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1.  Temporal dynamics of the very premature infant gut dominant microbiota 
BMC Microbiology  2014;14:325.
The very-preterm infant gut microbiota is increasingly explored due to its probable role in the development of life threatening diseases. Results of high-throughput studies validate and renew the interest in approaches with lower resolution such as PCR-Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) for the follow-up of dominant microbiota dynamics. We report here an extensive longitudinal study of gut colonization in very preterm infants. We explored by 16S rDNA-based PCR-TTGE a total of 354 stool specimens sampled during routine monitoring from the 1st to the 8th week of life in 30 very pre-term infants born before 30 weeks of gestational age.
Combining comparison with a diversity ladder and sequencing allowed affiliation of 50 Species-Level Operational Taxonomic Units (SLOTUs) as well as semi-quantitative estimation of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Coagulase-negative staphylococci, mainly the Staphylococcus epidermidis, was found in all the infants during the study period and was the most represented (75.7% of the SLOTUs) from the first days of life. Enterococci, present in 60% of the infants were early, highly represented and persistent colonizers of the premature gut. Later Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Clostridium appeared and were found in 10 (33%) and 21 infants (70%), respectively. We showed a high representation of Veillonella in more than a quarter of the infants and being able to persistently colonize premature gut. The genera Anaerococcus, Aquabacterium, Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, Oceanobacillus, Propionibacterium, Pseudomonas, Rothia, Sarcina, Sneathia and Streptococcus were observed as transient or persistent colonizers, each genus being found in a minority of infants.
Despite low resolution, PCR-TTGE remains complementary to high-throughput sequencing-based approaches because it allows the follow-up of dominant bacteria in gut microbiota in a large longitudinal cohorts of preterm neonates. We described the development of pre-term gut microbiota that should be now replaced regarding the functional role of major OTUs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-014-0325-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4326509  PMID: 25551282
Extremely low birth weight Infant; Stool; Microbiota; Follow-up; PCR-TTGE; Diversity; Dynamics; Staphylococcus; Enterococcus; Clostridium; Enterobacteriaceae; Veillonellaceae
2.  Impact of pre-analytical factors on mycobacterium cultures contaminations rates in Burkina Faso, West Africa 
For a high quality level diagnosis, mycobacterium culture must comply with the pre-analytical and analytical conditions recommended by the WHO and the country National Tuberculosis Program (NTP). In this study, we determined whether temperature and duration of sputum storage were associated with culture contamination in Burkina Faso.
Sputa were collected in 5 districts labs in Burkina Faso. Temperature and duration of sputum storage were recorded. After the collection, sputa were decontaminated using Petroff modified method, and the pellet was inoculated on LJ media and LJ media supply with 2% sodium pyruvate. Risk of culture contamination associated with temperature and duration of sputum storage was measured by Chi2 test and logistic regression.
Out of 404 specimens, 61% (246/404) were stored between 2 and 8°C, and 15% (61/404) were processed within three days. The global contamination rate was 24%, with only 8% for samples respecting WHO recommendations, up to 35% for others. Storage at room temperature was associated with a significantly higher risk of contamination compared to storage at 2-8°C (OR 2.24, p = 0.001, IC 95%).
The recommendations about the temperature and the duration of sputum storage before cultures are not completely respected. This leads to high contamination rate of mycobacterium culture. It will be necessary to take logistics measures in peripherals health services or to develop more selective medium for mycobacterium culture in low income countries.
PMCID: PMC4430149  PMID: 25995792
Sputum; storage; contamination
3.  Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: Epidemiologic and Genetic Links between Human and Cattle Isolates 
In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.
Methodology/principal findings
Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5) or humans (1) or from both (1). Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree) showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex (81.8%) and the putative African 5 (Af5) clonal complex (18.2%), in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.
This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.
Author Summary
Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wild animals. Humans can acquire this germ by aerogenous route when in close contact with infected animals, or by consuming unpasteurized dairy products from infected animals and also through the skin when handling infected carcasses. For the present study in Burkina Faso, M. bovis strains were collected from slaughtered animals during routine veterinarian inspection at the slaughterhouses of Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou and also from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolates were genetically characterized using three techniques: spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR and RDAf1 deletion analysis. Our results highlight two aspects of M. bovis epidemiology that are crucial for disease control: i) M. bovis circulates between Burkina Faso and its neighbouring countries and ii) M. bovis is transmitted mainly between cattle, but also between cattle and humans, and potentially between humans. This study stresses the need to develop an efficient strategy to control M. bovis transmission, but also the difficulty to implement control measures because of the complex epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Burkina Faso.
PMCID: PMC4183478  PMID: 25275305
4.  Improved Planning Abilities in Binge Eating 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105657.
The role of planning in binge eating episodes is unknown. We investigated the characteristics of planning associated with food cues in binging patients. We studied planning based on backward reasoning, reasoning that determines a sequence of actions back to front from the final outcome.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 20 healthy participants, 20 bulimia nervosa (BN), 22 restrictive (ANR) and 23 binging anorexia nervosa (ANB), without any concomitant impulsive disorder. In neutral/relaxing, binge food and stressful conditions, backward reasoning was assessed with the Race game, promotion of delayed large rewards with an intertemporal discounting task, attention with the Simon task, and repeating a dominant behavior with the Go/No-go task.
BN and to a lower extent ANB patients succeeded more at the Race game in food than in neutral condition. This difference discriminated binging from non-binging participants. Backward reasoning in the food condition was associated with lower approach behavior toward food in BN patients, and higher food avoidance in ANB patients. Enhanced backward reasoning in the food condition related to preferences for delayed large rewards in BN patients. In BN and ANB patients the enhanced success rate at the Race game in the food condition was associated with higher attention paid to binge food.
These findings introduce a novel process underlying binges: planning based on backward reasoning is associated with binges. It likely aims to reduce craving for binge foods and extend binge refractory period in BN patients, and avoid binging in ANB patients. Shifts between these goals might explain shifts between eating disorder subtypes.
PMCID: PMC4141805  PMID: 25148580
5.  Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:246.
Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age.
The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms.
HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants.
The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and growth) until 50 weeks and HIV-1-free survival until 50 weeks.
This study will provide a new evidence-based intervention to support HIV-1-infected women not eligible for HAART to safely breastfeed their babies.
Trial registration number (
PMCID: PMC3482558  PMID: 23039034
7.  Cumulative Exposure to Cell-Free HIV in Breast Milk, Rather Than Feeding Pattern per se, Identifies Postnatally Infected Infants 
In a nested case-control study, postnatal HIV infection was strongly associated with cumulative HIV RNA breastmilk exposure, even after allowing for maternal CD4 and plasma viral load; cases ingested approximately 15 times more HIV-1 RNA particles than controls.
Background. We quantified the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA shedding in breast milk, cumulative RNA exposure, and postnatal transmission, relating timing of infection in the infant to estimated total volume of milk exposure.
Methods. Nested case-control study of 36 infants of HIV-infected mothers. Case patients were infants who acquired HIV infection through breastfeeding from age 6 through 28 weeks, and control subjects were uninfected infants matched on age at obtainment of a breast milk sample. Mothers and infants received peripartum single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis. Feeding data were collected daily; breast milk samples were collected and infant anthropometry was performed at 6 weeks and monthly thereafter. Volume of milk ingested was estimated using infant weight and feeding pattern.
Results. Before HIV acquisition in case patients, feeding pattern (exclusive breastfeeding; median duration, 65 vs 70 days; P = .6) and daily milk intake (mean volume, 638 vs 637 mL; P = .97) did not differ significantly between case patients and control subjects. Case mothers were more likely to shed virus (64% vs 9% always, 22% vs 20.5% intermittently, 14% vs 70.5% never shed; overall, P < .001). Case patients ingested ∼15 times more HIV-1 RNA particles than did control subjects (196.5 vs 13 × 106 copies; P < .001). Allowing for maternal antenatal CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 load, child sex and duration of mixed breastfeeding, the association between HIV RNA exposure and infection remained statistically significant (P < .001).
Conclusions. Postnatal acquisition of HIV-1 is more strongly associated with cumulative exposure to cell-free particles in breast milk than with feeding mode. Reducing breast milk viral load through antiretroviral therapy to mother or child can further decrease postnatal transmission in exclusively breastfed infants.
PMCID: PMC3049337  PMID: 21367736

Results 1-7 (7)