonstrate for the first time the link between HDAC inhibitor-mediated ROS generation and the recently reported DNA damage observed in cells exposed to these agents.
Leukemia; histone deacetylase inhibitor; HDAC inhibitor; fludarabine; apoptosis; LAQ-824; DNA damage; DNA repair
Heat shock protein (hsp) 90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone, which maintains the active conformation of client oncoproteins in cancer cells. An isoform, hsp90α, promotes extra-cellular maturation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6, which deacetylates lysine residues in hsp90, induces reversible hyper-acetylation and attenuates ATP binding and chaperone function of hsp90. Here, utilizing mass spectrometry, we identified seven lysine residues in hsp90α that are hyper-acetylated, following treatment of eukaryotic cells with a pan-HDAC inhibitor that also inhibits HDAC6. Depending on the specific lysine residue in the middle domain involved, while acetylation affects ATP, co-chaperone and client protein binding to hsp90α, acetylation of all seven lysines increased the binding of hsp90α to 17-allyl-amino-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG). Notably, following treatment with the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589), the extra-cellular hsp90α was hyper-acetylated and it bound to MMP-2, which was associated with increased in vitro tumor cell invasiveness. Treatment with anti-acetylated hsp90α antibody inhibited in vitro invasion by tumor cells. Thus, reversible hyper-acetylation modulates the intra- and extra-cellular chaperone function of hsp90, and targeting extra-cellular hyper-acetylated hsp90α may undermine tumor invasion and metastasis.
The effects of combining histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors were evaluated in both established glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines and short-term cultures derived from the Mayo Clinic xenograft GBM panel. Coexposure of LBH589 and bortezomib at minimally toxic doses of either drug alone resulted in a striking induction of apoptosis in established U251, U87, and D37 GBM cell lines, as well as in GBM8, GBM10, GBM12, GBM14, and GBM56 short-term cultured cell lines. Synergism of apoptosis induction was also observed in U251 cells when coexposing cells to other HDAC inhibitors, including LAQ824 and trichostatin A, with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, thus demonstrating a class effect. In U251 cells, bortezomib alone or in combination with LBH589 decreased Raf-1 levels and suppressed Akt and Erk activation. LBH589 or bortezomib alone increased expression of the cell cycle regulators p21 and p27. Additionally, the combination, but not the individual agents, markedly enhanced JNK activation. Synergistic induction of apoptosis after exposure to LBH589 and bortezomib was partially mediated by Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria resulting from Bax conformational changes. Bax translocation precedes cytochrome c release and apoptosis, and selective down-regulation of Bax using siRNA significantly mitigates the cytotoxicity of LBH589 and bortezomib. This combination regimen warrants further preclinical and possible clinical study for glioma patients.
apoptosis; Bax; bortezomib (PS-341); glioma; LBH589
The aim of this work was to use phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) to investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of LAQ824, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Human HT29 colon carcinoma cells were examined by 31P MRS after treatment with LAQ824 and another HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. HT29 xenografts and tumor extracts were also examined using 31P MRS, pre- and post-LAQ824 treatment. Histone H3 acetylation was determined using Western blot analysis, and tumor microvessel density by immunohistochemical staining of CD31. Phosphocholine showed a significant increase in HT29 cells after treatment with LAQ824 and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. In vivo, the ratio of phosphomonoester/total phosphorus (TotP) signal was significantly increased in LAQ824-treated HT29 xenografts, and this ratio was inversely correlated with changes in tumor volume. Statistically significant decreases in intracellular pH, β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP)/TotP, and β-NTP/inorganic phosphate (Pi) and an increase in Pi/TotP were also seen in LAQ824-treated tumors. Tumor extracts showed many significant metabolic changes after LAQ824 treatment, in parallel with increased histone acetylation and decreased microvessel density. Treatment with LAQ824 resulted in altered phospholipid metabolism and compromised tumor bioenergetics. The phosphocholine and phosphomonoester increases may have the potential to act as pharmacodynamic markers for noninvasively monitoring tumor response after treatment with LAQ824 or other HDAC inhibitors.