DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a receptor found on dendritic cells (DCs) that recognizes antigens bearing mannose-rich or fucosylated glycans, including Lewis X (LeX). Here, we report the fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles coated with multivalent LeX glycans using the Cu (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The resulting nanoparticles are selective and biocompatible, serving as a highly efficient tool for DC detection and enrichment.
click chemistry; dendritic cells; glycoconjugates; magnetic nanoparticle
This study aimed to investigate the role of real-time B-mode ultrasound in posterior decompression and reduction and to observe the signal changes in spinal cord blood flow in a thoracolumbar burst fracture (TBF). Between February 2004 and December 2008, 138 patients with TBF were divided into group A (108 cases) and group B (30 cases). In group A, under the assistance of real-time B-mode ultrasound, posterior decompression and fracture piece reduction were performed, and we observed the signal changes in spinal cord blood flow. In group B, posterior fenestration was combined with pushing the fracture piece into the fractured vertebral body using an L-shaped operative tool. Presurgical and postsurgical recovery of neurological function was evaluated according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standards, and the range of spinal decompression was determined by measuring the proportion of encroached fracture piece in the spinal canal (spinal stenosis rate) on the computed tomography (CT) image. In group A, 12 patients had a grade A spinal injury according to the Frankel grading system, and there were six cases without neurological recovery. In the other patients, neurological function increased by 1–3 grades. There were no aggravated spinal cord injuries or other serious complications. In group B, three patients were categorized as grade A and there were two cases without neurological recovery. In the other patients, neurological function increased by 1–3 grades. In groups A and B, the postsurgical spinal stenosis rate was significantly lower than the presurgical stenosis rate (P<0.05). The postsurgical spinal stenosis rate in group B was significantly higher compared with group A (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in neurological function recovery between the groups (P>0.05). Real-time B-mode ultrasound is an effective method for posterior decompression and reduction and to observe signal changes in spinal cord blood flow in TBF.
real-time B-mode ultrasound; thoracolumbar burst fracture; posterior decompression; reduction
Metabolomics offers a powerful means to investigate human malaria parasite biology and host-parasite interactions at the biochemical level, and to discover novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of infection. Here, we used an approach based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to perform an untargeted metabolomic analysis of metabolite extracts from Plasmodium falciparum–infected and uninfected patient plasma samples, and from an enriched population of in vitro cultured P. falciparum-infected and uninfected erythrocytes. Statistical modeling robustly segregated infected and uninfected samples based on metabolite species with significantly different abundances. Metabolites of the α-linolenic acid (ALA) pathway, known to exist in plants but not known to exist in P. falciparum until now, were enriched in infected plasma and erythrocyte samples. In vitro labeling with 13C-ALA showed evidence of plant-like ALA pathway intermediates in P. falciparum. Ortholog searches using ALA pathway enzyme sequences from 8 available plant genomes identified several genes in the P. falciparum genome that were predicted to potentially encode the corresponding enzymes in the hitherto unannotated P. falciparum pathway. These data suggest that our approach can be used to discover novel facets of host/malaria parasite biology in a high-throughput manner.
A 3′ overhang is critical for the protection and maintenance of mammalian telomeres. How these overhangs are generated and whether different processing steps modify telomeres synthesized by leading- and lagging-strand DNA replication was not known. Here we evaluate changes in the telomeric overhangs through the cell cycle and at leading- and lagging-end telomeres in mouse cells lacking relevant genes. Apollo, a nuclease bound to the shelterin subunit TRF2, initiated formation of the 3′ overhang at leading-, but not lagging-end telomeres. Hyper-resection by Apollo was blocked at both ends by the shelterin protein POT1b. Exo1 extensively resected both telomere ends, generating long 3′ overhangs that transiently occurred in S/G2. CST/AAF, a DNA polymeraseα. primase accessory factor related to yeast CST, bound POT1b and shortened the extended overhangs produced by Exo1, most likely through fill-in synthesis. The results establish 3′ overhang formation as a multi-step, shelterin-controlled process that ensures functional telomeric overhangs at all chromosome ends.
Apollo; CST; Exo1; overhang; POT1; shelterin; telomere; telomerase; TRF2
The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a role in the regulation of basolateral Cl channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL). The patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that application of IGF-I or insulin inhibited the basolateral 10-pS Cl channels. However, the concentration of insulin required for the inhibition of the Cl channels by 50% (K1/2) was ten times higher than those of IGF-1. The inhibitory effect of IGF-I on the 10-pS Cl channels was blocked by suppressing protein tyrosine kinase or by blocking phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels in the TAL. Western blot analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 significantly increased the phosphorylation of phospholipid-dependent kinase (PDK) at serine residue 241 (Ser241) and AKT at Ser473 in the isolated medullary TAL. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the phosphorylation of PDK and AKT. The notion that the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels was induced by stimulation of PDK-AKT-mTOR pathway was further suggested by the finding that rapamycin completely abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels in the TAL. We conclude that IGF-1 inhibits the basolateral Cl channels by activating PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. The inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels may play a role in ameliorating the ischemia-induced renal injury through IGF-1 administration.
phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKD; AKT; mTOR; Cl transport
Astrocytes are implicated in information processing, signal transmission, and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in adult brain and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. A growing body of evidence indicates that AQP4 is a potential molecular target for the regulation of astrocytic function. However, little is known about the role of AQP4 in synaptic plasticity in the amygdala. Therefore, we evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral amygdala (LA) and associative fear memory of AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. We found that AQP4 deficiency impaired LTP in the thalamo-LA pathway and associative fear memory. Furthermore, AQP4 deficiency significantly downregulated glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression and selectively increased NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated EPSCs in the LA. However, low concentration of NMDAR antagonist reversed the impairment of LTP in KO mice. Upregulating GLT-1 expression by chronic treatment with ceftriaxone also reversed the impairment of LTP and fear memory in KO mice. These findings imply a role for AQP4 in synaptic plasticity and associative fear memory in the amygdala by regulating GLT-1 expression.
amygdala; aquaporin-4; ceftriaxone; fear memory; glutamate transporter-1; long-term potentiation; amygdala; aquaporin-4; behavioral science; ceftriaxone; cognition; fear memory; glutamate transporter-1; learning & memory; psychopharmacology
The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, the most widely recognized reaction of click chemistry, is accelerated by tris(triazolylmethyl)amine-based ligands. Here, we compared two new ligands in this family, BTTP and the corresponding sulfated ligand BTTPS, for three bioconjugation applications: (1) labeling of alkyne-tagged glycoproteins in crude cell lysates, (2) labeling of alkyne/azide-tagged glycoproteins on the surface of live mammalian cells, and (3) labeling of azides in surface proteins of live Escherichia coli. Though BTTPS exhibits faster kinetics than BTTP in accelerating the CuAAC in in vitro kinetic measurements, its labeling efficiency is slightly lower than BTTP in conjugating biomolecules bearing a significant amount of negative charges due to electrostatic repulsion. Nevertheless, the negative charge conferred by the sulfate at physiological conditions significantly reduced the cellular internalization of the coordinated Cu(I), thus making BTTPS-Cu(I) a better choice for live cell labeling.
click chemistry; copper; bioconjugation; glycoconjugates
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a complex multifactorial inherited disease. Many studies have focused on the potential genetic effects of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism on IS. However, inconsistencies still exist in the association of ApoE gene polymorphism with IS. The aim of this study was to investigate the ApoE gene polymorphism in relation to IS in the Guangxi Han populations and assess the risk of various ApoE genotypes associated with IS in Chinese populations. We conducted a case-control study involving a total of 166 IS cases and 192 healthy controls to investigate the association of ApoE gene polymorphism with IS in the Guangxi Han populations. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether the ApoE gene polymorphism is associated with IS in Chinese populations. There was no evidence for a significant association between ApoE gene polymorphism and IS in the Guangxi Han populations (ɛ2/ɛ2 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.08–20.17; ɛ2/ɛ3 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3: OR=1.49, 95% CI=0.79–2.79; ɛ2/ɛ4 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.17–9.00; ɛ3/ɛ4 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3: OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.60–2.04; ɛ4/ɛ4 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3: OR=2.50, 95% CI=0.22–27.87; allele ɛ2 vs. allele ɛ3: OR=1.39, 95% CI=0.80–2.44; allele ɛ4 vs. allele ɛ3: OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.68–1.98). In our meta-analysis, a significant association of ApoE gene polymorphism with IS was found in the genetic model of ɛ2/ɛ4 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3 (OR=2.04, 95% CI=1.45–2.85), ɛ3/ɛ4 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3 (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.42–2.62), ɛ4/ɛ4 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3 (OR=3.41, 95% CI=2.17–5.34) and allele ɛ4 vs. allele ɛ3 (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.91–2.86). However, no clear associations were found in the model of ɛ2/ɛ2 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3 (OR=1.56, 95% CI=0.90–2.71), ɛ2/ɛ3 vs. ɛ3/ɛ3 (OR=0.93, 95% CI=0.79–1.09) and allele ɛ2 vs. allele ɛ3 (OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.97–1.25). In conclusion, no association was found between ApoE gene polymorphism and IS in the Guangxi Han populations, while the results of the meta-analysis indicate that the ApoE mutation allele ɛ4 increases the risk of IS in Chinese populations.
apolipoprotein E gene; polymorphism; ischemic stroke; association study; meta-analysis
We describe a method for modifying proteins site-specifically using a chemoenzymatic bioconjugation approach. Formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE) recognizes a pentapeptide consensus sequence, CxPxR, and it specifically oxidizes the cysteine in this sequence to an unusual aldehyde-bearing formylglyine. The FGE recognition sequence, or aldehyde tag, can be inserted into heterologous recombinant proteins produced in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The conversion of cysteine to formylglycine is accomplished by co-overexpression of FGE, either transiently or as a stable cell line, and the resulting aldehyde can be selectively reacted with α-nucleophiles to generate a site-selectively modified bioconjugate. This protocol outlines both the generation and the analysis of proteins aldehyde-tagged at their termini and the methods for chemical conjugation to the formylglycine. The process of generating aldehyde-tagged protein followed by chemical conjugation and purification takes 20 d.
E-cadherin is a key cell-to-cell adhesion molecule associated with the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells; however, the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood. In this study, we investigated whether downregulation of E-cadherin by E-cadherin-specific small intefering RNA (siRNA) was able to promote malignant phenotypes of prostate cancer cells through upregulating the metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) in vitro. The expression levels of E-cadherin in human paired prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines, PC-3M-2B4 (2B4) and PC-3M-1E8 (1E8), were investigated using western blot analysis. The alteration of malignant phenotypes associated with decreasing E-cadherin expression were assessed in 2B4 cells using wound-healing assays, solid-phase adhesion assays, invasion assays and cytoskeletal staining. The expression of E-cadherin and MTA1 in normal, localized and metastatic prostate cancer cells was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Downregulation of E-cadherin using an RNA interference approach led to the upregulation of MTA1 expression, decreased tumor cell adhesion ability as well as enhanced cell mobility, invasion and cellular polarity compared with the controls (P<0.05). E-cadherin regulated MTA1 in a time-dependent manner. The correlation between E-cadherin and MTA1 was inversed in the prostate cancer group (P<0.05; rs=−0.434). The data suggest that E-cadherin plays an important role in prostate cancer metastasis, which is likely to be due to the regulation of MTA1 expression. E-cadherin may combine with MTA1 and alter the malignant phenotype of prostate cancer cells. A combined testing strategy for detecting MTA1 and E-cadherin may be sufficient for selecting high-risk patients with metastasis. Therefore, E-cadherin and MTA1 may be potential powerful factors for the treatment of various types of cancer.
E-cadherin; metastasis-associated gene 1; prostate carcinoma; metastasis
It is well established that EGFR signals from both the plasma membrane (PM) and endosome (EN). However, very little is known about whether and how the EGFR signals at the PM and EN to differentially regulate various signaling pathways and the physiological outcomes. In this communication, we established a system that allowed the specific activations of EGFR at different cell locations: PM and EN. PM activation of EGFR is achieved by activation of endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFR1010LL/AA stably expressed in CHO cells (CHO-LL/AA cell). EN activation of EGFR is achieved by activating the wild type EGFR stably expressed in CHO cells (CHO-EGFR cell) after its internalization into EN with a previously reported protocol. We showed that both EGFR activations at PM and EN activated ERK to a similar level, but differentially stimulated transcriptional factors c-jun and c-fos. We further showed that EGFR activations at PM and EN resulted in differential spatio-temporal dynamics of phosphorylated ERK which caused the differential activation of two downstream substrates ELK1 and RSK. Finally we showed that EGFR signaling from PM and EN led to different physiological outcomes. CHO-LL/AA cells that only generate PM EGFR signals have a larger cell size and slower proliferation rate than CHO-EGFR cells. We conclude that location-specific EGFR activation differentially regulates cell functions through a spatio-temporal interplay of ERK activation.
Members of the Bacteroidales order are among the most abundant gram-negative bacteria of the human colonic microbiota. These species decorate their cell surface glycoproteins with fucosylated glycans, which are believed to play important roles in host intestinal colonization. Currently, there is no method for the enrichment of these glycoproteins for their identification. Here, we describe a chemical approach directed toward labeling and detecting fucosylated glycoproteins from cultured Bacteroidales species, namely Bacteroides fragilis and Parabacteroides distasonis. We treated these bacteria with an alkyne-bearing fucose analog, which is metabolically integrated into the bacterial surface fucosylated glycoproteins. The alkyne-tagged glycoproteins can then react with azide-bearing biophysical probes via bioorthogonal click chemistry for detection or glycoproteomic analysis.
Development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has been an appealing strategy for the treatment of various types of cancers.
Our approach was to perform structural modification and optimization based on previously identified morpholinoquinoxaline derivative WR1 and piperidinylquinoxaline derivative WR23 with a total of forty-five novel piperazinylquinoxaline derivatives synthesized. Most target compounds showed low micromolar to nanomolar antiproliferative potency against five human cancer cell lines using MTT method. Selected compounds showed potent PI3Kα inhibitory activity in a competitive fluorescent polarization assay, such as compound 22 (IC50 40 nM) and 41 (IC50: 24 nM), which induced apoptosis in PC3 cells. Molecular docking analysis was performed to explore possible binding modes between target compounds and PI3K.
The identified novel piperazinylquinoxaline derivatives that showed potent PI3Kα inhibitory activity and cellular antiproliferative potency may be promising agents for potential applications in cancer treatment.
Ceria engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have current commercial applications and both neuroprotective and toxic effects. Our hypothesis is that ceria ENMs can associate with brain capillary cells and/or cross the blood–brain barrier.
An aqueous dispersion of ∼5 nm ceria ENM was synthesized and characterized in house. Its uptake space in the Sprague Dawley rat brain was determined using the in situ brain perfusion technique at 15 and 20 mL/minute flow rates; 30, 100, and 500 μg/mL ceria perfused for 120 seconds at 20 mL/minute; and 30 μg/mL perfused for 20, 60, and 120 seconds at 20 mL/minute. The capillary depletion method and light and electron microscopy were used to determine its capillary cell and brain parenchymal association and localization.
The vascular space was not significantly affected by brain perfusion flow rate or ENM, demonstrating that this ceria ENM did not influence blood–brain barrier integrity. Cerium concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were significantly higher in the choroid plexus than in eight brain regions in the 100 and 500 μg/mL ceria perfusion groups. Ceria uptake into the eight brain regions was similar after 120-second perfusion of 30, 100, and 500 μg ceria/mL. Ceria uptake space significantly increased in the eight brain regions and choroid plexus after 60 versus 20 seconds, and it was similar after 60 and 120 seconds. The capillary depletion method showed 99.4% ± 1.1% of the ceria ENM associated with the capillary fraction. Electron microscopy showed the ceria ENM located on the endothelial cell luminal surface.
Ceria ENM association with brain capillary endothelial cells saturated between 20 and 60 seconds and ceria ENM brain uptake was not diffusion-mediated. During the 120-second ceria ENM perfusion, ceria ENM predominately associated with the surface of the brain capillary cells, providing the opportunity for its cell uptake or redistribution back into circulating blood.
ceria engineered nanomaterial; brain microvascular endothelial cell association; in situ brain perfusion; capillary depletion
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the preparative separation and purification of alkaloids from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (Kudiding in Chinese) for the first time. After the measurement of partition coefficient of seven target alkaloids in the nine two-phase solvent systems composed of CHCl3–MeOH–(0.1 M; 0.2 M; 0.3 M) HCl (4:1.5:2; 4:2:2; 4:3:2, v/v), CHCl3–MeOH–0.2 M HCl (4:2:2, v/v) and CHCl3–MeOH–0.3 M HCl (4:3:2, v/v) were finally selected for the HSCCC separation using the first upper phase as the stationary phase and the stepwise elution of the two lower mobile phases. Consequently, sanguinarine (10 mg), corynoline (25 mg), protopine (20 mg), corynoloxine (18 mg), and 12-hydroxycorynoline (8 mg) were obtained from 200 mg of crude alkaloid extracts with purities of 94–99% as determined by HPLC. Their chemical structures were characterized on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses.
Alkaloids; Corydalis bungeana Turcz.; ESI-MS; High-speed counter-current chromatography
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious zoonosis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which is a mosquito-borne pathogen of the family Flavivirus. However, the application of several developed laboratory methods for the detection of JEV antigens or antibodies are limited by their requirements of laboratory operations, skilled technicians and special facilities.
To develop a method for detecting JEV antigen in swine, human, mosquito and other clinical specimens specifically, conveniently and effectively, an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, repeatability and stability of the developed method were evaluated, and 60 clinical samples were tested in this study. The results demonstrated that the antigen capture ELISA was capable in detecting JEV antigen with high sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional methods. 14 samples showed the positive result with coincidence rate of 70%, and 46 displayed negative result with coincidence rate of 100% as compared to that of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
The developed ELISA assay provides a convenient and specific method for the large-scale determination of JEV antigen in infected swine, human and mosquito samples with high sensitivity and specificity.
Japanese encephalitis; Japanese encephalitis virus; Monoclonal antibody; Polyclonal antibody; Antigen capture ELISA
Multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1) is a member of the ‘C’ class of ATP-binding cassette transporters, which can give rise to resistance to chemotherapy via drug export from cells. It also acts as a leukotriene C4 transporter, and hence has a role in adaptive immune response. Most C-class members have an additional NH2-terminal transmembrane domain versus other ATP-binding cassette transporters, but little is known about the structure and role of this domain. Using electron cryomicroscopy of 2D crystals, data at 1/6 per Å−1 resolution was generated for the full-length ABCC1 protein in the absence of ATP. Analysis using homologous structures from bacteria and mammals allowed the core transmembrane domains to be localised in the map. These display an inward-facing conformation and there is a noteworthy separation of the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains. Examination of non-core features in the map suggests that the additional NH2-terminal domain has extensive contacts on one side of both core domains, and mirrors their inward-facing configuration in the absence of nucleotide.
Multidrug resistance; ATP-binding cassette; MRP1; ABCC1; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-electron microscopy
The Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is the standard method for bioorthogonal conjugation. However, current Cu(I) catalyst formulations are toxic, hindering their use in living systems. Here we report that BTTES, a tris(triazolylmethyl)amine-based ligand for Cu(I), promotes the cycloaddition reaction rapidly in living systems without apparent toxicity. This catalyst allows, for the first time, noninvasive imaging of fucosylated glycans during zebrafish early embryogenesis. We microinjected embryos with alkyne-bearing GDP-fucose at the one-cell stage and detected the metabolically incorporated unnatural sugars using the biocompatible click chemistry. Labeled glycans could be imaged in the enveloping layer of zebrafish embryos between blastula and early larval stages. This new method paves the way for rapid, noninvasive imaging of biomolecules in living organisms.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered to be the attractive vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents toward various tumor diseases. This study was to explore the distribution pattern, kinetic delivery of adenovirus, and therapeutic efficacy of the MSC loading of E1A mutant conditionally replicative adenovirus Adv-Stat3(-) which selectively replicated and expressed high levels of anti-sense Stat3 complementary DNA in breast cancer and melanoma cells.
We assessed the release ability of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) from MSC using crystal violet staining, TCID50 assay, and quantitative PCR. In vitro killing competence of MSCs carrying Adv-Stat3(-) toward breast cancer and melanoma was performed using co-culture system of transwell plates. We examined tumor tropism of MSC by Prussian blue staining and immunofluorescence. In vivo killing competence of MSCs carrying Adv-Stat3(-) toward breast tumor was analyzed by comparison of tumor volumes and survival periods.
Adv-Stat3(-) amplified in MSCs and were released 4 days after infection. MSCs carrying Adv-Stat3(-) caused viral amplification, depletion of Stat3 and its downstream proteins, and led to significant apoptosis in breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. In vivo experiments confirmed the preferential localization of MSCs in the tumor periphery 24 hours after tail vein injection, and this localization was mainly detected in the tumor parenchyma after 72 hours. Intravenous injection of MSCs carrying Adv-Stat3(-) suppressed the Stat3 pathway, down-regulated Ki67 expression, and recruited CD11b-positive cells in the local tumor, inhibiting tumor growth and increasing the survival of tumor-bearing mice.
These results indicate that MSCs migrate to the tumor site in a time-dependent manner and could be an effective platform for the targeted delivery of CRAd and the amplification of tumor killing effects.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell; Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus; Cell Carrier; Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat3); Breast cancer
Mammalian telomeres contain a single-stranded 3′ overhang that is thought to mediate telomere protection. Here we identify the TRF2-interacting factor Apollo as a nuclease that contributes to the generation/maintenance of this overhang. The function of mouse Apollo was determined using Cre-mediated gene deletion, complementation with Apollo mutants, and the TRF2-F120A mutant that cannot bind Apollo. Cells lacking Apollo activated the ATM kinase at their telomeres in S phase and showed leading-end telomere fusions. These telomere dysfunction phenotypes were accompanied by a reduction in the telomeric overhang signal. The telomeric functions of Apollo required its TRF2-interaction and nuclease motifs. Thus, TRF2 recruits the Apollo nuclease to process telomere ends synthesized by leading-strand DNA synthesis, thereby creating a terminal structure that avoids ATM activation and resists end-joining. These data establish that the telomeric overhang is required for the protection of telomeres from the DNA damage response.
Vaccination is generally considered to be the best primary prevention measure against influenza virus infection. Many countries encourage specific target groups of people to undertake vaccination, often with financial subsidies or a priority list. To understand differential patterns of national target groups for influenza vaccination before, during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, we reviewed and analyzed the country-specific policies in the corresponding time periods.
Information on prioritized groups targeted to receive seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines was derived from a multi-step internet search of official health department websites, press releases, media sources and academic journal articles. We assessed the frequency and consistency of targeting 20 different groups within populations which are associated with age, underlying medical conditions, role or occupations among different countries and vaccines. Information on subsidies provided to specific target groups was also extracted.
We analyzed target groups for 33 (seasonal 2009 and 2009-10 vaccines), 72 (monovalent pandemic 2009-10 vaccine) and 34 (seasonal 2010 and 2010-11 vaccines) countries. In 2009-10, the elderly, those with chronic illness and health care workers were common targets for the seasonal vaccine. Comparatively, the elderly, care home residents and workers, animal contacts and close contacts were less frequently targeted to receive the pandemic vaccine. Pregnant women, obese persons, essential community workers and health care workers, however, were more commonly targeted. After the pandemic, pregnant women, obese persons, health care and care home workers, and close contacts were more commonly targeted to receive the seasonal vaccine compared to 2009-10, showing continued influence from the pandemic. Many of the countries provided free vaccines, partial subsidies, reimbursements or national health insurance coverage to specific target groups and over one-third of the countries offered universal subsidy regarding the pandemic vaccine. There was also some inconsistency between countries in target groups.
Differences in target groups between countries may reflect variable objectives as well as uncertainties regarding the transmission dynamics, severity and age-specific immunity against influenza viruses before and after vaccination. Clarification on these points is essential to elucidate optimal and object-oriented vaccination strategies.
influenza; pandemic; seasonal; vaccine; target groups; subsidy
During the influenza pandemic of 2009 estimates of symptomatic and asymptomatic infection were needed to guide vaccination policies and inform other control measures. Serological studies are the most reliable way to measure influenza infection independent of symptoms. We reviewed all published serological studies that estimated the cumulative incidence of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 prior to the initiation of population-based vaccination against the pandemic strain.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We searched for studies that estimated the cumulative incidence of pandemic influenza infection in the wider community. We excluded studies that did not include both pre- and post-pandemic serological sampling and studies that included response to vaccination. We identified 47 potentially eligible studies and included 12 of them in the review. Where there had been a significant first wave, the cumulative incidence of pandemic influenza infection was reported in the range 16%–28% in pre-school aged children, 34%–43% in school aged children and 12%–15% in young adults. Only 2%–3% of older adults were infected. The proportion of the entire population infected ranged from 11%–18%. We re-estimated the cumulative incidence to account for the small proportion of infections that may not have been detected by serology, and performed direct age-standardisation to the study population. For those countries where it could be calculated, this suggested a population cumulative incidence in the range 11%–21%.
Conclusions and Significance
Around the world, the cumulative incidence of infection (which is higher than the cumulative incidence of clinical disease) was below that anticipated prior to the pandemic. Serological studies need to be routine in order to be sufficiently timely to provide support for decisions about vaccination.