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1.  The Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Non-Serotype B Disease in Ontario, Canada from 2004 to 2013 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(11):e0142179.
Background
Since the widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib) vaccines among children aged <5 years, an increase in invasive non-Hib disease incidence has been reported internationally. We sought to describe the epidemiology of invasive non-Hib disease in Ontario, Canada (population ~13.5 million).
Methods
Confirmed invasive non-Hib cases (non-typeable [NTHi] and serotypes a, c, d, e, and f) were obtained from the provincial laboratory data system from 2004–2013. Data were deterministically linked to the provincial reportable disease system to provide further case information. Antibiotic resistance data were analysed separately from 2010–2014. Descriptive analyses included incidence rates, age group, serotype, site of specimen collection and resistance patterns; ethnicity data were not available. Temporal trends were evaluated by Poisson regression and p-values <0.05 were considered significant.
Results
A total of 1307 cases of invasive non-Hib disease were included, increasing from 0.67 cases to 1.60 cases /100,000 from 2004 to 2013. Significant increases in the incidence of NTHi (0.50 to 1.28 cases/100 000 population), Hia (0.02 to 0.08 cases/100, 000) and Hif (0.13 to 0.18 cases/100, 000 population) were seen. Among persons aged 40–64 years, 3 Hi strains significantly increased over time; NTHi (0.22 to 0.99 cases/100, 000), Hia (0.00 to 0.06 cases/100, 000) and Hif (0.05 to 0.21 cases/100, 000). Among persons aged 65–84 years, there was a significant increase of NTHi (1.62 to 3.14 cases/100, 000) and Hia (0.00 to 0.34 cases/100, 000). Among persons aged 85+ years, only NTHi significantly increased from 4.89 to 10.28 cases/100, 000). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to ampicillin and clarithromycin was seen in greater than 25% of isolates but AMR did not increase over the duration of this study.
Conclusions
The incidence of invasive non-Hib disease has increased over time; NTHi, Hif and Hia are emerging pathogens, and should be monitored.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142179
PMCID: PMC4646341  PMID: 26569613
2.  Correlation of Real Time PCR Cycle Threshold Cut-Off with Bordetella pertussis Clinical Severity 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0133209.
Bordetella pertussis testing performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is interpreted based on a cycle threshold (Ct) value. At Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL), a Ct value <36 is reported as positive, and Ct values ≥36 and <40 are reported as indeterminate. PHOL reported indeterminate results to physicians and public health units until May 2012, after which these results were only reported to physicians. We investigated the association between Ct value and disease symptom and severity to examine the significance of indeterminate results clinically, epidemiologically and for public health reporting. B. pertussis positive and indeterminate RT-PCR results were linked to pertussis cases reported in the provincial Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), using deterministic linkage. Patients with positive RT-PCR results had a lower median age of 10.8 years compared to 12.0 years for patients with indeterminate results (p = 0.24). Hospitalized patients had significantly lower Ct values than non-hospitalized patients (median Ct values of 20.7 vs. 31.6, p<0.001). The proportion of patients reporting the most indicative symptoms of pertussis did not differ between patients with positive vs. indeterminate RT-PCR results. Taking the most indicative symptoms of pertussis as the gold-standard, the positive predictive value of the RT-PCR test was 68.1%. RT-PCR test results should be interpreted in the context of the clinical symptoms, age, vaccination status, prevalence, and other factors. Further information on interpretation of indeterminate RT-PCR results may be needed, and the utility of reporting to public health practitioners should be re-evaluated.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133209
PMCID: PMC4505870  PMID: 26186564
3.  Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:202.
Background
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada.
Methods
We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant (<1 year) age-specific incidence multiplied by expected vaccine efficacies between 70% and 80%, and assuming only direct protection (no herd effects).
Results
A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were <6 months. Infants had the highest incidence (3.70/100,000). Case-fatality ratio was 10.7% overall. If we assume that all infant cases would be preventable by vaccination, we would need to vaccinate between 33,784 and 38,610 infants to prevent one case of disease.
Conclusions
Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-202
PMCID: PMC3472197  PMID: 22928839
Invasive meningococcal disease; Neisseria meningitidis; Serogroup B; Epidemiology; Surveillance; Ontario; Canada
4.  Bile Salts Induce Resistance to Polymyxin in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coliO157:H7 ▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(17):4509-4515.
Many enteric bacteria use bile as an environmental cue to signal resistance and virulence gene expression. Microarray analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coliO157:H7 (EHEC) treated with bile salts revealed upregulation of genes for an efflux system (acrAB), a two-component signal transduction system (basRS/pmrAB), and lipid A modification (arnBCADTEFand ugd). Bile salt treatment of EHEC produced a basS- and arnT-dependent resistance to polymyxin.
doi:10.1128/JB.00200-11
PMCID: PMC3165498  PMID: 21725004

Results 1-4 (4)