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1.  Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Z172, a Vancomycin-Intermediate and Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Strain Isolated in Taiwan 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(6):e01011-13.
We report the complete genome sequence of Z172, a representative strain of sequence type 239-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type III (ST239-SCCmec type III) hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan. Strain Z172 also exhibits a vancomycin-intermediate and daptomycin-nonsusceptible phenotype.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.01011-13
PMCID: PMC3853063  PMID: 24309740
2.  mecA-Positive Staphylococcus aureus with Low-Level Oxacillin MIC in Taiwan 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(5):1679-1683.
Although the presence of mecA is the genotypic determinant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), certain MRSA strains, especially community-associated MRSA (C-MRSA), can display an oxacillin MIC in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute susceptible breakpoint range (≤2 μg/ml). Among 91 and 180 isolates thought to be methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) with oxacillin MICs of 2 and 1 μg/ml as determined by the Sensititre broth microdilution test initially, 52 (57.1%) and 6 (3.3%), respectively, were mecA positive. These mecA-positive low-oxacillin-MIC isolates belong to the dominant Taiwan C-MRSA clone (clonal complex [CC] 59), 56 of which carried SCCmec type V and were pvl positive, and 43 of which belonged to spa CC t437. All 271 isolates were retested by Sensititre, as well as by Vitek II and disk diffusion (DD). Based on the oxacillin results, the sensitivities of the Sensititre, Vitek II, and DD methods were 48.3% (28/58), 46.6% (27/58), and 89.6% (52/58), respectively. Although cefoxitin was better at detecting these isolates, 12.1, 10.4, and 5.2% of these isolates were still misidentified as MSSA by Sensititre, Vitek II, and DD, respectively. These results highlight the difficulty in the accurate identification of MRSA with borderline oxacillin MICs in the CC59:SCCmec V clone, which likely has contributed to its spread in the health care and community settings. Since this clone has now been detected in other countries, and since other C-MRSA lineages have also been found to have low-level β-lactam resistance, the findings of the present study may be relevant to other regions. Further studies are warranted to determine the extent and clinical impact of such misidentification.
doi:10.1128/JCM.06711-11
PMCID: PMC3347131  PMID: 22378906
3.  Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus M013, a pvl-Positive, ST59-SCCmec Type V Strain Isolated in Taiwan 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(5):1256-1257.
We report the complete genome sequence of M013, a representative strain of a pvl-positive, sequence type 59-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V (ST59-SCCmec type V) community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone in Taiwan. Comparison of M013 with the genomes of two CA-MRSA strains in the United States revealed major differences in the regions covering several genomic islands and prophages.
doi:10.1128/JB.06666-11
PMCID: PMC3294775  PMID: 22328755
5.  Genomic diversity of citrate fermentation in Klebsiella pneumoniae 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:168.
Background
It has long been recognized that Klebsiella pneumoniae can grow anaerobically on citrate. Genes responsible for citrate fermentation of K. pneumoniae were known to be located in a 13-kb gene cluster on the chromosome. By whole genome comparison of the available K. pneumoniae sequences (MGH 78578, 342, and NTUH-K2044), however, we discovered that the fermentation gene cluster was present in MGH 78578 and 342, but absent in NTUH-K2044. In the present study, the previously unknown genome diversity of citrate fermentation among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates was investigated.
Results
Using a genomic microarray containing probe sequences from multiple K. pneumoniae strains, we investigated genetic diversity among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates and found that a genomic region containing the citrate fermentation genes was not universally present in all strains. We confirmed by PCR analysis that the gene cluster was detectable in about half of the strains tested. To demonstrate the metabolic function of the genomic region, anaerobic growth of K. pneumoniae in artificial urine medium (AUM) was examined for ten strains with different clinical histories and genomic backgrounds, and the citrate fermentation potential was found correlated with the genomic region. PCR detection of the genomic region yielded high positive rates among a variety of clinical isolates collected from urine, blood, wound infection, and pneumonia. Conserved genetic organizations in the vicinity of the citrate fermentation gene clusters among K. pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli suggest that the13-kb genomic region were not independently acquired.
Conclusion
Not all, but nearly half of the K. pneumoniae clinical isolates carry the genes responsible for anaerobic growth on citrate. Genomic variation of citrate fermentation genes in K. pneumoniae may contribute to metabolic diversity and adaptation to variable nutrient conditions in different environments.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-168
PMCID: PMC2735749  PMID: 19682387
6.  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(11):1761-1763.
We found a virulent closely related clone (Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive, SCCmec V:ST59) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in inpatients and outpatients in Taiwan. The isolates were found mostly in wounds but were also detected in blood, ear, respiratory, and other specimens; all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
doi:10.3201/eid1111.050367
PMCID: PMC3367354  PMID: 16318733
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Community-associated MRSA, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), SCCmec V; dispatch
7.  Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: Nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) program 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:200.
Background
Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been published. Using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) conducted biennially, we investigated the secular change in resistance of 1640 ABC from 2002 to 2010 (TSAR period III to VII) to different antimicrobial agents and identified factors associated with imipenem-resistant and extensively drug-resistant ABC (IRABC and XDRABC).
Methods
Isolates were collected by TSAR from the same 26 hospitals located in all 4 regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. Isolates nonsusceptible to all tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors, and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between predictor variables among patients with resistant ABC and patients with non-resistant ABC.
Results
The prevalence of IRABC increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 58.7% in 2010 (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 2.138; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.947 to 2.347) and that of XDRABC increased from 1.3% in 2002 to 41.0% in 2010 (P < 0.001; OR, 1.970; 95% CI, 1.773-2.189). The rates of non-susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents remained high (>55%) over the years with some fluctuations before and after TSAR V (2006) on some agents. Multivariate analysis revealed that recovery from elderly patients, origins other than blood, from ICU settings, or geographic regions are independent factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC. Although the prevalence of XDRABC increased in all four regions of Taiwan over the years, central Taiwan had higher prevalence of XDRABC starting in 2008. Susceptibility to polymyxin remained high (99.8%).
Conclusions
This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed significant increase and nationwide emergence of IRABC and XDRABC in Taiwan over the years. This study also identified factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC to help guide empirical therapy and at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control measures with focused surveillance efforts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-200
PMCID: PMC3462144  PMID: 22929085
Extensively drug-resistant; Acinetobacter baumannii complex; Antimicrobial resistance
8.  High carriage rate of high-level penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Taiwan kindergarten associated with a case of pneumococcal meningitis 
Background
The Taiwan19F-14 Streptococcus pneumoniae clone and its variants are being found with increasing frequency in the Asia-Pacific region. A 5-year old child with S. pneumoniae meningitis caused by a high-level penicillin resistant strain (MIC = 4 μg/ml) was admitted to a hospital in southern Taiwan. We carried out a study to determine the potential source of this strain.
Methods
Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from all children attending the same kindergarten as the index case. To determine their relatedness all isolates were compared by serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results
A high proportion of the children including the index case (32/78, 41.0%) carried S. pneumoniae in their nasopharynx (NP). The most common serotype was 19F (13/32, 40.6%). The PFGE types of the 19F serotype isolates obtained from the patient's blood, CSF and NP were identical and were related to 11 other serotype 19F NP isolates including 10 that were indistinguishable from the Taiwan19F-14 clone. All 14 isolates had similar high-level penicillin and multi-drug resistance. The serotypes of the other 19 NP isolates included 6A (2), 6B (10), 23F (5), 9V (1) and 3 (1). The overall rate of penicillin resistance in these S. pneumoniae from these children was 87.5% (28/32), with an MIC50 of 2 and MIC90 of 4 ug/ml. In addition, multi-drug resistant-isolates (isolates resistant to 3 different classes of antimicrobials) accounted for 87.5% (28/32) of all isolates.
Conclusion
The high carriage rate of high-level penicillin- and multi-drug- resistant S. pneumoniae in a kindergarten associated with a case of pneumococcal meningitis emphasizes the need for restraint in antibiotic use and consideration of childhood immunization with conjugate pneumococcal vaccine to prevent the further spread of resistant S. pneumoniae in Taiwan.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-96
PMCID: PMC1289284  PMID: 16259643

Results 1-8 (8)