Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis may be an inflammatory disorder and we therefore asked if IL-17 participates in its pathogenesis. Deletion of the principal IL-17 receptor (IL-17RA) protects mice from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Further supporting a central role of IL-17 in its pathogenesis, OVX-induced osteoporosis is prevented by a blocking antibody targeting the cytokine. IL-17 promotes osteoclastogenesis by stimulating RANK ligand (RANKL) expression by osteoblastic cells, mediated by the IL-17RA SEFIR/TILL domain. Estrogen deprivation, however does not enhance IL-17RA mRNA expression by osteoblasts or in bone, but augments that of Act1, an IL17RA-interacting protein and signaling mediator. Similar to IL-17RA−/− mice, those lacking Act1 are protected from OVX-induced bone loss. Also mirroring IL-17RA-deficiency, absence of Act1 in osteoblasts, but not osteoclasts, impairs osteoclastogenesis via dampened RANKL expression. Transduction of WT Act1 into Act1−/− osteoblasts substantially rescues their osteoclastogenic capacity. The same construct, however, lacking its E3 ligase U-box or its SEFIR domain, which interacts with its counterpart in IL-17RA, fails to do so. Estrogen deprivation, therefore, promotes RANKL expression and bone resorption in association with upregualtion of the IL-17 effector, Act1, supporting the concept that post-menopausal osteoporosis is a disorder of innate immunity.
Interleukin 17; Cytokines; Osteoporosis; Osteoclast/osteoblast biology
The pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is enigmatic. Autoimmunity and impaired urothelium might lead the underlying pathology. A major shortcoming in IC/PBS research has been the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this study, we show that the bladder specific uroplakin 3A-derived immunogenic peptide UPK3A 65–84, which contains the binding motif for IAd MHC class II molecules expressed in BALB/c mice, is capable of inducing experimental autoimmune cystitis in female mice of that strain. A highly antigen-specific recall proliferative response of lymph node cells to UPK3A 65–84 was observed, characterized by selectively activated CD4+ T cells with a proinflammatory Th1-like phenotype, including enhanced production of interferon γ and interleukin-2. T cell infiltration of the bladder and bladder-specific increased gene expression of inflammatory cytokines were observed. Either active immunization with UPK3A 65–84 or adoptive transfer of peptide-activated CD4+ T cells induced all of the predominant IC/PBS phenotypic characteristics, including increased micturition frequency, decreased urine output per micturition, and increased pelvic pain responses to stimulation with von Frey filaments. Our study demonstrates the creation of a more specific experimental autoimmune cystitis model that is the first inducible model for IC/PBS that manifests all of the major symptoms of this debilitating condition.
Duck Tembusu virus is a member of the Ntaya group in the genus Flavivirus. The virus has been responsible for severe duck egg-drop syndrome in China since 2010. Its emergence and rapid spread have caused great economic loss for the poultry industry. The epidemiology of the virus infection and the potential threat to public health is of great concern because of the infective and zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.
In this study, the pathogenicity of duck Tembusu virus in BALB/c mice was investigated. Infected mice developed clinical signs, including loss of appetite, ruffled hair, weight loss, disorientation, blindness and paralysis of hind limbs from six days post- infection following intracerebral inoculation. Morbidity was 100%, with mortality ranging from 20 to 80% in three- to eight-week-old mice. High virus titers were recovered from the brain, and the virus was distributed in several organs. Histologically, there was widespread non-suppurative encephalitis in the brain. Lymphocyte depletion in the spleen was observed, along with fatty degeneration in the liver and kidney.
Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that duck Tembusu virus is highly neurovirulent in BALB/c mice. The mouse model used in this work was able to produce Tembusu virus infection and could be useful for elucidating some of the aspects of the pathophysiology of other flavivirus infections.
Duck Tembusu virus; Flavivirus; Neurovirulence; BALB/c mice
The association between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been extensively studied, but few reported DR-DQ haplotype. Here we investigated the association of HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DR-DQ haplotypes with RA susceptibility and with anti-CCP antibodies in 281 RA patients and 297 control in Han population. High-resolution genotyping were performed. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE)-encoding allele *0405 displayed the most significant RA association (P = 1.35×10−6). The grouped DRB1 SE alleles showed great association with RA (P = 3.88×10−13). The DRB1 DRRAA alleles displayed significant protective effects (P = 0.021). The SE-dependent DR-DQ haplotype SE-DQ3/4/5 remained strong association with both anti-CCP -positive (P = 3.71×10−13) and -negative RA (P = 3.89×10−5). Our study revealed that SE alleles and its haplotypes SE-DQ3/4/5 were highly associated with RA susceptibility in Han population. The SE-DQ3/4/5 haplotypes were associated with both anti-CCP positive RA and -negative RA.
Enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Salmonella Typhimurium target the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) lining the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Despite expressing innate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IEC are innately hypo-responsive to most bacterial products. This is thought to prevent maladaptive inflammatory responses against commensal bacteria, but it also limits antimicrobial responses by IEC to invading bacterial pathogens, potentially increasing host susceptibility to infection. One reason for the innate hypo-responsiveness of IEC is their expression of Single Ig IL-1 Related Receptor (SIGIRR), a negative regulator of interleukin (IL)-1 and TLR signaling. To address whether SIGIRR expression and the innate hypo-responsiveness of IEC impacts on enteric host defense, Sigirr deficient (−/−) mice were infected with the EHEC related pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Sigirr −/− mice responded with accelerated IEC proliferation and strong pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses but surprisingly, Sigirr −/− mice proved dramatically more susceptible to infection than wildtype mice. Through haematopoietic transplantation studies, it was determined that SIGIRR expression by non-haematopoietic cells (putative IEC) regulated these responses. Moreover, the exaggerated responses were found to be primarily dependent on IL-1R signaling. Whilst exploring the basis for their susceptibility, Sigirr −/− mice were found to be unusually susceptible to intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium colonization, developing enterocolitis without the typical requirement for antibiotic based removal of competing commensal microbes. Strikingly, the exaggerated antimicrobial responses seen in Sigirr −/− mice were found to cause a rapid and dramatic loss of commensal microbes from the infected intestine. This depletion appears to reduce the ability of the microbiota to compete for space and nutrients (colonization resistance) with the invading pathogens, leaving the intestine highly susceptible to pathogen colonization. Thus, SIGIRR expression by IEC reflects a strategy that sacrifices maximal innate responsiveness by IEC in order to promote commensal microbe based colonization resistance against bacterial pathogens.
Despite being in close contact with billions of commensal bacteria, the epithelial cells that line the intestine develop very weak innate inflammatory responses to bacterial products. The goal of this study was to explore why these cells respond so poorly, and how increasing their innate responsiveness would impact on host defense against invading bacterial pathogens. We show that a negative regulator of innate signaling called SIGIRR, limits the inflammatory responses of the intestine to bacteria. Following infection by the bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, the intestines of mice lacking SIGIRR showed exaggerated inflammatory, antimicrobial and proliferative responses. Through transplantation studies, we showed it was SIGIRR expression by intestinal epithelial cells that limits these responses, and that the exaggerated responses were driven by cytokine signaling through the interleukin-1 receptor. Despite their exaggerated responses, SIGIRR deficient mice proved extremely susceptible to infection by C. rodentium and other intestinal bacterial pathogens. We found the exaggerated inflammatory responses rapidly depleted intestinal commensal microbes, reducing their ability to outcompete invading pathogens for space and nutrients (colonization resistance). Our study thus clarifies that the hypo-responsiveness of epithelial cells plays an unexpected but critical role in host defense, by promoting commensal microbe based competition against enteric pathogens.
Act1 is a negative regulator of BAFF and CD40L-induced signaling. Balb/c mice lacking Act1 develop systemic autoimmunity resembling Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS). SLE and SjS are characterized by anti-nuclear IgG autoantibody (ANA-IgG) production and inflammation of peripheral tissues. As autoantibody production can occur in a T-cell dependent or T-cell independent manner, we investigated the role of T-cell help during Act1-mediated autoimmunity. Act1-deficiency was bred onto C57Bl/6 (B6.Act1−/−) mice and B6.TCRβ−/−TCRδ−/−Act1−/− (TKO) mice were generated. While TCRβ/δ-sufficient B6.Act1−/− mice developed splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated levels of ANA-IgG, and kidney pathology, TKO mice failed to develop any such signs of disease. Neither B6.Act1−/− nor TKO mice developed SjS-like disease, suggesting that epigenetic interactions on the Balb/c background are responsible for this phenotype in Balb/c.Act1−/− mice. Interestingly, BAFF-driven transitional B cell abnormalities, previously reported in Balb/c.Act1−/− mice, were intact in B6.Act1−/− mice and largely independent of T cells. In conclusion, T cells are necessary for the development of SLE-like disease in B6.Act1−/− mice, but not BAFF-driven transitional B-cell differentiation.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; autoimmunity; B cells; T cells; autoantibodies
Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development.
The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat.
This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.
Act1 is an essential adaptor molecule in IL-17-mediated signaling and is recruited to the IL-17 receptor upon IL-17 stimulation. Here, we report that Act1 is a client protein of the molecular chaperone, Hsp90. The Act1 variant (D10N) linked to psoriasis susceptibility is defective in its interaction with Hsp90, resulting in a global loss of Act1 function. Act1-/- mice modeled the mechanistic link between Act1 loss of function and psoriasis susceptibility. Although Act1 is necessary for IL-17-mediated inflammation, Act1-/- mice exhibited a hyper TH17 response and developed spontaneous IL-22-dependent skin inflammation. In the absence of IL-17-signaling, IL-22 is the main contributor to skin inflammation, providing a molecular mechanism for the association of Act1 (D10N) with psoriasis susceptibility.
The effector T-cell subset, Th17, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis as well as other autoimmune diseases. The signature cytokine, IL-17, engages the IL-17R and recruits the E3-ligase Act1 upon stimulation. In this study we examined the role of TRAF4 in IL-17 signaling and Th17-mediated autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Primary cells from TRAF4-deficient mice displayed markedly enhanced IL-17-activated signaling pathways and induction of chemokine mRNA. Adoptive transfer of MOG 35–55 specific wild-type Th17 cells into TRAF4-deficient recipient mice induced an earlier onset of disease. Mechanistically, we found that TRAF4 and TRAF6 utilized the same TRAF-binding sites on Act1, allowing the competition of TRAF4 with TRAF6 for the interaction with Act1. Taken together, this study reveals the necessity of a unique role of TRAF4 in restricting the effects of IL-17 signaling and Th17-mediated disease.
The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-O 2009 IV) can cause respiratory infectious diseases in humans and pigs, but there are few studies investigating the airborne spread of the virus. In January 2011, a swine-origin H1N1 epidemic emerged in eastern China that rapidly spread to neighboring farms, likely by aerosols carried by the wind.
In this study, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect viruses in air samples from pig farms. Based on two aerosol infection models (Pig and guinea pig), we evaluated aerosol transmission and infection of the novel S-O 2009 IV isolate.
Three novel S-O 2009 IV were isolated from the diseased pig. The positive rate and viral loads of air samples were 26.1% and 3.14-5.72 log10copies/m3 air, respectively. In both pig and guinea pig infection models, the isolate (A/swine/Shandong/07/2011) was capable of forming aerosols and infected experimental animals at a range of 2.0-4.2 m by aerosols, but aerosol route was less efficient than direct contact.
The results indicated that S-O 2009 IV is able to be aerosolized by infected animals and to be transmitted to susceptible animals by airborne routes.
S-O 2009 IV; Epidemic; Airborne transmission; Pig; Guinea pig
The cellular and molecular mechanisms driven by IL-25 and its cognate receptor IL-17RB necessary for the promotion of T helper type 2 (Th2) mediating pathogenic pulmonary inflammation remain to be defined. We have previously reported the critical role of the U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Act1 (1), for the downstream signaling of the IL-17 cytokine family including the Th2 promoting cytokine IL-25 (IL-17E) (2). In this study, we report that IL-25 driven but not conventional IL-4 driven Th2 polarization and cytokine production is impaired in Act1-deficient T cells. Also, Act1 deficiency in the T cell compartment results in the abrogation of eosinophilic airway infiltration as well as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a mouse model of antigen induced airway inflammation. The in vivo generation of antigen specific Th2 cytokine producing cells is defective in the absence of Act1 expression in T cells following ovalbumin/Alum immunization. Interestingly, the production of ovalbumin specific IgG1 but not IgG2a or IgE is also impaired. At the molecular level, we report that IL-25-mediated induction of Th2 master regulator GATA-3, and the transcription factor GFI-1 is attenuated in Act1-deficient T cells. Taken together, our findings indicated that Act1 expression in T cells is required for cellular and humoral Th2-mediated allergic responses and the development of AHR, in part, through its function in IL-25 induced development of Th2 T cells.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when unfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the organelle, triggering signal transduction events that contribute either to cellular adaptation and recovery or alternatively to cellular dysfunction and death. ER stress has been implicated in numerous diseases. To identify novel modulators of ER stress, we undertook a siRNA library screen of the kinome, revealing Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-2 (IRAK2) as a contributor to unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling and ER stress-induced cell death. Knocking down expression of IRAK2 (but not IRAK1) in cultured mammalian cells suppresses ER stress-induced expression of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP and activation of stress kinases. Similarly, RNAi-mediated silencing of the IRAK family member Tube (but not Pelle) suppresses activation of stress kinase signaling induced by ER stress in Drosophila cells. The action of IRAK2 maps to the IRE1 pathway, rather than the PERK or ATF6 components of the UPR. Interestingly, ER stress also induces IRAK2 gene expression in an IRE1/XBP1-dependent manner, suggesting a mutually supporting amplification loop involving IRAK2 and IRE1. In vivo, ER stress induces Irak2 expression in mice. Moreover, Irak2 gene knockout mice display defects in ER stress-induced CHOP expression and IRE1 pathway signaling. These findings demonstrate an unexpected linkage of the innate immunity machinery to UPR signaling, revealing IRAK2 as a novel amplifier of the IRE1 pathway.
Interleukin-25 (IL-25 or IL-17E), a member of the structurally related IL-17 family, functions as an important mediator of T helper 2 cell-type (type 2) responses. We examined the cell-type specific role of IL-25-induced Act1-mediated signaling in protective immunity against helminth infection. Targeted Act1 deficiency in epithelial cells resulted in a marked delay in worm expulsion and abolished the expansion of the Lin−c-kit+ innate cell population in the mesenteric lymph node, lung and liver. Th2 cell-inducing cytokines (IL-25 and IL-33) expression were reduced in the intestinal epithelial cells from the infected and IL-25-injected epithelial-specific Act1-deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of Lin−c-kit+ cells or combined injection of IL-25 and IL-33 restored the type 2 responses in these mice. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial-specific Act1 mediates the expansion of the Lin−c-kit+ innate cell population through the positive feedback loop of IL-25, initiating the type 2 immunity against helminth infection.
Nuciferine is a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of N. nucifera Gaertn that possesses anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, and insulin secretagogue activities. However, it is currently unknown whether nuciferine can benefit hepatic lipid metabolism.
In the current study, male golden hamsters were randomly divided into four groups fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD supplemented with nuciferine (10 and 15 mg/kg·BW/day). After 8 weeks of intervention, HFD-induced increases in liver and visceral adipose tissue weight, dyslipidemia, liver steatosis, and mild necroinflammation in hamsters were analyzed. Nuciferine supplementation protected against HFD-induced changes, alleviated necroinflammation, and reversed serum markers of metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a HFD. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that hamsters fed a HFD had up-regulated levels of genes related to lipogenesis, increased free fatty acid infiltration, and down-regulated genes involved in lipolysis and very low density lipoprotein secretion. In addition, gene expression of cytochrome P4502E1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also increased in the HFD group. Nuciferine supplementation clearly suppressed HFD-induced alterations in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism.
Nuciferine supplementation ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia as well as liver steatosis and injury. The beneficial effects of nuciferine were associated with altered expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are constantly exposed to enteric microbes. Although IECs express TLRs that recognize bacterial products, activation of these TLRs is strictly controlled through poorly understood mechanisms, producing a state of hypo-responsiveness and preventing unwanted inflammation. The Single IgG IL-1 related receptor (Sigirr) is a negative regulator of TLRs that is expressed by IEC and recently shown to inhibit experimental colitis. However, the importance of Sigirr in IEC hyporesponsiveness and its distribution within the human colon is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Sigirr in regulating epithelial specific TLR responses and characterize its expression in colonic biopsies. Transformed and non-transformed human IEC were cultured as monolayers. Transient gene silencing and stable over-expression of Sigirr was performed to assess innate IEC responses. Sigirr expression in human colonic biopsies was examined by immunohistochemistry. Bacterial infection of IEC and exposure to flagellin transiently decreased Sigirr protein expression, concurrent with secretion of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8. Sigirr gene silencing augmented chemokine responses to bacterial flagellin, Pam3Cys and the cytokine IL-1β. Conversely, stable over-expression of Sigirr diminished NF-κB mediated IL-8 responses to TLR ligands. We also found that Sigirr expression increased as IECs differentiated in culture. This observation was confirmed in biopsy sections, where Sigirr expression within colonic crypts was prominent in IECs at the apex and diminished at the base. Our findings show that Sigirr broadly regulates innate responses in differentiated human IEC, and may therefore modulate epithelial involvement in infectious and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Enterocytes; chemokines; flagellin; bacterial infection; differentiation
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) typified the deposition of amyloid in the brain which elicits a robust microglial-mediated inflammatory response that is associated with disease exacerbation and accelerated progression. Microglia are the principal immune effector cells in the brain and interact with fibrillar forms of Aβ (fAβ) through a receptor complex that includes Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) 2/4/6 and their coreceptors. Interleukin receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) are essential intracellular signaling molecules for transduction of TLR signals. Studies of mouse models of AD in which the individual TLRs are knocked out have produced conflicting results on roles of TLR signaling in amyloid homeostasis. Therefore, we disrupted a common downstream TLR signaling element, IRAK4. We report that microglial IRAK4 is necessary in vitro for fAβ to activate the canonical proinflammatory signaling pathways leading to activation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAP kinases and to generate reactive oxygen species. In vivo the loss of IRAK4 function results in decreased Aβ levels in a murine model of AD. This was associated with diminished microgliosis and astrogliosis in aged mice. Analysis of microglia isolated from the adult mouse brain revealed an altered pattern of gene expression associated with changes in microglial phenotype that were associated with expression of IRF transcription factors that govern microglial phenotype. Further, loss of IRAK4 function also promoted amyloid clearance mechanisms, including elevated expression of insulin degrading enzyme. Finally, blocking IRAK function restored olfactory behavior. These data demonstrate that IRAK4 activation acts normally to regulate microglial activation status and influence amyloid homeostasis in the brain.
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) is phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded upon IL-1 stimulation. IRAK1 can be ubiquitinated through both K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains upon IL-1 stimulation. While the Pellino proteins have been shown to meditate K63-linked polyubiquitination on IRAK1, the E3 ligase for K48-linked ubiquitination of IRAK1 has not been identified. In this study, we report that the SCF (Skp1–Cullin1–F-box)–β-TrCP complex functions as the K48-linked ubiquitination E3 ligase for IRAK1. IL-1 stimulation induced the interaction of IRAK1 with Cullin1 and β-TrCP. Knockdown of β-TrCP1 and β-TrCP2 attenuated the K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of IRAK1. Importantly, β-TrCP deficiency abolished the translocation TAK1-TRAF6 complex from the membrane to the cytosol, resulting in a diminishment of the IL-1-induced TAK1-dependent pathway. Taken together, these results implicate a positive role of β-TrCP-mediated IRAK1 degradation in IL-1-induced TAK1 activation.
Inappropriate activation of the Toll-IL-1R (TL-IL-1) signaling by commensal bacteria contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colitis-associated cancer. Recent studies have identified SIGIRR as a negative regulator of TL-IL-1 signaling. It dampens intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon. In this review, we will discuss the role of SIGIRR in different cell types and the mechanisms underlying its tumor suppressor function.
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) promotes expression of chemokines and cytokines via induction of gene transcription and post-transcriptional stabilization of mRNA. We show that IL-17 enhanced the stability of CXCL1 and other mRNAs through a pathway that involves Act1, TRAF2 or TRAF5 and the splicing factor SF2/ASF. TRAF2/TRAF5 were necessary for IL-17 to signal CXCL1 mRNA stabilization. Furthermore, IL-17 promoted formation of complexes between TRAF5/TRAF2, Act1 and SF2/ASF. Overexpression of SF2/ASF shortened while depletion of SF2/ASF prolonged CXCL1 mRNA half-life. SF2/ASF bound chemokine mRNA in unstimulated cells while the SF2/ASF-mRNA interaction was markedly diminished following stimulation with IL-17. These findings define an IL-17-induced signaling pathway that links to the stabilization of selected mRNAs through Act1, TRAF2/5 and the RNA binding protein SF2/ASF.
Intestinal microflora and inflammatory cell infiltrates play critical roles in the pathogenesis of acute colitis. Ceruloplasmin is an acute-phase plasma protein produced by hepatocytes and activated macrophages, and has ferroxidase with bactericidal activities. The goal is to understand the role of ceruloplasmin in colitis progression in a genetically modified murine model.
Experimental colitis was induced in ceruloplasmin null (Cp−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice by dextran sulphate sodium administration. The role of ceruloplasmin was further evaluated by transplantation of WT macrophages into Cp−/− mice.
Cp−/− mice rapidly lost weight and were moribund by day 14, while WT mice survived at least 30 days. Colon culture supernatants from Cp−/− mice exhibited elevated levels of TNFα, KC and MCP-1, indicative of increased inflammation and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Elevated leucocytes and severe histopathology were observed in Cp−/− mice. Elevated protein carbonyl content was detected in colons from Cp−/− mice suggesting ceruloplasmin antioxidant activity might contribute to its protective function. Unexpectedly, intraperitoneal administration of human ceruloplasmin into Cp−/− mice did not afford protection. Bone marrow transplantation from WT mice or injection of isolated peripheral blood monocytes markedly reduced severity of colitis and morbidity in Cp−/− mice.
Macrophage-derived ceruloplasmin contributes importantly to protection against inflammation and tissue injury in acute and chronic experimental colitis. The findings suggest that defects in ceruloplasmin expression or processing may influence the onset or progression of inflammatory bowel disease in patients.
Background and Aims
Dendroclimatology is playing an important role in understanding past climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Forests, however, are mainly confined to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. On the central Tibetan Plateau, in contrast, shrubs and dwarf shrubs need to be studied instead of trees as a source of climate information. The objectives of this study were to check the dendrochronological potential of the dwarf shrub Wilson juniper (Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii) growing from 4740 to 4780 m a.s.l. and to identify the climatic factors controlling its radial growth.
Forty-three discs from 33 stems of Wilson juniper were sampled near the north-eastern shore of the Nam Co (Heavenly Lake). Cross-dating was performed along two directions of each stem, avoiding the compression-wood side as far as possible. A ring-width chronology was developed after a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope had been fit to the raw measurements. Then, correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded by a weather station around 100 km away.
Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Wilson juniper, based on its longevity (one individual was 324 years old), well-defined growth rings, reliable cross-dating between individuals and distinct climatic signals reflected by the ring-width variability. Unlike dwarf shrubs in the circum-arctic tundra ecosystem which positively responded to above-average temperature in the growing season, moisture turned out to be growth limiting for Wilson juniper, particularly the loss of moisture caused by high maximum temperatures in May–June.
Because of the wide distribution of shrub and dwarf shrub species on the central Tibetan Plateau, an exciting prospect was opened up to extend the presently existing tree-ring networks far up into one of the largest tundra regions of the world.
Central Tibetan Plateau; high altitude; Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii; dwarf shrub; cross-dating; dendrochronology; dendroclimatology; growth ring; tree ring; growth-limiting factor; climate proxy
Pathogens may signal through multiple TLRs with synergistic or antagonistic effects on the induction of cytokines, including type I IFN (IFN-I). IFN-I is typically induced by TLR9 but not TLR2. Moreover, we previously reported that TLR2 signaling by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or other TLR2 agonists inhibited TLR9 induction of IFN-I and IFN-I-dependent MHC-I Ag cross processing. The current studies revealed that lipopeptide-induced TLR2 signaling inhibited induction of first-wave IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA by TLR9, whereas induction of second wave IFN-I mRNA was not inhibited. TLR2 also inhibited induction of IFN-I by TLR7, another MyD88-dependent IFN-I-inducing receptor, but did not inhibit IFN-I induction by TLR3 or TLR4 (both TRIF-dependent, MyD88-independent). The inhibitory effect of TLR2 was not dependent on new protein synthesis or intercellular signaling. IRAK1 was depleted rapidly (within 10 min) by TLR2 agonist but not until later (e.g. 2 h) by TLR9 agonist. Since IRAK1 is required for TLR7/9 induced IFN-I production, we propose that TLR2 signaling induces rapid depletion of IRAK1, which impairs IFN-I induction by TLR7/9. This novel mechanism, whereby TLR2 inhibits IFN-I induction by TLR7/9, may shape immune responses to microbes that express ligands for both TLR2 and TLR7/TLR9, or responses to bacteria/virus co-infection.
Dendritic cell; type-I interferon; Toll-like receptor; IRAK1
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] play important roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Although dyslipidemia is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), there are limited data available regarding the relationship of LPL and 25(OH)D to IR and T2D at a population level. The objective of the present study is to investigate the associations of LPL and 25(OH)D with IR and T2D in a Chinese population.
The study cohort consisted of 2708 subjects (1326 males, 1382 females; mean age 48.5 ± 12.6 years) in main communities of Harbin, China. Serum 25(OH)D, LPL, free fatty acids (FFAs), fasting glucose (FG), fasting insulin, lipid profile, apoA and apoB concentrations were measured.
Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with LPL (β = 0.168, P < 0.001). LPL was inversely associated with IR and T2D. Subjects in the lowest quartile of LPL had the highest risk of IR [odds ratio (OR) = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.22-2.68] and T2D (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.14-2.38). Serum 25(OH)D was also inversely associated with IR and T2D. Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] was associated with an increasing risk of IR (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.23-2.76) and T2D (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.37-3.24). The associations of 25(OH)D with IR and T2D were attenuated by further adjustment for LPL.
LPL is associated with serum 25(OH)D, IR and T2D in the Chinese population. These results suggest a potential mediating role of LPL in the associations of 25(OH)D with IR and T2D.
Lipoprotein lipase; Vitamin D; Diabetes; Insulin resistance; Lipid metabolism
The pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis (IC) is unknown. Deficits in urothelial cell layers and autoimmune mechanisms may play a role.
To examine whether immunization of mice with recombinant mouse uroplakin II (rmUPK2), a bladder-specific protein, would provoke an autoimmune response sufficient to create an IC phenotype.
Design, setting, and participants
RmUPK2 complementary DNA was generated, transferred into a bacterial expression vector, and the generated protein was purified. Eight-week-old SWXJ female mice were immunized with rmUPK2 protein via subcutaneous injection of 200 µg of rmUPK2 protein in 200 µl of an emulsion.
Mice were euthanized 5 wk after immunization. Axillary and inguinal lymph node cells were tested for antigen-specific responsiveness and cytokine production, serum isotype antibody titers against rmUPK2 were determined, and gene expression of inflammatory mediators was measured in the bladder and other organs. For functional analysis, mice were placed in urodynamic chambers for 24-h micturition frequency and total voided urine measurements.
Results and limitations
Immunization with rmUPK2 resulted in T-cell infiltration of the bladder urothelium and increased rmUPK2-specific serum antibody responses in the experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) mice models compared with controls. The ratio of bladder to body weight was increased in EAC mice. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed elevated gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-17A, and IL-1β in bladder urothelium but not in other organs. Evaluation of 24-h micturition habits of EAC mice showed significantly increased urinary frequency (p < 0.02) and significantly decreased urine output per void (p < 0.021) when compared with control mice.
Our study showed that a bladder-specific autoimmune response sufficient to induce inflammation and EAC occurs in mice following immunization with rmUPK2. EAC mice displayed significant evidence of urinary frequency and decreased urine output per void. Further phenotype characterization of EAC mice should include evidence for pain and/or afferent hypersensitivity, and evidence of urothelial cell layer damage.
Autoimmune; Animal model; Bladder; Cystitis; T cell