To assess the effects of chronic erythrocyte transfusions on prevalence of sonographic incidence of organ damage in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA).
Children (n=148; mean age, 13.0 years) with SCA, receiving chronic transfusions (average, 7 years) underwent abdominal sonography at 25 institutions. After central imaging review, spleen, liver and kidney measurements were compared with published normal values. Potential relations between ultrasound, clinical and laboratory data were explored via Analysis of Variance, Student t-test and Cochran Mantel Haenzel tests of non-zero correlation.
Average spleen length was similar to normal children, but over one-third had spleen volumes > 300mL, 15 had previous splenectomy for splenomegaly and 24 had abnormal splenic echotexture. Two-thirds had hepatobiliary disease; 37 had prior cholecystectomy, 46 had gallstones, 16 had gallbladder sludge. Gallbladder disease correlated with older age (p = 0.002), longer liver length (p < 0.001), longer duration of transfusions (p = 0.034) and higher total bilirubin (p < 0.001). Liver (p < 0.001) and renal lengths (p ≤ 0.005) were larger than published norms.
In children with SCA, long-term transfusion therapy may not prevent development or progression of abdominal organ dysfunction.
sickle cell anemia; iron overload; splenomegaly; gallstones; hepatomegaly; nephromegaly
Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata) is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® ‘Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS)’ and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA) and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA) genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp). The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively) and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively) protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties.
Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI) influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus) and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1). Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes.
► We compared the ability of DI RNA and Tamiflu to protect ferrets from influenza. ► We treated ferrets with one 2 μg intranasal dose of DI RNA delivered as DI virus. ► Or we treated ferrets with 10 oral doses of Tamiflu totalling 25 mg over 5 days. ► Pandemic A/California/04/09 amplified the DI RNA by >25,000-fold. ► DI virus was more effective than Tamiflu in combatting pandemic A/California/04/09.
The main antivirals employed to combat seasonal and pandemic influenza are oseltamivir and zanamivir which act by inhibiting the virus-encoded neuraminidase. These have to be deployed close to the time of infection and antiviral resistance to the more widely used oseltamivir has arisen relatively rapidly. Defective interfering (DI) influenza virus is a natural antiviral that works in a different way to oseltamivir and zanamivir, and a cloned version (segment 1 244 DI RNA in a cloned A/PR/8/34 virus; 244/PR8) has proved effective in preclinical studies in mice. The active principle is the DI RNA, and this is thought to interact with all influenza A viruses by inhibiting RNA virus synthesis and packaging of the cognate virion RNA into nascent DI virus particles. We have compared the ability of DI virus and oseltamivir to protect ferrets from intranasal 2009 pandemic influenza virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal, H1N1). Ferrets were treated with a single 2 μg intranasal dose of 244 DI RNA delivered as 244/PR8 virus, or a total of 25 mg/kg body weight of oseltamivir given as 10 oral doses over 5 days. Both DI virus and oseltamivir reduced day 2 infectivity and the influx of cells into nasal fluids, and permitted the development of adaptive immunity. However DI virus, but not oseltamivir, significantly reduced weight loss, facilitated better weight gain, reduced respiratory disease, and reduced infectivity on days 4 and 6. 244 DI RNA was amplified by A/Cal by >25,000-fold, consistent with the amelioration of clinical disease. Treatment with DI virus did not delay clearance or cause persistence of infectious virus or DI RNA. Thus in this system DI virus was overall more effective than oseltamivir in combatting pandemic A/California/04/09.
Influenza virus; Defective interfering virus; Ferret; Protection; Oseltamivir
The U.S. Army initiated an investigation in response to observations of a possible increase in HIV incidence among soldiers deployed to combat. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected U.S. Army soldiers are not eligible to deploy. Combat presents a health hazard to HIV-infected soldiers and they pose a threat to the safety of the battlefield blood supply and their contacts. All soldiers are routinely screened for HIV every 2 years and those who deploy are also screened both prior to and after deployment. Seroconversion rates were estimated for all soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq in the period 2001–2007 and all active duty soldiers who did not. Seroconverters with an estimated date of infection, based on calculation of the midpoint between the last seronegative and first seropositive test date, that was either before or during deployment were eligible for inclusion. Confidential interviews and medical record reviews were conducted to determine the most likely time, geographic location, and mode of infection. Reposed predeployment samples were tested for HIV ribonucleic acid. The HIV seroconversion rate among all soldiers who deployed was less than the rate among those who did not deploy: 1.04 and 1.42 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. Among 48 cases, most were determined to have been infected in the United States or Germany and prior to deployment (n=20, 42%) or during rest and relaxation leave (n=13, 27%). Seven seronegative acute infections were identified in the predeployment period. Subtype was determined for 40 individuals; all were subtype B infections. All were acquired through sexual contact. These findings can inform development of preventive interventions and refinement of existing screening policy to further reduce HIV-infected deployed soldier person time.
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-mobile genetic elements found in the genomes of some bacteria. These elements may confer a fitness advantage upon their host bacteria through the cargo genes that they carry. Salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (SPI-7), found within some pathogenic strains of Salmonella enterica, possesses features indicative of an ICE and carries genes implicated in virulence. We aimed to identify and fully analyze ICEs related to SPI-7 within the genus Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae. We report the sequence of two novel SPI-7-like elements, found within strains of Salmonella bongori, which share 97% nucleotide identity over conserved regions with SPI-7 and with each other. Although SPI-7 within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi appears to be fixed within the chromosome, we present evidence that these novel elements are capable of excision and self-mobility. Phylogenetic analyses show that these Salmonella mobile elements share an ancestor which existed approximately 3.6 to 15.8 million years ago. Additionally, we identified more distantly related ICEs, with distinct cargo regions, within other strains of Salmonella as well as within Citrobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Photorhabdus, and Yersinia species. In total, we report on a collection of 17 SPI-7 related ICEs within enterobacterial species, of which six are novel. Using comparative and mutational studies, we have defined a core of 27 genes essential for conjugation. We present a growing family of SPI-7-related ICEs whose mobility, abundance, and cargo variability indicate that these elements may have had a large impact on the evolution of the Enterobacteriaceae.
Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits.
A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates.
Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N = 2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05).
Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops.
Afghanistan; Military populations; HIV; Sexual risk behavior; Drug use
The populations of dominant species within the human colonic microbiota can potentially be modified by dietary intake with consequences for health. Here we examined the influence of precisely controlled diets in 14 overweight men. Volunteers were provided successively with a control diet, diets high in resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a reduced carbohydrate weight loss (WL) diet, over 10 weeks. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences in stool samples of six volunteers detected 320 phylotypes (defined at >98% identity) of which 26, including 19 cultured species, each accounted for >1% of sequences. Although samples clustered more strongly by individual than by diet, time courses obtained by targeted qPCR revealed that ‘blooms' in specific bacterial groups occurred rapidly after a dietary change. These were rapidly reversed by the subsequent diet. Relatives of Ruminococcus bromii (R-ruminococci) increased in most volunteers on the RS diet, accounting for a mean of 17% of total bacteria compared with 3.8% on the NSP diet, whereas the uncultured Oscillibacter group increased on the RS and WL diets. Relatives of Eubacterium rectale increased on RS (to mean 10.1%) but decreased, along with Collinsella aerofaciens, on WL. Inter-individual variation was marked, however, with >60% of RS remaining unfermented in two volunteers on the RS diet, compared to <4% in the other 12 volunteers; these two individuals also showed low numbers of R-ruminococci (<1%). Dietary non-digestible carbohydrate can produce marked changes in the gut microbiota, but these depend on the initial composition of an individual's gut microbiota.
human colon; resistant starch; 16S rRNA; phylotypes; Ruminococcus; temporal change
To determine the prevalence and correlates of prior pregnancy termination and unmet need for contraception among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan.
FSWs in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited between June 2006 and December 2007 through outreach programs. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey describing demographics, behaviors associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy, and medical history. Correlates of prior pregnancy termination and current unmet need for contraception were assessed with logistic regression analysis, controlling for site.
Of 520 FSWs, most (82.3%) had been pregnant at least once (mean 4.9 ± 2.7, range 1–17), among whom unplanned pregnancy (36.9%) and termination (33.2%) were common. Jalalabad participants were more likely to report both prior unplanned pregnancy (60.6% vs. 48.3% in Kabul or 20.7% in Mazar, p < 0.001) and prior termination (54.9% vs. 31.8% in Kabul or 26.8% in Mazar, p < 0.001). Most FSWs (90.0%) stated pregnancy was not currently desirable, and 85.2% were using contraception. Unmet need for contraception (14.7% of participants) was positively associated with having sold sex outside their city of residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.77) and inversely associated with illicit drug use (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.53).
Although FSWs in Afghanistan report high rates of contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy is common. Reproductive health services should be included in programming for FSWs to reduce unplanned pregnancies and to reduce HIV/STI risks.
We have shown earlier that a single dose of cloned defective interfering (DI) influenza A virus strongly protects mice from disease following a lethal challenge with different subtypes of influenza A virus. These animals suffered no clinical disease but experienced a subclinical infection which rendered them immune to reinfection with the same challenge virus. However, little is known about how DI virus achieves such protection. Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity in DI virus-mediated protection using severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, which lack competence in both B- and T-cell compartments but retain NK cell activity. SCID mice which were treated with DI virus and infected with influenza virus initially remained completely well, while infected litter mates that received UV-inactivated DI virus became seriously ill and died. However, after 10 days of good health, the DI virus-protected SCID mice developed a clinical disease that was similar, but not completely identical, to the acute influenza disease. Disease was delayed longer by a higher dose of DI virus. We excluded the possibilities that the DI virus load in the lungs had declined, that the DI RNA sequence had changed so that it no longer interfered with the infectious genome, or that infectious virus had become resistant to the DI virus. These data show that while DI virus provides full protection from the acute disease in the absence of adaptive immunity, that same immunity is essential for clearing the infection. This indicates that the conventional view that DI virus-induced protection is mediated solely by competition for replication with the challenge virus is incorrect for influenza virus.
Influenza; Defective interfering; Immunity; Protection; SCID
The populations of dominant species within the human colonic microbiota can potentially be modified by dietary intake with consequences for health. Here we examined the influence of precisely controlled diets in 14 overweight males. Volunteers were provided successively with a control diet, diets high in resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), and a reduced carbohydrate weight loss (WL) diet, over 10 weeks. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences in stool samples of six volunteers detected 320 phylotypes (defined at >98% identity) of which 26, including 19 cultured species, each accounted for >1% of sequences. Although samples clustered more strongly by individual than by diet, time courses obtained by targeted qPCR revealed that “blooms” in specific bacterial groups occurred rapidly following a dietary change. These were rapidly reversed by the subsequent diet. Relatives of Ruminococcus bromii (“R-ruminococci”) increased in most volunteers on the RS diet, accounting for a mean of 17% of total bacteria compared with 3.8% on the NSP diet, while the uncultured Oscillibacter group increased on the RS and WL diets. Relatives of Eubacterium rectale increased on RS (to mean 10.1%) but decreased, along with Collinsella aerofaciens, on WL. Inter-individual variation was marked, however, with >60% of resistant starch remaining unfermented in two volunteers on the RS diet, compared to <4% in the other 12 volunteers; these two individuals also showed low numbers of R-ruminococci (<1%). Dietary non-digestible carbohydrate can produce marked changes in the gut microbiota, but these depend on the initial composition of an individual’s gut microbiota.
We have identified and characterised a defective-interfering (DI) influenza A virus particles containing a highly deleted segment 1 RNA that has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In young adult mice it exerts protection against several different subtypes of influenza A virus (defined here as homologous or genetically compatible protection) and against a paramyxovirus and an influenza B virus (heterologous or genetically unrelated protection). Homologous protection is mediated by replication competition between the deleted and full-length genomes, and heterologous protection occurs through stimulation of innate immunity, especially interferon type I.
A single dose of the protective DI virus was administered intranasally to elderly mice at -7, -1 and +1 days relative to intranasal challenge with influenza A virus.
A single dose of the DI virus given 1 or 7 days protected elderly mice, reducing a severe, sometimes fatal disease to a subclinical or mild infection. In contrast, all members of control groups treated with inactivated DI virus before challenge became extremely ill and most died. Despite the subclinical/mild nature of their infection, protected mice developed solid immunity to a second infectious challenge.
The defective interfering virus is effective in preventing severe influenza A in elderly mice and may offer a new approach to protection of the human population.
elderly; defective-interfering virus; geriatric; influenza; mice; treatment
Little information is available regarding a circulating HIV genotype among high-risk groups in Afghanistan; we describe HIV genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and sex workers (SWs) in four Afghan cities. Participants completed behavioral questionnaires and HIV testing. Western blot–confirmed specimens had peripheral mononuclear blood cells isolated for genotyping. Analysis of recombinants was done by bootscanning and manual sequence alignment. The single SW sample harbored a CRF01_AE strain. Of 10 IDUs available for analysis, all were CRF35_AD and from Hirat. Analyzed subregions (gag p17 and env C1-C5) revealed close homology between the Hirat specimens. Three distinct subclusters comprising two or three strains were identified, whereas two other strains were generally equidistant from previously identified Kabul strains. Results suggest that the nascent HIV epidemic among IDUs in Hirat is largely, if not entirely, subtype CRF35_AD, and the close homology suggests recent infection; harm reduction should be supported to avert further transmission.
In recent decades, young men in some industrialized areas have reportedly experienced a decrease in semen quality.
We examined effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on sperm quality and reproductive hormones.
We investigated sperm quality and hormone concentrations in 39 sons (mean age, 22.5 years) born between 1977 and 1984 to mothers exposed to dioxin after the accident in Seveso, Italy (1976), and 58 comparisons (mean age, 24.6 years) born to mothers exposed only to background dioxin. Maternal dioxin levels at conception were extrapolated from the concentrations measured in 1976 serum samples.
The 21 breast-fed sons whose exposed mothers had a median serum dioxin concentration as low as 19 ppt at conception had lower sperm concentration (36.3 vs. 86.3 million/mL; p = 0.002), total count (116.9 vs. 231.1; p = 0.02), progressive motility (35.8 vs. 44.2%; p = 0.03), and total motile count (38.7 vs. 98 million; p = 0.01) than did the 36 breast-fed comparisons. The 18 formula-fed exposed and the 22 formula-fed and 36 breast-fed comparisons (maternal dioxin background 10 ppt at conception) had no sperm-related differences. Follicle-stimulating hormone was higher in the breast-fed exposed group than in the breast-fed comparisons (4.1 vs. 2.63 IU/L; p = 0.03) or the formula-fed exposed (4.1 vs. 2.6 IU/L; p = 0.04), and inhibin B was lower (breast-fed exposed group, 70.2; breast-fed comparisons, 101.8 pg/mL, p = 0.01; formula-fed exposed, 99.9 pg/mL, p = 0.02).
In utero and lactational exposure of children to relatively low dioxin doses can permanently reduce sperm quality.
breast-feeding; dioxin; environmental endocrine disrupters; human sperm impairment; human sperm quality; perinatal exposure; reproductive hormones; TCDD
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections that lead to death in the majority of cases. The need to maintain lung function in these patients means that characterising these infections is vital. Increasingly, culture-independent analyses are expanding the number of bacterial species associated with CF respiratory samples; however, the potential significance of these species is not known. Here, we applied ecological statistical tools to such culture-independent data, in a novel manner, to partition taxa within the metacommunity into core and satellite species. Sputa and clinical data were obtained from 14 clinically stable adult CF patients. Fourteen rRNA gene libraries were constructed with 35 genera and 82 taxa, identified in 2139 bacterial clones. Shannon–Wiener and taxa-richness analyses confirmed no undersampling of bacterial diversity. By decomposing the distribution using the ratio of variance to the mean taxon abundance, we partitioned objectively the species abundance distribution into core and satellite species. The satellite group comprised 67 bacterial taxa from 33 genera and the core group, 15 taxa from 7 genera (including Pseudomonas (1 taxon), Streptococcus (2), Neisseria (2), Catonella (1), Porphyromonas (1), Prevotella (5) and Veillonella (3)], the last four being anaerobes). The core group was dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Other recognised CF pathogens were rare. Mantel and partial Mantel tests assessed which clinical factors influenced the composition observed. CF transmembrane conductance regulator genotype and antibiotic treatment correlated with all core taxa. Lung function correlated with richness. The clinical significance of these core and satellite species findings in the CF lung is discussed.
commonness and rarity; oral microbiota; polymicrobial infections; pulmonary disease; species abundance distributions
Clostridium difficile persists in hospitals by exploiting an infection cycle that is dependent on humans shedding highly resistant and infectious spores. Here we show that human virulent C. difficile can asymptomatically colonize the intestines of immunocompetent mice, establishing a carrier state that persists for many months. C. difficile carrier mice consistently shed low levels of spores but, surprisingly, do not transmit infection to cohabiting mice. However, antibiotic treatment of carriers triggers a highly contagious supershedder state, characterized by a dramatic reduction in the intestinal microbiota species diversity, C. difficile overgrowth, and excretion of high levels of spores. Stopping antibiotic treatment normally leads to recovery of the intestinal microbiota species diversity and suppresses C. difficile levels, although some mice persist in the supershedding state for extended periods. Spore-mediated transmission to immunocompetent mice treated with antibiotics results in self-limiting mucosal inflammation of the large intestine. In contrast, transmission to mice whose innate immune responses are compromised (Myd88−/−) leads to a severe intestinal disease that is often fatal. Thus, mice can be used to investigate distinct stages of the C. difficile infection cycle and can serve as a valuable surrogate for studying the spore-mediated transmission and interactions between C. difficile and the host and its microbiota, and the results obtained should guide infection control measures.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. The rate of decay of RSV-specific maternal antibodies (RSV-matAb), the factors affecting cord blood levels, and the relationship between these levels and protection from infection are poorly defined.
A birth cohort (n = 635) in rural Kenya, was studied intensively to monitor infections and describe age-related serological characteristics. RSV specific IgG antibody (Ab) in serum was measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in cord blood, consecutive samples taken 3 monthly, and in paired acute and convalescent samples. A linear regression model was used to calculate the rate of RSV-matAb decline. The effect of risk factors on cord blood titres was investigated.
The half-life of matAb in the Kenyan cohort was calculated to be 79 days (95% confidence limits (CL): 76–81 days). Ninety seven percent of infants were born with RSV-matAb. Infants who subsequently experienced an infection in early life had significantly lower cord titres of anti-RSV Ab in comparison to infants who did not have any incident infection in the first 6 months (P = 0.011). RSV infections were shown to have no effect on the rate of decay of RSV-matAb.
Maternal-specific RSV Ab decline rapidly following birth. However, we provide evidence of protection against severe disease by RSV-matAb during the first 6–7 months. This suggests that boosting maternal-specific Ab by RSV vaccination may be a useful strategy to consider.
Bacterial infections of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients cause major complications in the treatment of this common genetic disease. Burkholderia cenocepacia infection is particularly problematic since this organism has high levels of antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to eradicate; the resulting chronic infections are associated with severe declines in lung function and increased mortality rates. B. cenocepacia strain J2315 was isolated from a CF patient and is a member of the epidemic ET12 lineage that originated in Canada or the United Kingdom and spread to Europe. The 8.06-Mb genome of this highly transmissible pathogen comprises three circular chromosomes and a plasmid and encodes a broad array of functions typical of this metabolically versatile genus, as well as numerous virulence and drug resistance functions. Although B. cenocepacia strains can be isolated from soil and can be pathogenic to both plants and man, J2315 is representative of a lineage of B. cenocepacia rarely isolated from the environment and which spreads between CF patients. Comparative analysis revealed that ca. 21% of the genome is unique in comparison to other strains of B. cenocepacia, highlighting the genomic plasticity of this species. Pseudogenes in virulence determinants suggest that the pathogenic response of J2315 may have been recently selected to promote persistence in the CF lung. The J2315 genome contains evidence that its unique and highly adapted genetic content has played a significant role in its success as an epidemic CF pathogen.
Another influenza pandemic is inevitable, and new measures to combat this and seasonal influenza are urgently needed. Here we describe a new concept in antivirals based on a defined, naturally occurring defective influenza virus RNA that has the potential to protect against any influenza A virus in any animal host. This “protecting RNA” (244 RNA) is incorporated into virions which, although noninfectious, deliver the RNA to those cells of the respiratory tract that are naturally targeted by infectious influenza virus. A 120-ng intranasal dose of this 244 protecting virus completely protected mice against a simultaneous challenge of 10 50% lethal doses with influenza A/WSN (H1N1) virus. The 244 virus also protected mice against strong challenge doses of all other subtypes tested (i.e., H2N2, H3N2, and H3N8). This prophylactic activity was maintained in the animal for at least 1 week prior to challenge. The 244 virus was 10- to 100-fold more active than previously characterized defective influenza A viruses, and the protecting activity was confirmed to reside in the 244 RNA molecule by recovering a protecting virus entirely from cloned cDNA. There was a clear therapeutic benefit when the 244 virus was administered 24 to 48 h after a lethal challenge, an effect which has not been previously observed with any defective virus. Protecting virus reduced, but did not abolish, replication of challenge virus in mouse lungs during both prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Protecting virus is a novel antiviral, having the potential to combat human influenza virus infections, particularly when the infecting strain is not known or is resistant to antiviral drugs.
The conduct of Phase I/II HIV vaccine trials internationally necessitates the development of region-specific clinical reference ranges for trial enrolment and participant monitoring. A population based cohort of adults in Kericho, Kenya, a potential vaccine trial site, allowed development of clinical laboratory reference ranges. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping was performed on 1293 HIV seronegative study participants. Hematology and clinical chemistry were performed on up to 1541 cohort enrollees. The ratio of males to females was 1.9∶1. Means, medians and 95% reference ranges were calculated and compared with those from other nations. The median CD4+ T cell count for the group was 810 cells/µl. There were significant gender differences for both red and white blood cell parameters. Kenyan subjects had lower median hemoglobin concentrations (9.5 g/dL; range 6.7–11.1) and neutrophil counts (1850 cells/µl; range 914–4715) compared to North Americans. Kenyan clinical chemistry reference ranges were comparable to those from the USA, with the exception of the upper limits for bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen, which were 2.3-fold higher and 1.5-fold lower, respectively. This study is the first to assess clinical reference ranges for a highland community in Kenya and highlights the need to define clinical laboratory ranges from the national community not only for clinical research but also care and treatment.
Individuals are reinfected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) repeatedly. The nature of reinfections in relation to RSV genetic and antigenic diversity is ill defined and has implications to persistence and vaccine control.
We examined the molecular relatedness of RSV causing primary and repeat infections by phylogenetic analysis of the attachment (G) gene in 12 infants from a birth cohort in rural Kenya, using nasal washings collected over a 16 month period in 2002-03 spanning two successive epidemics.
Six infants were infected in both epidemics, 4 with RSV-A in the first epidemic followed by RSV-B in the second epidemic and 2 infected with RSV-A strains in both epidemics with no significant G gene sequence variability between samples. Two children showed infection and reinfection with different RSV-A strains within the same epidemic. Possible viral persistence was suspected in the remaining 4 infants, although reinfection with same variant cannot be excluded.
These are the first data specifically addressing strain-specific reinfections in infancy in relation to the primary infecting variant. The data strongly suggest that following primary infection some infants lose strain-specific immunity within 7-9 months (between epidemics) and group-specific immunity within 2-4 months (within an epidemic period).
Respiratory syncytial virus; infants; reinfection
Within the developing country setting data are few that characterise the disease burden due to RSV and which clearly define the age group to target vaccine intervention.
Children numbering 635, recruited 2002-03, were intensively monitored until each experienced three RSV epidemics. RSV was diagnosed by use of immunofluorescence on nasal washings collected on occurence of acute respiratory infection. Incidence estimates were adjusted for seasonality in RSV exposure.
From 1187 child years of observation (cyo) a total of 409 RSV episodes were identifed; 365 primary and 82 repeat. Adjusted incidence estimates (per 1000cyo) of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), severe LRTI and hospital admission were 90, 43, and 10, respectively, and corresponding estimates in infants were 104, 66 and 13. The proportion of all-cause LRTI, severe-LRTI and hospitalizations in the cohort due to RSV was 13%, 19% and 5%, respectively. 55-65% of RSV LRTI and severe-LRTI occured in children over 6 months old. The risk of RSV disease following primary symptomatic infection remained significant beyond the first year of life and a quarter of all re-infections were associated with LRTI.
RSV accounts for a substantial proportion of the total respiratory disease in this rural population: we estimate 85,000 infant cases of severe LRTI annually in Kenya. The majority of this morbidity occurs in late infancy and early childhood; ages at which the risk of disease following infection remains significant. Disease from re-infection is common. Our results inform the debate on vaccine target age group and effectiveness.
respiratory syncytial virus; incidence; burden of disease; vaccination strategy; Kenya
Behavior of injection drug users increases the risk for an HIV epidemic.
Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody to HCV, and HBsAg. Overall prevalences of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–5.1%), 36.6% (95% CI 32.2%–41.0%), and 6.5% (95% CI 4.2%–8.7%), respectively (N = 464). Among male IDUs (n = 463), risky behavior, including sharing syringes (50.4%), paying women for sex (76.2%), and having sex with men or boys (28.3%), were common. Needle sharing, injecting for >3 years, and receiving injections from nonmedical providers were independently associated with increased risk for HCV infection. The high prevalence of risky behavior indicate that Kabul is at risk for an HIV epidemic. Scale-up of harm-reducing interventions is urgently needed.
HIV; Afghanistan; injection drug users; hepatitis C; hepatitis B; needle sharing; research