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1.  TIMP-1 gene polymorphism: are genetics able to predict outcome of septic patients? 
Critical Care  2013;17(4):170.
The multicenter study conducted by Lorente and coworkers - published in the previous issue of Critical Care - suggests that levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in association with the 372 T/C genetic polymorphism of TIMP-1 are promising markers to predict the clinical outcome of septic patients. TIMPs bind to active matrix metalloproteinases and, amongst other effects, inhibit their proteolytic activity of the extracellular matrix. Previous clinical studies showed increased plasma levels of TIMP-1 in nonsurvivors of sepsis, and showed associations between the 372 T/C genetic polymorphism of TIMP-1 and increased risk of developing certain diseases. In recent years, there has been great interest in understanding whether genetic determinants of the host response to systemic infections are associated with poor outcome. Furthermore, the pharmacogenomics of sepsis may allow us to target immune-modulating therapies. Measurement of TIMP-1 protein levels and TIMP-1 polymorphism 372 T/C in the intensive care setting could therefore be an attractive noninvasive tool to determine the outcome of septic patients, and might help to select patients potentially benefitting from a target-specific immune-modulatory therapy directed to matrix metalloproteinase/TIMP homeostasis.
doi:10.1186/cc12799
PMCID: PMC4056612  PMID: 23890414
2.  Alterations of leptin in the course of inflammation and severe sepsis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:217.
Background
The adipokine leptin regulates energy expenditure, vascular function, bone and cartilage growth as well as the immune system and systemic inflammatory response. Several activating effects towards T cells, monocytes, endothelium cells and cytokine production have been reported suggesting a protective role of leptin in the setting of an acute systemic inflammation. However, the pathophysiological role of leptin during severe sepsis is currently not elucidated in detail. This study aims to investigate leptin expression in cultured human adipocytes within an inflammatory model and in patients suffering from severe sepsis and evaluates treatment effects of drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA), the recombinant form of human activated protein C.
Methods
In an in-vitro inflammatory model of adipocyte cell-culture the effect of DAA on leptin mRNA expression was evaluated. Synthesis of mRNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Additionally, supernatants of these adipocytes as well as serum levels of adiponectin were measured in blood of 104 severe septic patients by ELISA-method. 26 patients were treated with DAA (DAA+), 78 patients were not treated with DAA (DAA-).
Results
Stimulation of human adipocytes with TNF alpha over 6 and 24 hours resulted in a significant decrease by 46% and 59% of leptin mRNA transcripts compared to un-stimulated controls (p < 0.05). Leptin levels of supernatants of adipocyte culture decreased by 25% and 23% (p < 0.05) after incubation with TNF alpha after 6 and 24 hours. Incubation with DAA at 50 ng/ml DAA and 5 μg/ml doubled mRNA expression significantly at 24 hours (p < 0.05) but not at 6 hours. From day 1 to day 3 of sepsis, leptin levels increased in DAA+ compared to DAA- patients (p<0.10).
Conclusions
Leptin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a systemic inflammatory response during sepsis. Administration of DAA significantly increased leptin expression. The specific mechanism or even benefit of DAA towards leptin needs further ongoing research.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-217
PMCID: PMC3462137  PMID: 22973876
Adipocytes; Drotrecogin alpha (activated); Leptin; mRNA; Sepsis; Supernatants
3.  Redox Responses in Patients with Sepsis: High Correlation of Thioredoxin-1 and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Plasma Levels 
Mediators of Inflammation  2010;2010:985614.
Background. Redox active substances (e.g., Thioredoxin-1, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) seem to be central hubs in the septic inflammatory process. Materials and Methods. Blood samples from patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (n = 15) were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis (t0), and 24 (t24) and 48 (t48) hours later; samples from healthy volunteers (n = 18) were collected once; samples from postoperative patients (n = 28) were taken one time immediately after surgery. In all patients, we measured plasma levels of IL-6, TRX1 and MIF. Results. The plasma levels of MIF and TRX1 were significantly elevated in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Furthermore, TRX1 and MIF plasma levels showed a strong correlation (t0: rsp = 0.720, ρ = 0.698/t24: rsp = 0.771, ρ = 0.949). Conclusions. Proinflammatory/~oxidative and anti-inflammatory/~oxidative agents show a high correlation in order to maintain a redox homeostasis and to avoid the harmful effects of an excessive inflammatory/oxidative response.
doi:10.1155/2010/985614
PMCID: PMC2929618  PMID: 20847814
4.  Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors: promising novel biomarkers in severe sepsis? 
Critical Care  2009;13(6):1006.
The multicenter study conducted by Lorente and coworkers published in the previous issue of Critical Care demonstrates that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-10 and their inhibitor tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) are promising novel biomarkers to predict severity and outcome of sepsis. In recent years MMPs have emerged as biomarkers in a variety of diseases, such as sepsis, coronary artery disease, cancer, heart failure, chronic lung disease and rheumatoid arthritis. MMPs constitute a family of proteinases that are expressed during developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes, for example as a response to infection. Excessive inflammation following infection may cause tissue damage, and MMPs are implicated in causing this immunopathology. The activity of MMPs is regulated by secretion of specific inhibitors (TIMPs). Studies using MMP inhibitors and MMP knockout mice indicate that MMPs play an essential role in infection and in the host response to infection. The measurement of MMP-9 and MMP-10 and their inhibitor TIMP-1 in the intensive care setting could be an attractive noninvasive tool for determination of outcome of septic patients.
doi:10.1186/cc8156
PMCID: PMC2811909  PMID: 20017890
5.  Cell death serum biomarkers are early predictors for survival in severe septic patients with hepatic dysfunction 
Critical Care  2009;13(3):R93.
Introduction
Severe sepsis, septic shock, and resulting organ failure represent the most common cause of death in intensive care medicine, with mortality ranging from 40% to 70%. It is still unclear whether necrosis or apoptosis plays the predominant role in severe sepsis. Determining the prevalent mode of cell death would be valuable, as new therapeutic agents (eg, antiapoptotic drugs such as caspase inhibitors) may improve unsatisfactory outcomes in patients with severe sepsis. Furthermore, the prognostic value of newly developed cell death serum biomarkers is of great interest.
Methods
In total, 147 patients (101 patients with severe sepsis, 28 postoperative patients after major abdominal surgery, 18 healthy volunteers) were enrolled. Baseline and clinical data were evaluated. Blood samples from patients with severe sepsis were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis, and 48 and 120 hours later; samples from healthy volunteers were collected once, and from postoperative patients, once immediately after surgery. We measured caspase-cleaved and uncleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18, intermediate filament protein) as a marker of cell death, isolated CK-18 fragments as a marker of apoptosis, as well as IL-6, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule.
Results
Age and sex of patients with severe sepsis and postoperative patients were comparable, whereas healthy volunteers were significantly younger. In healthy volunteers, the mode of cellular turnover was primarily apoptotic cell death. Postoperative patients showed comparable levels of apoptotic activity, but necrotic cell death was markedly increased, probably due to surgical tissue injury. In contrast, patients with severe sepsis, and especially non-survivors of the septic group showed increased levels of markers for both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. In severe septic patients with liver dysfunction, necrosis is increased relative to severe septic patients with intact hepatic function. For severe septic patients with liver dysfunction, a cut-off value for caspase-cleaved and uncleaved cytokeratin-18 could be calculated, in order to identify patients at high risk for death due to severe sepsis.
Conclusions
The measurement of caspase-cleaved and uncleaved cytokeratin-18 appears to be an early predictor for survival in severe septic patients with hepatic dysfunction. Furthermore, the loss of parenchymal cells due to necrosis may be the primary mode of cell death in these patients. This may limit possible therapeutic options.
doi:10.1186/cc7923
PMCID: PMC2717465  PMID: 19538738
6.  New horizons: NT-proBNP for risk stratification of patients with shock in the intensive care unit 
Critical Care  2006;10(2):134.
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) are promising cardiac biomarkers that have recently been shown to be of diagnostic value in decompensated heart failure, acute coronary syndromes and other conditions resulting in myocardial stretch and volume overload. In view of the high prevalence of cardiac disorders in the intensive care unit, the experience of elevated natriuretic peptide levels in the critically ill might be of enormous diagnostic and therapeutic value. BNP and NT-proBNP levels rise to different degrees in critical illness and may also serve as markers of severity and prognosis in diseases beyond acute or chronic heart failure. The diagnostic and prognostic use of natriuretic peptides in the intensive care setting for patients with various forms of shock could be an attractive alternative as noninvasive markers of cardiac dysfunction that could obviate the need for pulmonary artery catheterization in some patients.
doi:10.1186/cc4883
PMCID: PMC1550883  PMID: 16594987

Results 1-6 (6)