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author:("shia, Yih-Ru")
1.  Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Proteus mirabilis: a longitudinal nationwide study from the Taiwan surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (TSAR) program 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):486.
Background
Longitudinal nationwide data on antimicrobial susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis from different sources are rare. The effects of the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) β-lactam breakpoints on susceptibility rates and on detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase-producers in this species are also seldom evaluated. The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program to address these issues.
Methods
Isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from 25 to 28 hospitals in Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. All isolates with aztreonam, ceftazidime, or cefotaxime MIC ≥ 2 mg/L were checked for the presence of ESBL by CLSI confirmatory test and subjected to ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases gene detection by PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Results
Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 1157 P. mirabilis were studied. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin decreased significantly during the past decade, from 92.6% to 81.7%, 100% to 95.2%, and 80.1% to 53.8%, respectively (P < 0.01). The revised CLSI breakpoints had significant impact on susceptibility to cefazolin (2009 vs. current breakpoints, 71.9% vs. 0.9%) and imipenem (99.8% vs. 55.1%) (P < 0.001 for both). However, using the 2014 cefazolin breakpoints for urinary tract infections, 81.2% of the urine isolates were susceptible. Susceptibilities of isolates from different specimen types were mostly similar but outpatient isolates were more susceptible than inpatient isolates. The overall prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC- producers was 8.2% and 4.7%, respectively, but AmpC carriage increased significantly over the years (from 0 to 7.0%, P < 0.001). ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-producers were more likely to be found in elderly and ICU patients. The predominant ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes were CTX-M- and CMY- types, respectively.
Conclusions
A significant decrease in susceptibility to 3rd-generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin occurred in P. mirabilis from Taiwan in the past decade. The prevalence of ESBL remained stable but AmpC β-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis increased significantly. Cefotaxime was a better surrogate than ceftazidime for predicting the presence of these β-lactamases. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance mechanisms in P. mirabilis is warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-486
PMCID: PMC4162950  PMID: 25192738
Drug resistance; Extended-spectrum β-lactamase; AmpC β-lactamase; Proteus mirabilis; Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)
2.  Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Taiwan 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2014;52(2):508-516.
Our multicenter nationwide surveillance data indicated that erythromycin (ERY) resistance among group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates in Taiwan declined from 53.1% in 1998 and 2000 to 14.6% in 2002 and 2004 and 10.7% in 2006 to 2010 (P < 0.01). The present study aimed to assess the epidemiology of GAS in Taiwan and identify factors associated with ERY resistance. All 127 ERY-resistant (ERYr) isolates and 128 randomly selected ERY-susceptible (ERYs) isolates recovered from 1998 to 2010 were emm typed. ERYr isolates were also characterized by ERY resistance phenotype and mechanisms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Multilocus sequence typing was performed on selected ERYr isolates. The predominant emm types in ERYr isolates were emm22 (n = 33, 26.0%), emm12 (n = 24, 18.9%), emm4 (n = 21, 16.5%), and emm106 (n = 15, 11.8%). In ERYs isolates, emm12 (n = 27, 21.9%), emm1 (n = 18, 14.1%), emm106 (n = 16, 12.5%), and emm11 (n = 9, 7.1%) predominated. The most common ERY resistance phenotype was the M phenotype (resistant to macrolides) (70.9%), with all but one isolate carrying mef(A), followed by the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (cMLSB) phenotype (26.8%), with isolates carrying erm(B) or erm(TR). ERYr isolates of the emm12-sequence type 36 (ST36) lineage with the cMLSB phenotype were mostly present before 2004, while those of the emm22-ST46 lineage with the M phenotype predominated in later years. Recovery from respiratory (throat swab) specimens was an independent factor associated with ERY resistance. emm1 and emm11 GAS isolates were significantly associated with ERYs, while emm22 was detected only in ERYr GAS. In addition, emm106 isolates were prevalent among the abscess/pus isolates, whereas emm12 isolates were strongly associated with a respiratory (throat) origin. In addition to identifying factors associated with ERY resistance in GAS, our study provides helpful information on the changing GAS epidemiology in Taiwan.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02383-13
PMCID: PMC3911310  PMID: 24478481
3.  Levofloxacin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004–2010 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(8):1386-1390.
Levofloxacin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae has increased significantly in Taiwan, from 2.0% in 2004 to 24.3% in 2010 (p<0.001). Clinical and molecular investigations of 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed that the increase was mainly the result of the spread of several clones in the elderly population in different regions.
doi:10.3201/eid2008.140341
PMCID: PMC4111205  PMID: 25061696
Haemophilus influenzae; fluoroquinolone resistance; GyrA; ParC; Taiwan; respiratory infections; bacteria; antimicrobial resistance; levofloxacin
4.  mecA-Positive Staphylococcus aureus with Low-Level Oxacillin MIC in Taiwan 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(5):1679-1683.
Although the presence of mecA is the genotypic determinant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), certain MRSA strains, especially community-associated MRSA (C-MRSA), can display an oxacillin MIC in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute susceptible breakpoint range (≤2 μg/ml). Among 91 and 180 isolates thought to be methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) with oxacillin MICs of 2 and 1 μg/ml as determined by the Sensititre broth microdilution test initially, 52 (57.1%) and 6 (3.3%), respectively, were mecA positive. These mecA-positive low-oxacillin-MIC isolates belong to the dominant Taiwan C-MRSA clone (clonal complex [CC] 59), 56 of which carried SCCmec type V and were pvl positive, and 43 of which belonged to spa CC t437. All 271 isolates were retested by Sensititre, as well as by Vitek II and disk diffusion (DD). Based on the oxacillin results, the sensitivities of the Sensititre, Vitek II, and DD methods were 48.3% (28/58), 46.6% (27/58), and 89.6% (52/58), respectively. Although cefoxitin was better at detecting these isolates, 12.1, 10.4, and 5.2% of these isolates were still misidentified as MSSA by Sensititre, Vitek II, and DD, respectively. These results highlight the difficulty in the accurate identification of MRSA with borderline oxacillin MICs in the CC59:SCCmec V clone, which likely has contributed to its spread in the health care and community settings. Since this clone has now been detected in other countries, and since other C-MRSA lineages have also been found to have low-level β-lactam resistance, the findings of the present study may be relevant to other regions. Further studies are warranted to determine the extent and clinical impact of such misidentification.
doi:10.1128/JCM.06711-11
PMCID: PMC3347131  PMID: 22378906
5.  Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: Nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) program 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:200.
Background
Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been published. Using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) conducted biennially, we investigated the secular change in resistance of 1640 ABC from 2002 to 2010 (TSAR period III to VII) to different antimicrobial agents and identified factors associated with imipenem-resistant and extensively drug-resistant ABC (IRABC and XDRABC).
Methods
Isolates were collected by TSAR from the same 26 hospitals located in all 4 regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. Isolates nonsusceptible to all tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors, and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between predictor variables among patients with resistant ABC and patients with non-resistant ABC.
Results
The prevalence of IRABC increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 58.7% in 2010 (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 2.138; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.947 to 2.347) and that of XDRABC increased from 1.3% in 2002 to 41.0% in 2010 (P < 0.001; OR, 1.970; 95% CI, 1.773-2.189). The rates of non-susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents remained high (>55%) over the years with some fluctuations before and after TSAR V (2006) on some agents. Multivariate analysis revealed that recovery from elderly patients, origins other than blood, from ICU settings, or geographic regions are independent factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC. Although the prevalence of XDRABC increased in all four regions of Taiwan over the years, central Taiwan had higher prevalence of XDRABC starting in 2008. Susceptibility to polymyxin remained high (99.8%).
Conclusions
This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed significant increase and nationwide emergence of IRABC and XDRABC in Taiwan over the years. This study also identified factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC to help guide empirical therapy and at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control measures with focused surveillance efforts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-200
PMCID: PMC3462144  PMID: 22929085
Extensively drug-resistant; Acinetobacter baumannii complex; Antimicrobial resistance
6.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of Nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolone, and Other Quinolones against Clinical Isolates ▿  
The in vitro antibacterial activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against 770 clinical isolates were investigated. Nemonoxacin (tested as its malate salt, TG-875649) showed better in vitro activity than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against different species of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae. The in vitro activity of TG-875649 was also comparable to or better than that of moxifloxacin against these pathogens, which included ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01197-09
PMCID: PMC2825994  PMID: 20065058
7.  Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, a Strain Causing Liver Abscess and Meningitis ▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;191(14):4492-4501.
Nosocomial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging as a major health problem worldwide, while community-acquired K. pneumoniae infections present with a range of diverse clinical pictures in different geographic areas. In particular, an invasive form of K. pneumoniae that causes liver abscesses was first observed in Asia and then was found worldwide. We are interested in how differences in gene content of the same species result in different diseases. Thus, we sequenced the whole genome of K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, which was isolated from a patient with liver abscess and meningitis, and analyzed differences compared to strain MGH 78578, which was isolated from a patient with pneumonia. Six major types of differences were found in gene clusters that included an integrative and conjugative element, clusters involved in citrate fermentation, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and capsular polysaccharide synthesis, phage-related insertions, and a cluster containing fimbria-related genes. We also conducted comparative genomic hybridization with 15 K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from community-acquired or nosocomial infections using tiling probes for the NTUH-K2044 genome. Hierarchical clustering revealed three major groups of genomic insertion-deletion patterns that correlate with the strains' clinical features, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and virulence phenotypes with mice. Here we report the whole-genome sequence of K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044 and describe evidence showing significant genomic diversity and sequence acquisition among K. pneumoniae pathogenic strains. Our findings support the hypothesis that these factors are responsible for the changes that have occurred in the disease profile over time.
doi:10.1128/JB.00315-09
PMCID: PMC2704730  PMID: 19447910
8.  Sequencing and Comparative Genomic Analysis of pK29, a 269-Kilobase Conjugative Plasmid Encoding CMY-8 and CTX-M-3 β-Lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae▿  
A 269-kilobase conjugative plasmid, pK29, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was sequenced. The plasmid harbors multiple antimicrobial resistance genes, including those encoding CMY-8 AmpC-type and CTX-M-3 extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the common backbone of IncHI2 plasmids. Mechanisms for dissemination of the resistance genes are highlighted in comparative genomic analyses.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00167-07
PMCID: PMC1932545  PMID: 17526756
9.  Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pK245, a 98-Kilobase Plasmid Conferring Quinolone Resistance and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Activity in a Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(11):3861-3866.
A plasmid containing the qnrS quinolone resistance determinant and the gene encoding the SHV-2 β-lactamase has been discovered from a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated in Taiwan. The complete 98-kb sequence of this plasmid, designated pK245, was determined by using a whole-genome shotgun approach. Transfer of pK245 conferred low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in electroporant Escherichia coli epi300. The sequence of the immediate region surrounding qnrS in pK245 is nearly identical (>99% identity) to those of pAH0376 from Shigella flexneri and pINF5 from Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, the two other qnrS-carrying plasmids reported to date, indicating a potential common origin. Other genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aacC2, strA, and strB), chloramphenicol (catA2), sulfonamides (sul2), tetracycline (tetD), and trimethoprim (dfrA14) were also detected in pK245. The dfrA14 gene is carried on a class I integron. Several features of this plasmid, including three separate regions containing putative replicons, a partitioning-control system, and a type II restriction modification system, suggest that it may be able to replicate and adapt in a variety of hosts. Although no critical conjugative genes were detected, multiple insertion sequence elements were found scattered throughout pK245, and these may facilitate the dissemination of the antimicrobial resistance determinants. We conclude that pK245 is a chimera which acquired its multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants horizontally from different sources. The identification of pK245 plasmid expands the repertoire of the coexistence of quinolone and extended-spectrum-β-lactam resistance determinants in plasmids carried by various species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in different countries.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00456-06
PMCID: PMC1635178  PMID: 16940067
10.  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(11):1761-1763.
We found a virulent closely related clone (Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive, SCCmec V:ST59) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in inpatients and outpatients in Taiwan. The isolates were found mostly in wounds but were also detected in blood, ear, respiratory, and other specimens; all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
doi:10.3201/eid1111.050367
PMCID: PMC3367354  PMID: 16318733
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Community-associated MRSA, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), SCCmec V; dispatch
11.  Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Humans and Retail Chickens in Taiwan with Unique VanB Phenotype-vanA Genotype Incongruence 
Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) with VanB phenotype-vanA genotype incongruence were found in all 39 VRE isolated from chicken carcasses and four human VRE isolates in Taiwan. Three identical mutations in the vanS gene were found in the VanB phenotype-vanA genotype VRE sequenced. This finding indicates possible transmission of glycopeptide resistance among different hosts.
doi:10.1128/AAC.46.2.525-527.2002
PMCID: PMC127042  PMID: 11796369

Results 1-11 (11)