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author:("rate, Prasad")
1.  Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Clinical Isolates of HACEK Organisms 
The “HACEK” organisms are a group of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that cause a variety of infections, including infective endocarditis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not universally available, and therapy for these infections is often empirical. We report the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 70 clinical HACEK isolates to 18 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and levofloxacin, indicating that these agents remain appropriate empirical choices for the treatment of infections with this group of organisms.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00111-13
PMCID: PMC3623346  PMID: 23403420
2.  Bordetella holmesii, an Emerging Cause of Septic Arthritis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(4):1313-1315.
Bordetella holmesii is a well-described pathogen in asplenic and immunocompromised patients. Here we report the first two published cases of septic arthritis caused by B. holmesii documented in apparently immunocompetent patients and unaccompanied by bacteremia.
doi:10.1128/JCM.06437-11
PMCID: PMC3666780  PMID: 23345301
3.  Genetic and antigenic analysis of invasive serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis in Canada: A decrease in the electrophoretic type (ET)-15 clonal type and an increase in the proportion of isolates belonging to the ET-37 (but not ET-15) clonal type during the period from 2002 to 2009 
BACKGROUND:
Serogroup C meningococcal disease has been endemic in Canada since the early 1990s, with periods of hyperendemic disease documented in the past two decades. The present study characterized invasive serogroup C meningococci in Canada during the period from 2002 to 2009.
METHODS:
Serogroup C meningococci were serotyped using monoclonal antibodies. Their clonal types were identified by either multilocus enzyme electrophoresis or multilocus sequence typing.
RESULTS:
The number of invasive serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis isolates received at the National Microbiology Laboratory (Winnipeg, Manitoba) for characterization has dropped from a high of 173 isolates in 2001 to just 17 in 2009, possibly related to the introduction of the serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Before 2006, 80% to 95% of all invasive serogroup C meningococci belonged to the electrophoreic type (ET)-15 clonal type, and the ET-37 (but not ET-15) type only accounted for up to 5% of all isolates. However, beginning in 2006, the percentage of the ET-15 clonal type decreased while the ET-37 (but not ET-15) type increased from 27% in 2006 to 52% in 2009. The percentage of invasive serogroup C isolates not belonging to either ET-15 or ET-37 also increased. Most ET-15 isolates expressed the antigenic formula of C:2a:P1.7,1 or C:2a:P1.5. In contrast, the ET-37 (but not ET-15) isolates mostly expressed the antigens of C:2a:P1.5,2 or C:2a:P1.2.
CONCLUSION:
A shift in the antigenic and clonal type of invasive serogroup C meningococi was noted. This finding suggests vigilance in the surveillance of meningoccocal disease is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3476562  PMID: 23997785
ET-15; ET-37; Meningococci; Serogroup C
4.  Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:202.
Background
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada.
Methods
We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant (<1 year) age-specific incidence multiplied by expected vaccine efficacies between 70% and 80%, and assuming only direct protection (no herd effects).
Results
A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were <6 months. Infants had the highest incidence (3.70/100,000). Case-fatality ratio was 10.7% overall. If we assume that all infant cases would be preventable by vaccination, we would need to vaccinate between 33,784 and 38,610 infants to prevent one case of disease.
Conclusions
Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-202
PMCID: PMC3472197  PMID: 22928839
Invasive meningococcal disease; Neisseria meningitidis; Serogroup B; Epidemiology; Surveillance; Ontario; Canada
5.  Evaluation of CLSI Agar Dilution Method and Trek Sensititre Broth Microdilution Panel for Determining Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(2):704-706.
Both the CLSI agar dilution method and Trek Sensititre broth microdilution panel for Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility testing were evaluated against the reference CLSI broth microdilution method using the most recently published CLSI breakpoints. While agar dilution was not an optimal method, the commercial panel appeared to be an acceptable method, with minor errors encountered for ceftriaxone, penicillin, and meropenem.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01622-10
PMCID: PMC3043519  PMID: 21123533
6.  Epidemiology of Invasive Meningococcal Disease with Decreased Susceptibility to Penicillin in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2006▿  
Neisseria meningitidis has been relatively slow to acquire resistance to penicillin. We previously reported an increase in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) strains with decreased susceptibility to penicillin (DSP) in Ontario. Our objectives were to evaluate trends in IMD with DSP, to identify case-level predictors of IMD with DSP, and to evaluate the relationship among DSP, bacterial phenotype, and the likelihood of a fatal outcome. All IMD isolates received in Ontario between 2000 and 2006 were submitted to the Public Health Laboratories, Toronto, for confirmation of the species, serogroup determination, and susceptibility testing. Isolates were considered to be IMD strains with DSP if the penicillin MIC was ≥0.125 μg/ml. Temporal trends were evaluated using multivariable Poisson regression models. Correlates of diminished susceptibility and fatal outcome were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression models. The overall rate of IMD caused by strains with DSP in Ontario was approximately 1.20 cases per million population annually (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.99 to 1.46). Seventy-nine strains (21.7%) were IMD strains with DSP. There was no year-to-year trend in the incidence of IMD with DSP. IMD with DSP was strongly associated with strains of serogroups Y (odds ratio [OR], 6.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 11.1) and W-135 (OR, 8.2; 95% CI, 4.0 to 16.7). Infection with serogroup B or C strains was associated with a marked increase in the risk of mortality (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.39 to 6.75); however, no association between IMD with DSP and mortality was observed. In contrast to trends of the 1990s, the incidence of IMD with DSP was stable in Ontario between 2000 and 2006. In Ontario, the serogroup rather than the penicillin MIC is the microbiological parameter most predictive of mortality.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01077-09
PMCID: PMC2826021  PMID: 20086160
7.  Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase, Canada 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(5):827-829.
doi:10.3201/eid1505.081536
PMCID: PMC2687004  PMID: 19402984
Antimicrobial resistance; bacteria; respiratory infections; Gram negative; carbapenemase; Canada; letter
8.  Prevalence of and risk factors for quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Ontario 
Background
Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae has swiftly emerged in Canada. We sought to determine its prevalence in the province of Ontario and to investigate risk factors for quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infection in a Canadian setting.
Methods
We used records from the Public Health Laboratory of the Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion in Toronto, Ontario, and the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg, Manitoba, to generate epidemic curves for N. gonorrhoeae infection. We extracted limited demographic data from 2006 quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates and from a random sample of quinolone-susceptible isolates. We also extracted minimum inhibitory concentrations for commonly tested antibiotics.
Results
Between 2002 and 2006, the number of N. gonorrhoeae infections detected by culture decreased by 26% and the number of cases detected by nucleic acid amplification testing increased 6-fold. The proportion of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with resistance to quinolones increased from 4% to 28% over the same period. Analysis of 695 quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 688 quinolone-susceptible control isolates from 2006 showed a higher proportion of men (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–4.1) and patients over 30 years of age (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.4–3.8) in the quinolone-resistant group. The proportion of men who have sex with men appeared to be relatively similar in both groups (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8). Quinolone-resistant strains were more resistant to penicillin (p < 0.001), tetracycline (p < 0.001) and erythromycin (p < 0.001). All isolates were susceptible to cefixime, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and spectinomycin.
Interpretation
During 2006 in Ontario, 28% of N. gonorrhoeae isolates were resistant to quinolones. Infections in heterosexual men appear to have contributed significantly to the quinolone resistance rate. Medical practitioners should be aware of the widespread prevalence of quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and avoid quinolone use for empiric therapy.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.080222
PMCID: PMC2630352  PMID: 19188626

Results 1-8 (8)