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2.  Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Serratia marcescens in China 
We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and examined the association of these determinants with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and/or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpCs) in Serratia marcescens isolates in China. In this study, the presence of PMQR determinants was significantly related to the coproduction of ESBLs and/or pAmpCs (CTX-M-14, SHV-5, DHA-1, and ACT-1), among which CTX-M-14 was the most common gene type.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00493-12
PMCID: PMC3421568  PMID: 22664965
3.  Inhibition of hepatitis B virus gene expression and replication by artificial microRNA 
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression by transfecting artificial microRNA (amiRNA) into HepG2.2.15 cells.
METHODS: Three amiRNA-HBV plasmids were constructed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells. HBV antigen secretion was detected in the cells with transient and stable transfection by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TRFIA). HBV DNA replication was examined by fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the level of HBV S mRNA was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: The efficiency of transient transfection of the vectors into 2.2.15 cells was 55%-60%. All the vectors had significant inhibition effects on HBsAg and HBeAg at 72 h and 96 h after transfection (P < 0.01 for all). The secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg into the supernatant was inhibited by 49.8% ± 4.7% and 39.9% ± 6.7%, respectively, at 72 h in amiRNA-HBV-S608 plasmid transfection group. The copy of HBV DNA within culture supernatant was also significantly decreased at 72 h and 96 h after transfection (P < 0.01 for all). In the cells with stable transfection, the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg into the supernatant was significantly inhibited in all three transfection groups (P < 0.01 for all, vs negative control). The copies of HBV DNA were inhibited by 33.4% ± 3.0%, 60.8% ± 2.3% and 70.1% ± 3.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In HepG2.2.15 cells, HBV replication and expression could be inhibited by artificial microRNA targeting the HBV S coding region. Vector-based artificial microRNA could be a promising therapeutic approach for chronic HBV infection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.4684
PMCID: PMC2738794  PMID: 18698684
Hepatitis B virus; RNA interference; Artificial microRNA; HepG2.2.15 cell
4.  Emergence of serogroup C meningococcal disease associated with a high mortality rate in Hefei, China 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:205.
Background
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C has emerged as a cause of epidemic disease in Hefei. The establishment of serogroup C as the predominant cause of endemic disease has not been described.
Methods
We conducted national laboratory-based surveillance for invasive meningococcal disease during 2000–2010. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing.
Results
A total of 845 cases of invasive meningococcal disease were reported. The incidence increased from 1.25 cases per 100,000 population in 2000 to 3.14 cases per 100,000 in 2003 (p < 0.001), and peaked at 8.43 cases per 100,000 in 2005. The increase was mainly the result of an increase in the incidence of serogroup C disease. Serogroup C disease increased from 2/23 (9%) meningococcal cases and 0.11 cases per 100,000 in 2000 to 33/58 (57%) cases and 1.76 cases per 100,000 in 2003 (p < 0.01). Patients infected with serogroup C had serious complications more frequently than those infected with other serogroups. Specifically, 161/493 (32.7%) cases infected with serogroup C had at least one complication. The case-fatality rate of serogroup C meningitis was 11.4%, significantly higher than for serogroup A meningitis (5.3%, p = 0.021). Among patients with meningococcal disease, factors associated with death in univariate analysis were age of 15–24 years, infection with serogroup C, and meningococcemia.
Conclusions
The incidence of meningococcal disease has substantially increased and serogroup C has become endemic in Hefei. The serogroup C strain has caused more severe disease than the previously predominant serogroup A strain.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-205
PMCID: PMC3459715  PMID: 22943188
Neisseria meningitidis; Serogroup C strain; Incidence
5.  Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia in an Infant with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease 
Annals of Dermatology  2012;24(2):200-202.
An 11-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital with fever, fussiness, poor feeding, vomiting, and tachypnea for two days prior. Physical examination revealed sporadic papules and vesicles occurring on his hands, feet, face, and perianal mucosa. Enterovirus 71 was identified from both throat swab and vesicle fluid using virus isolation techniques. The patient's heart rate fluctuated in a very narrow range from 180~210/beats/min regardless of his physiologic state. An electrocardiogram showed P-waves buried within or occurring just after regular, narrow, QRS complexes. The patient was diagnosed as having hand, foot, and mouth disease in combination with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). The child recovered well with symptomatic treatment, including intravenous administration of acyclovir, glucocorticoids, immunoglobulin, adenosine, and sotalol. PSVT was terminated within 36 hours of hospitalization. The skin lesions became crusted on the third day, and then proceeded to heal spontaneously. Here we report on this unusual case and review the associated literature.
doi:10.5021/ad.2012.24.2.200
PMCID: PMC3346912  PMID: 22577272
Electrocardiography; Hand; foot and mouth disease; Enterovirus 71; Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

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