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Year of Publication
1.  Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2015;21(2):316-319.
Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin.
doi:10.3201/eid2102.140850
PMCID: PMC4313641  PMID: 25625653
Fleas; murine typhus; Reunion; rodents; bacteria; zoonoses; vector-borne infections; France
2.  A Fatal Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Infection in a Traveler Returning from Madagascar: Clinical, Epidemiological and Veterinary Investigations 
A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1–36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0003
PMCID: PMC3741238  PMID: 23751400
3.  Chronic Bickerstaff’s encephalitis with cognitive impairment, a reality? 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:99.
Background
Bickerstaff’s encephalitis (BE) is an acute post-infectious demyelinating disease with albuminocytological dissociation. A chronic form has rarely been described previously.
Case presentation
A 44-year-old man was hospitalized for drowsiness, cognitive complaint limb weakness, ataxia and sensory disturbance after diarrhea. Neuropsychological evaluation showed slowing, memory and executive function impairment, while analysis of the CSF showed albuminocytological dissociation. Immunologic tests showed positive anti-ganglioside antibodies (anti-GM1 IgM, anti-GD1a IgG and anti-GD1b IgM). Brain MRI was normal but SPECT showed bilateral temporal and frontal hypoperfusion. Outcome under immunoglobulin treatment (IVIG) was favorable with an initial improvement but was marked by worsening after a few weeks. Consequently, the patient was treated with IVIG every 2 months due to the recurrence of symptoms after 6 weeks.
Conclusion
This case raises the question of the existence of a chronic form of BE with cognitive impairment, in the same way as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is considered to be a chronic form of Guillain–Barré syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-14-99
PMCID: PMC4040113  PMID: 24885623
Bickerstaff’s encephalitis; Anti-ganglioside antibodies; Chronic encephalitis; Campylobacter jejuni; Molecular mimicry; Cognitive dysfunction; Dementia; Mild cognitive impairment
4.  Cerebral vasculitis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:220.
Background
Cerebral involvement in schistosomiasis is not rare, but it is underdiagnosed because of the lack of clinical suspicion and the frequency of asymptomatic forms. Neurologic complications are generally supported by granuloma formation around ectopic eggs which have migrated to the brain. Moreover, vascular lesions and cerebral arteritis have been well documented in histopathological studies. Nevertheless, cerebral vasculitis in later stages of the Schistosoma mansoni infection have not yet been described in living subjects.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old french woman had a stroke linked with cerebral vasculitis, 6 monthes after returning from Burkina-Faso. At the same time, a S. mansoni disseminated infection was diagnosed. She suffered from a new stroke after undertaking praziquantel therapy, which lead us to associate the S. mansoni infection and cerebral vasculitis.
Conclusion
This is the first report of such association, since cerebral vasculitis has never been described in later stages of the S. mansoni infection. Although the causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, we suggest that S. mansoni is able to cause severe vascular damage in cerebral vessels. Schistosomiasis must be investigated in the event of a brain infarct in young people, particularly in patients originating or returning from an endemic area.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-220
PMCID: PMC3482565  PMID: 22978371
Stroke; Cerebral vasculitis; Schistosoma mansoni; Corticosteroid; Praziquantel
5.  Leprosy, Still Present in La Réunion 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2012;18(1):188-189.
doi:10.3201/eid1801.111176
PMCID: PMC3310120  PMID: 22260812
bacteria; leprosy; autochthonous cases; La Réunion; Reunion Island; World Health Organization; surveillance

Results 1-5 (5)