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1.  Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:168.
Background
For antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB), there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT), in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events.
Methods
In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART.
Findings
A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART) and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART) of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045). Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05). Rates of adverse events were similar.
Interpretation
Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability.
Trial registration
CTRI/2011/12/002260
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-168
PMCID: PMC3457866  PMID: 22846195
Antiretroviral; Early; Delayed; HIV; Tuberculosis
2.  Topological analysis of population activity in visual cortex 
Journal of vision  2008;8(8):11.1-1118.
Information in the cortex is thought to be represented by the joint activity of neurons. Here we describe how fundamental questions about neural representation can be cast in terms of the topological structure of population activity. A new method, based on the concept of persistent homology, is introduced and applied to the study of population activity in primary visual cortex (V1). We found that the topological structure of activity patterns when the cortex is spontaneously active is similar to those evoked by natural image stimulation and consistent with the topology of a two sphere. We discuss how this structure could emerge from the functional organization of orientation and spatial frequency maps and their mutual relationship. Our findings extend prior results on the relationship between spontaneous and evoked activity in V1 and illustrates how computational topology can help tackle elementary questions about the representation of information in the nervous system.
doi:10.1167/8.8.11
PMCID: PMC2924880  PMID: 18831634
computational topology; spontaneous activity; population coding; high-dimensional data; Betti numbers; persistent homology; natural images

Results 1-2 (2)