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1.  In Vitro Activity of Daptomycin against Enterococcus faecalis under Various Conditions of Growth-Phases, Inoculum and pH 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64218.
Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) has become a major leading cause of nosocomial endocarditis. Treatment of such infections remains problematic and new therapeutic options are needed. Nine E. faecalis strains were tested: six obtained from patients presenting endocarditis, one with isolated bacteremia, and two reference strains. Antibiotics included daptomycin, alone or in combination, linezolid, tigecycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, teicoplanin, ceftriaxone and amoxicillin. Time-kill studies included colony counts at 1, 4 and 24 h of incubation. Significant bactericidal activity was defined as a decrease of ≥3log10CFU/ml after 24 h of incubation. Antibiotics were tested at a low (106 CFU/ml) and high (109 CFU/ml) inoculum, against exponential- and stationary-phase bacteria. We also performed time kill studies of chemically growth arrested E. faecalis. Various pH conditions were used during the tests. In exponential growth phase and with a low inoculum, daptomycin alone at 60 µg/ml and the combination amoxicillin-gentamicin both achieved a 4-log10 reduction in one hour on all strains. In exponential growth phase with a high inoculum, daptomycin alone was bactericidal at a concentration of 120 µg/ml. All the combinations tested with this drug were indifferent. In stationary phase with a high inoculum daptomycin remained bactericidal but exhibited a pH dependent activity and slower kill rates. All combinations that did not include daptomycin were not bactericidal in conditions of high inoculum, whatever the growth phase. The results indicate that daptomycin is the only antibiotic that may be able of overcoming the effects of growth phase and high inoculum.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064218
PMCID: PMC3660249  PMID: 23700464
2.  Cerebral vasculitis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:220.
Background
Cerebral involvement in schistosomiasis is not rare, but it is underdiagnosed because of the lack of clinical suspicion and the frequency of asymptomatic forms. Neurologic complications are generally supported by granuloma formation around ectopic eggs which have migrated to the brain. Moreover, vascular lesions and cerebral arteritis have been well documented in histopathological studies. Nevertheless, cerebral vasculitis in later stages of the Schistosoma mansoni infection have not yet been described in living subjects.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old french woman had a stroke linked with cerebral vasculitis, 6 monthes after returning from Burkina-Faso. At the same time, a S. mansoni disseminated infection was diagnosed. She suffered from a new stroke after undertaking praziquantel therapy, which lead us to associate the S. mansoni infection and cerebral vasculitis.
Conclusion
This is the first report of such association, since cerebral vasculitis has never been described in later stages of the S. mansoni infection. Although the causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, we suggest that S. mansoni is able to cause severe vascular damage in cerebral vessels. Schistosomiasis must be investigated in the event of a brain infarct in young people, particularly in patients originating or returning from an endemic area.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-220
PMCID: PMC3482565  PMID: 22978371
Stroke; Cerebral vasculitis; Schistosoma mansoni; Corticosteroid; Praziquantel
3.  Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Patients, Europe 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(1):114-116.
We report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in France. A severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks. Diagnosis was obtained from blood smears, and Babesia divergens was identified by PCR in 1 case. Babesiosis in Europe occurs in healthy patients, not only in splenectomized patients.
doi:10.3201/eid1701.100737
PMCID: PMC3204631  PMID: 21192869
Babesia; Anaplasma; babesiosis; tick-borne infection; parasite; zoonoses; immunocompetent; Europe; dispatch
4.  Minocycline-induced hypersensitivity syndrome presenting with meningitis and brain edema: a case report 
Background
Hypersentivity Syndrome (HS) may be a life-threatening condition. It frequently presents with fever, rash, eosinophilia and systemic manifestations. Mortality can be as high as 10% and is primarily due to hepatic failure. We describe what we believe to be the first case of minocycline-induced HS with accompanying lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema reported in the literature.
Case presentation
A 31-year-old HIV-positive female of African origin presented with acute fever, lymphocytic meningitis, brain edema, rash, eosinophilia, and cytolytic hepatitis. She had been started on minocycline for inflammatory acne 21 days prior to the onset of symptoms. HS was diagnosed clinically and after exclusion of infectious causes. Minocycline was withdrawn and steroids were administered from the second day after presentation because of the severity of the symptoms. All signs resolved by the seventh day and steroids were tailed off over a period of 8 months.
Conclusion
Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for serious adverse reactions to minocycline including lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema among HIV-positive patients, especially if they are of African origin. Safer alternatives should be considered for treatment of acne vulgaris. Early recognition of the symptoms and prompt withdrawal of the drug are important to improve the outcome.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-22
PMCID: PMC1884162  PMID: 17511865
5.  Diagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease with Detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a Study of Patients with Lymph Node Enlargement 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(8):3800-3806.
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy alongside the classical criteria. Over a 7-year period, lymph node biopsy specimens or cytopunctures from 70 patients were systematically tested by PCR for the presence of B. henselae DNA (htrA gene) in the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg. Serological testing by an immunofluorescence assay for B. henselae antibodies was also performed for each patient, and clinical, epidemiological, and histological data were collected. The patients were then divided into two groups according to the number of positive diagnostic criteria for CSD: 29 patients with definite CSD (two or more classical criteria) and 15 patients with possible CSD (less than two classical criteria). The remaining 26 patients for whom another diagnosis was retained were used as a control group. Among all criteria, PCR analysis had the best specificity (100%). The PCR assay for B. henselae was positive for 22 (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 56.5 to 89.7%) of the 29 definite CSD patients and 3 (20%; CI95, 4.3 to 48.1%) of the 15 possible CSD patients. We then studied combinations of diagnostic criteria, including B. henselae PCR analysis. The best diagnostic performance was observed if at least two criteria were present among serologic, epidemiologic, histological, and molecular criteria.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.8.3800-3806.2005
PMCID: PMC1233974  PMID: 16081914
6.  Introduction of SARS in France, March–April, 2003 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(2):195-200.
We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in France. Patients meeting the World Health Organization definition of a suspected case underwent a clinical, radiologic, and biologic assessment at the closest university-affiliated infectious disease ward. Suspected cases were immediately reported to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. Probable case-patients were isolated, their contacts quarantined at home, and were followed for 10 days after exposure. Five probable cases occurred from March through April 2003; four were confirmed as SARS coronavirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, serologic testing, or both. The index case-patient (patient A), who had worked in the French hospital of Hanoi, Vietnam, was the most probable source of transmission for the three other confirmed cases; two had been exposed to patient A while on the Hanoi-Paris flight of March 22–23. Timely detection, isolation of probable cases, and quarantine of their contacts appear to have been effective in preventing the secondary spread of SARS in France.
doi:10.3201/eid1002.030351
PMCID: PMC3322920  PMID: 15030682
severe acute respiratory syndrome; epidemiology; transmission; coronavirus; commercial flight; research

Results 1-6 (6)