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1.  Long-term trends in Anopheles gambiae insecticide resistance in Côte d’Ivoire 
Parasites & Vectors  2014;7(1):500.
Malaria control is heavily dependent on the use of insecticides that target adult mosquito vectors via insecticide treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). Four classes of insecticide are approved for IRS but only pyrethroids are available for ITNs. The rapid rise in insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors has raised alarms about the sustainability of existing malaria control activities. This problem might be particularly acute in Côte d’Ivoire where resistance to all four insecticide classes has recently been recorded. Here we investigate temporal trends in insecticide resistance across the ecological zones of Côte d’Ivoire to determine whether apparent pan-African patterns of increasing resistance are detectable and consistent across insecticides and areas.
We combined data on insecticide resistance from a literature review, and bioassays conducted on field-caught Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes for the four WHO-approved insecticide classes for ITN/IRS. The data were then mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the IR mapper tool to provide spatial and temporal distribution data on insecticide resistance in An. gambiae sensu lato from Côte d’Ivoire between 1993 and 2014.
Bioassay mortality decreased over time for all insecticide classes, though with significant spatiotemporal variation, such that stronger declines were observed in the southern ecological zone for DDT and pyrethroids than in the central zone, but with an apparently opposite effect for the carbamate and organophosphate. Variation in relative abundance of the molecular forms, coupled with dramatic increase in kdr 1014F frequency in M forms (An. coluzzii) seems likely to be a contributory factor to these patterns. Although records of resistance across insecticide classes have become more common, the number of classes tested in studies has also increased, precluding a conclusion that multiple resistance has also increased.
Our analyses attempted synthesis of 22 years of bioassay data from Côte d’Ivoire, and despite a number of caveats and potentially confounding variables, suggest significant but spatially-variable temporal trends in insecticide resistance. In the light of such spatio-temporal dynamics, regular, systematic and spatially-expanded monitoring is warranted to provide accurate information on insecticide resistance for control programme management.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-014-0500-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4269959  PMID: 25429888
Malaria intervention; Pyrethroid; Carbamate; Organochlorine; Organophosphate; Multiple resistance; kdr
2.  Increase in susceptibility to insecticides with aging of wild Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Côte d’Ivoire 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:214.
Appropriate monitoring of vector insecticide susceptibility is required to provide the rationale for optimal insecticide selection in vector control programs.
In order to assess the influence of mosquito age on susceptibility to various insecticides, field-collected larvae of An. gambiae s.l. from Tiassalé were reared to adults. Females aged 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 days were exposed to 5 insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, malathion and propoxur) using WHO susceptibility test kits. Outcome measures included the LT50 (exposure time required to achieve 50% knockdown), the RR (resistance ratio, i.e. a calculation of how much more resistant the wild population is compared with a standard susceptible strain) and the mortality rate following 1 hour exposure, for each insecticide and each mosquito age group.
There was a positive correlation between the rate of knockdown and mortality for all the age groups and for all insecticides tested. For deltamethrin, the RR50 was highest for 2 day old and lowest for 10 day old individuals. Overall, mortality was lowest for 2 and 3 day old individuals and significantly higher for 10 day old individuals (P < 0.05). With permethrin, the RR50 was highest for 1 to 3 day old individuals and lowest for 10 day old individuals and mortality was lowest for 1 to 3 day old individuals, intermediate for 5 day old and highest for 10 day old individuals. DDT did not display any knockdown effect and mortality was low for all mosquito age groups (<7%). With malathion, the RR50 was low (1.54 - 2.77) and mortality was high (>93%) for all age groups. With propoxur, no knockdown effect was observed for 1, 2 and 3 day old individuals and a very low level of mortality was observed (< 4%), which was significantly higher for 5 and 10 day old individuals (30%, P < 0.01).
Results indicate that for An. gambiae s.l. adults derived from wild-collected larvae, there was an influence of age on insecticide susceptibility status, with younger individuals (1 to 3 days old) more resistant than older mosquitoes. This indicates that the use of 1 – 2 day old mosquitoes in susceptibility assays as recommended by the WHO should facilitate detection of resistance at the stage where the highest rate of the resistance phenotype is present.
PMCID: PMC3482577  PMID: 22974492
Anopheles gambiae age; Insecticide resistance; Vector control
3.  Trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from urban and agro-industrial settings in southern Cameroon 
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for insect pest control in Cameroon. In certain insect species, particularly the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, resistance to this class of insecticides is a source of great concern and needs to be monitored in order to sustain the efficacy of vector control operations in the fields. This study highlights trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in wild An. gambiae populations from South Cameroon.
Mosquitoes were collected between 2001 and 2007 in four sites in South Cameroon, where insecticides are used for agricultural or personal protection purposes. Insecticide use was documented in each site by interviewing residents. Batches of 2-4 days old adult female mosquitoes reared from larval collections were tested for susceptibility to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin using standard WHO procedures. Control, dead and survivors mosquitoes from bioassays were identified by PCR-RFLP and characterized for the kdr mutations using either the AS-PCR or the HOLA method.
Four chemical insecticide groups were cited in the study sites: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. These chemicals were used for personal, crop or wood protection. In the four An. gambiae populations tested, significant variation in resistance levels, molecular forms composition and kdr frequencies were recorded in the time span of the study. Increases in DDT and pyrethroid resistance, as observed in most areas, were generally associated with an increase in the relative frequency of the S molecular form carrying the kdr mutations at higher frequencies. In Mangoum, however, where only the S form was present, a significant increase in the frequency of kdr alleles between 2003 to 2007 diverged with a decrease of the level of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Analyses of the kdr frequencies in dead and surviving mosquitoes showed partial correlation between the kdr genotypes and resistance phenotypes, suggesting that the kdr mechanism may act with certain co-factors to be identified.
These results demonstrate the ongoing spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae in Central Africa. The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance in this highly dynamic and genetically polymorphic species remains a challenge for its control.
PMCID: PMC2764715  PMID: 19793389
4.  Efficacy of bifenthrin-impregnated bednets against Anopheles funestus and pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae in North Cameroon 
Malaria Journal  2006;5:77.
Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr) gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential to evaluate ITNs efficacy in areas with metabolic-based resistance.
Bifenthrin was used in this experiment because it is considered a promising candidate for bednets impregnation. Nets were treated at 50 mg/m2, a dose that has high insecticidal activity on kdr mosquitoes and at 5 mg/m2, a dose that kills 95% of susceptible mosquitoes under laboratory conditions with 3 minutes exposure. Bednets were holed to mimic physical damage. The trial was conducted in three experimental huts from Pitoa, North-Cameroon where Anopheles gambiae displays metabolic resistance and cohabits with An. funestus.
Bifenthrin at 50 mg/m2 significantly reduced anophelines' entry rate (>80%). This was not observed at 5 mg/m2. Both treatments increased exophily in An. gambiae, and to a lesser extent in An. funestus. With bifenthrin at high dosage, over 60% reduction in blood feeding and 75–90% mortality rates were observed in both vectors. Despite presence of holes, only a single An. gambiae and two An. funestus females were collected inside the treated net, and all were found dead. The same trends were observed with low dosage bifenthrin though in most cases, no significant difference was found with the untreated control net.
Bifenthrin-impregnated bednets at 50 mg/m2 were efficient in the reduction of human-vector contact in Pitoa. Considerable personal protection was gained against An. funestus and metabolic pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae populations.
PMCID: PMC1584243  PMID: 16961938

Results 1-4 (4)