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1.  Primary musculoskeletal hydatid cyst of the thigh: Diagnostic and curative challenge for an unusual localization 
Primary muscular echinococcosis is an uncommon localization of hydatid cysts. The nonspecific clinical presentation and possible post-therapeutic complications lead to problems for the diagnosis of this infection and the support of the patient. The authors describe an unusual case of double hydatid cyst of the vastus intermedius muscle. After a precise preoperative evaluation based on clinical, radiological and biological examinations, a surgical excision by pericystectomy combined with perioperative chemotherapy enabled the authors to treat the patient and to prevent postoperative complications. The diagnostic tools and the treatment of this particular type of echinococcosis are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3852467  PMID: 24421841
Hydatid cyst; Muscular echinococcosis; Pericystectomy; Perioperative chemotherapy
2.  Evolving epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a two-year observational study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:287.
Current recommendations for empirical antimicrobial therapy in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are based on quite old trials. Since microbial epidemiology and the management of patients have changed, whether these recommendations are still appropriate must be confirmed.
An observational study that exhaustively collected the clinical and biological data associated with positive ascitic fluid cultures was conducted in four French university hospitals in 2010–2011.
Two hundred and sixty-eight documented positive cultures were observed in 190 cirrhotic patients (median age 61.5 years, 58.5% Child score C). Of these, 57 were classified as confirmed SBP and 140 as confirmed bacterascites. The predominant flora was Gram-positive cocci, whatever the situation (SBP, bacterascites, nosocomial/health-care related or not). Enteroccocci (27.7% E. faecium) were isolated in 24% of the episodes, and in 48% from patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis. E. coli were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate and to third-generation cephalosporins in 62.5% and 89.5% of cases, respectively. No single antibiotic allowed antimicrobial coverage of more than 60%. Only combinations such as amoxicillin + third-generation cephalosporin or cotrimoxazole allowed coverage close to 75-80% in non-nosocomial episodes. Combinations based on broader spectrum antibiotics should be considered for empirical therapy of nosocomial infections.
Our study confirmed the changing spectrum of pathogens in SBP and bacterascites, and the need for more complex antibiotic strategies than those previously recommended. Our findings also underline the need for new clinical trials conducted in the current epidemiological context.
PMCID: PMC4055793  PMID: 24884471
Bacterascites; Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Epidemiology; Antibiotic susceptibility; Resistance
3.  In Vitro Activity of Daptomycin against Enterococcus faecalis under Various Conditions of Growth-Phases, Inoculum and pH 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64218.
Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) has become a major leading cause of nosocomial endocarditis. Treatment of such infections remains problematic and new therapeutic options are needed. Nine E. faecalis strains were tested: six obtained from patients presenting endocarditis, one with isolated bacteremia, and two reference strains. Antibiotics included daptomycin, alone or in combination, linezolid, tigecycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, teicoplanin, ceftriaxone and amoxicillin. Time-kill studies included colony counts at 1, 4 and 24 h of incubation. Significant bactericidal activity was defined as a decrease of ≥3log10CFU/ml after 24 h of incubation. Antibiotics were tested at a low (106 CFU/ml) and high (109 CFU/ml) inoculum, against exponential- and stationary-phase bacteria. We also performed time kill studies of chemically growth arrested E. faecalis. Various pH conditions were used during the tests. In exponential growth phase and with a low inoculum, daptomycin alone at 60 µg/ml and the combination amoxicillin-gentamicin both achieved a 4-log10 reduction in one hour on all strains. In exponential growth phase with a high inoculum, daptomycin alone was bactericidal at a concentration of 120 µg/ml. All the combinations tested with this drug were indifferent. In stationary phase with a high inoculum daptomycin remained bactericidal but exhibited a pH dependent activity and slower kill rates. All combinations that did not include daptomycin were not bactericidal in conditions of high inoculum, whatever the growth phase. The results indicate that daptomycin is the only antibiotic that may be able of overcoming the effects of growth phase and high inoculum.
PMCID: PMC3660249  PMID: 23700464
4.  Cerebral vasculitis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:220.
Cerebral involvement in schistosomiasis is not rare, but it is underdiagnosed because of the lack of clinical suspicion and the frequency of asymptomatic forms. Neurologic complications are generally supported by granuloma formation around ectopic eggs which have migrated to the brain. Moreover, vascular lesions and cerebral arteritis have been well documented in histopathological studies. Nevertheless, cerebral vasculitis in later stages of the Schistosoma mansoni infection have not yet been described in living subjects.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old french woman had a stroke linked with cerebral vasculitis, 6 monthes after returning from Burkina-Faso. At the same time, a S. mansoni disseminated infection was diagnosed. She suffered from a new stroke after undertaking praziquantel therapy, which lead us to associate the S. mansoni infection and cerebral vasculitis.
This is the first report of such association, since cerebral vasculitis has never been described in later stages of the S. mansoni infection. Although the causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, we suggest that S. mansoni is able to cause severe vascular damage in cerebral vessels. Schistosomiasis must be investigated in the event of a brain infarct in young people, particularly in patients originating or returning from an endemic area.
PMCID: PMC3482565  PMID: 22978371
Stroke; Cerebral vasculitis; Schistosoma mansoni; Corticosteroid; Praziquantel
5.  Two Cases of Orbital Myositis as a Rare Feature of Lyme Borreliosis 
Myositis has been reported as a rare manifestation of Lyme disease, and the Lyme disease spirochetes can be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of unusual cases of myositis, especially in patients who live in or travel to endemic areas. We report the case of two patients who presented with focal orbital myositis which are rare localization for Lyme disease. Myositis were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis criteria for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infection was supported by (i) medical history (tick bite in an endemic area), (ii) systemic clinical findings (Erythema migrans, neurological manifestation or arthritis), (iii) positive Lyme serology and/or the detection of B. burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction, as well as (iv) exclusion of other infectious and inflammatory causes. The current cases are reviewed in the context of findings from previous myositis descriptions.
PMCID: PMC3336248  PMID: 22567470
6.  Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Patients, Europe 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(1):114-116.
We report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in France. A severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks. Diagnosis was obtained from blood smears, and Babesia divergens was identified by PCR in 1 case. Babesiosis in Europe occurs in healthy patients, not only in splenectomized patients.
PMCID: PMC3204631  PMID: 21192869
Babesia; Anaplasma; babesiosis; tick-borne infection; parasite; zoonoses; immunocompetent; Europe; dispatch
7.  Minocycline-induced hypersensitivity syndrome presenting with meningitis and brain edema: a case report 
Hypersentivity Syndrome (HS) may be a life-threatening condition. It frequently presents with fever, rash, eosinophilia and systemic manifestations. Mortality can be as high as 10% and is primarily due to hepatic failure. We describe what we believe to be the first case of minocycline-induced HS with accompanying lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema reported in the literature.
Case presentation
A 31-year-old HIV-positive female of African origin presented with acute fever, lymphocytic meningitis, brain edema, rash, eosinophilia, and cytolytic hepatitis. She had been started on minocycline for inflammatory acne 21 days prior to the onset of symptoms. HS was diagnosed clinically and after exclusion of infectious causes. Minocycline was withdrawn and steroids were administered from the second day after presentation because of the severity of the symptoms. All signs resolved by the seventh day and steroids were tailed off over a period of 8 months.
Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for serious adverse reactions to minocycline including lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema among HIV-positive patients, especially if they are of African origin. Safer alternatives should be considered for treatment of acne vulgaris. Early recognition of the symptoms and prompt withdrawal of the drug are important to improve the outcome.
PMCID: PMC1884162  PMID: 17511865
8.  A new ELISA kit which uses a combination of Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens as an alternative to IFAT for detection of malaria antibodies 
Malaria Journal  2007;6:19.
The methods most commonly used to measure malarial antibody titres are the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT), regarded as the gold standard, and the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The objective here was to assess the diagnostic performance, i.e. the sensitivity and specificity, of a new malaria antibody ELISA kit in comparison to IFAT. This new ELISA kit, the ELISA malaria antibody test (DiaMed), uses a combination of crude soluble Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens.
Two groups were used: 95 samples from malaria patients to assess the clinical sensitivity and 2,152 samples from blood donors, who had not been exposed to malaria, to assess the clinical specificity.
The DiaMed ELISA test kit had a clinical sensitivity of 84.2% and a clinical specificity of 99.6% as compared with 70.5% and 99.6% respectively, using the IFAT method. The ELISA method was more sensitive than the IFAT method for P. vivax infections (75% vs. 25%). However, in 923 malaria risk donors the analytical sensitivity of the ELISA test was 40% and its specificity 98.3%, performances impaired by large numbers of equivocal results non-concordant between ELISA and IFAT. When the overall analytical performances of ELISA was compared to IFAT, the ELISA efficiency J index was 0.84 versus 0.71 for IFAT. Overall analytical sensitivity was 93.1% and the analytical specificity 96.7%. Overall agreement between the two methods reached 0.97 with a reliability k index of 0.64.
The DiaMed ELISA test kit shows a good correlation with IFAT for analytical and clinical parameters. It may be an interesting method to replace the IFAT especially in blood banks, but further extensive investigations are needed to examine the analytical performance of the assay, especially in a blood bank setting.
PMCID: PMC1819385  PMID: 17313669
9.  Diagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease with Detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a Study of Patients with Lymph Node Enlargement 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(8):3800-3806.
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy alongside the classical criteria. Over a 7-year period, lymph node biopsy specimens or cytopunctures from 70 patients were systematically tested by PCR for the presence of B. henselae DNA (htrA gene) in the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg. Serological testing by an immunofluorescence assay for B. henselae antibodies was also performed for each patient, and clinical, epidemiological, and histological data were collected. The patients were then divided into two groups according to the number of positive diagnostic criteria for CSD: 29 patients with definite CSD (two or more classical criteria) and 15 patients with possible CSD (less than two classical criteria). The remaining 26 patients for whom another diagnosis was retained were used as a control group. Among all criteria, PCR analysis had the best specificity (100%). The PCR assay for B. henselae was positive for 22 (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 56.5 to 89.7%) of the 29 definite CSD patients and 3 (20%; CI95, 4.3 to 48.1%) of the 15 possible CSD patients. We then studied combinations of diagnostic criteria, including B. henselae PCR analysis. The best diagnostic performance was observed if at least two criteria were present among serologic, epidemiologic, histological, and molecular criteria.
PMCID: PMC1233974  PMID: 16081914
10.  Usefulness of PCR Analysis for Diagnosis of Alveolar Echinococcosis with Unusual Localizations: Two Case Studies 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(12):5954-5956.
The report presents two cases where diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis was confirmed by Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus PCR. The extrahepatic osseous involvement and the absence of initial hepatic involvement are unusual in both cases. Due to limitations of serological interpretation, PCR was useful to diagnose atypical echinococcosis.
PMCID: PMC535253  PMID: 15583352
11.  Invasion and Persistent Intracellular Colonization of Erythrocytes 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2001;193(9):1077-1086.
The expanding genus Bartonella includes zoonotic and human-specific pathogens that can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations. A productive infection allowing bacterial transmission by blood-sucking arthropods is marked by an intraerythrocytic bacteremia that occurs exclusively in specific human or animal reservoir hosts. Incidental human infection by animal-adapted bartonellae can cause disease without evidence for erythrocyte parasitism. A better understanding of the intraerythrocytic lifestyle of bartonellae may permit the design of strategies to control the reservoir and transmittable stages of these emerging pathogens. We have dissected the process of Bartonella erythrocyte parasitism in experimentally infected animals using a novel approach for tracking blood infections based on flow cytometric quantification of green fluorescent protein–expressing bacteria during their interaction with in vivo–biotinylated erythrocytes. Bacteremia onset occurs several days after inoculation by a synchronous wave of bacterial invasion into mature erythrocytes. Intracellular bacteria replicate until reaching a stagnant number, which is sustained for the remaining life span of the infected erythrocyte. The initial wave of erythrocyte infection is followed by reinfection waves occurring at intervals of several days. Our findings unravel a unique bacterial persistence strategy adapted to a nonhemolytic intracellular colonization of erythrocytes that preserves the pathogen for efficient transmission by blood-sucking arthropods.
PMCID: PMC2193435  PMID: 11342592
Bartonella; erythrocyte parasitism; flow cytometry; GFP; whole blood biotinylation

Results 1-11 (11)