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1.  Location, Location, Location: How Does a Spermatogonium Know It Is a Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC)?1 
Biology of Reproduction  2013;88(5):132.
In this issue of Biology of Reproduction, de Rooij and van Beek describe a computer model simulating the population dynamics and interactions of SSCs and their descendants in and around the spermatogonial niche.
doi:10.1095/biolreprod.113.110189
PMCID: PMC4013916  PMID: 23616590
2.  A risk factor analysis of healthcare-associated fungal infections in an intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
The incidence of fungal healthcare-associated infection (HAI) has increased in a major teaching hospital in the northern part of Taiwan over the past decade, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that were responsible for the outbreak and trend in the ICU.
Methods
Surveillance fungal cultures were obtained from “sterile” objects, antiseptic solutions, environment of infected patients and hands of medical personnel. Risk factors for comparison included age, gender, admission service, and total length of stay in the ICU, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at admission to the ICU, main diagnosis on ICU admission, use of invasive devices, receipt of hemodialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, history of antibiotic therapy before HAI or during ICU stay in no HAI group, and ICU discharge status (ie, dead or alive). Univariable analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors for ICU fungal HAIs and ICU mortality.
Results
There was a significant trend in ICU fungal HAIs from 1998 to 2009 (P < 0.001). A total of 516 episodes of ICU fungal HAIs were identified; the rates of various infections were urinary tract infection (UTI) (54.8%), blood stream infection (BSI) (30.6%), surgical site infection (SSI) (6.6%), pneumonia (4.5%), other sites (3.5%). The fungi identified were: yeasts (54.8%), Candida albicans (27.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.6%), Candida glabrata (6.6%), Candida parapsilosis (1.9%), Candida species (0.8%), and other fungi (1.9%). Candida albicans accounted for 63% of all Candida species. Yeasts were found in the environment of more heavily infected patients. The independent risk factors (P < 0.05) of developing ICU fungal HAIs from all sites were TPN use, sepsis, surgical patients, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal UTI included TPN use, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal BSI included TPN use, sepsis, and higher APACHE II score. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal pneumonia included TPN use, surgical patients. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal SSI included surgical patients, and TPN use. The odds ratios of TPN use in various infection types ranged from 3.51 to 8.82. The risk of mortality in patients with ICU fungal HAIs was over 2 times that of patients without ICU HAIs in the multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
There was a secular trend of an increasing number of fungal HAIs in our ICU over the past decade. Patients with ICU fungal HAIs had a significantly higher mortality rate than did patients without ICU HAIs. Total parenteral nutrition was a significant risk factor for all types of ICU fungal HAIs, and its use should be monitored closely.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-10
PMCID: PMC3548709  PMID: 23298156
Intensive care unit; Fungal infection; Outbreak surveillance; Candida; Total parenteral nutrition
3.  Surveillance on secular trends of incidence and mortality for device–associated infection in the intensive care unit setting at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan, 2000–2008: A retrospective observational study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:209.
Background
Device–associated infection (DAI) plays an important part in nosocomial infection. Active surveillance and infection control are needed to disclose the specific situation in each hospital and to cope with this problem effectively. We examined the rates of DAI by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and 30–day and in–hospital mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods
Prospective surveillance was conducted in a mixed medical and surgical ICU at a major teaching hospital from 2000 through 2008. Trend analysis was performed and logistic regression was used to assess prognostic factors of mortality.
Results
The overall rate of DAIs was 3.03 episodes per 1000 device–days. The most common DAI type was catheter–associated urinary tract infection (3.76 per 1000 urinary catheter–days). There was a decrease in DAI rates in 2005 and rates of ventilator–associated pneumonia (VAP, 3.18 per 1000 ventilator–days) have remained low since then (p < 0.001). The crude rates of 30–day (33.6%) and in–hospital (52.3%) mortality, as well as infection by antibiotic-resistant VAP pathogens also decreased. The most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens were methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus (94.9%) and imipenem–resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (p < 0.001), which also increased at the most rapid rate. The rate of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae also increased significantly (p < 0.05). After controlling for potentially confounding factors, the DAI was an independent prognostic factor for both 30–day mortality (OR 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99–3.17, p = 0.001) and in–hospital mortality (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.10–3.25, p < 0.001).
Conclusions
The decrease in the rate of DAI and infection by resistant bacteria on the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome can be attributed to active infection control and improved adherence after 2003.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-209
PMCID: PMC3458996  PMID: 22963041
Surveillance; Secular trend; Device–associated infection; Intensive care unit; Infection control
4.  High-dose daptomycin and fosfomycin treatment of a patient with endocarditis caused by daptomycin-nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Case report 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:152.
Background
Emergence of daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus is a dreadful problem in the treatment of endocarditis. Few current therapeutic agents are effective for treating infections caused by DNS S. aureus.
Case presentation
We describe the emergence of DNS S. aureus. in a patient with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) device -related endocarditis who was priorily treated with daptomycin. Metastatic dissemination as osteomyelitis further complicated the management of endocarditis. The dilemma was successfully managed by surgical removal of the ICD device and combination antimicrobial therapy with high-dose daptomycin and fosfomycin.
Conclusions
Surgical removal of intracardiac devices remains an important adjunctive measure in the treatment of endocarditis. Our case suggests that combination therapy is more favorable than single-agent therapy for infections caused by DNS S. aureus.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-152
PMCID: PMC3119071  PMID: 21612672
Daptomycin-nonsusceptible; fosfomycin; ICD device-related endocarditis
5.  2-[(1,3-Benzothia­zol-2-yl)imino­meth­yl]phenol 
The title compound, C14H10N2OS, is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.0698 (13) Å from the mean plane, and exists in an E configuration with respect to the C=N bond. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 2.81 (9)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond and inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809007934
PMCID: PMC2968841  PMID: 21582471

Results 1-5 (5)