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1.  Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire 
Parasite  2015;22:1.
Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2015001
PMCID: PMC4306024  PMID: 25619957
Gastrointestinal parasites; Non-human primates; Prevalence; Côte d’Ivoire
2.  First case of peritoneal cysticercosis in a non-human primate host (Macaca tonkeana) due to Taenia martis 
Parasites & Vectors  2014;7(1):422.
Background
Infections with larval stages (metacestodes) of a variety of taeniid species have been described in primates, including humans, with partial to severe clinical consequences. Taenia martis is a tapeworm of mustelids, and martens are mainly their definitive hosts in Central Europe. In the rodent intermediate host cysticerci develop in the pleural and peritoneal cavities. The present report describes a case of T. martis peritoneal cysticercosis in a Tonkean macaque.
Findings
An abdominal mass was detected in a 3-year-old male Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) born and raised in a primate colony in France. Examination of the mass after laparotomy showed numerous vesicles identified as cysticerci of T. martis, based on the morphology of scolex and hooks, with confirmation by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Exeresis of the lesion was not possible and praziquantel (5.7 mg/kg) was given twice at an interval of 3 days. The abdominal mass was greatly diminished upon examination 2 months later and no signs of recurrence were noticed during the following 4 years.
Conclusions
This is the first report of T. martis cysticercosis in a monkey. This record and the recent first description of an ocular T. martis cysticercosis in a human show the susceptibility of primates to T. martis and its zoonotic potential. This taeniid species must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cysticercosis in primates.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-422
PMCID: PMC4167275  PMID: 25189669
Taenia martis; Cysticercosis; Zoonosis; Macaca tonkeana; France
3.  Primary musculoskeletal hydatid cyst of the thigh: Diagnostic and curative challenge for an unusual localization 
Primary muscular echinococcosis is an uncommon localization of hydatid cysts. The nonspecific clinical presentation and possible post-therapeutic complications lead to problems for the diagnosis of this infection and the support of the patient. The authors describe an unusual case of double hydatid cyst of the vastus intermedius muscle. After a precise preoperative evaluation based on clinical, radiological and biological examinations, a surgical excision by pericystectomy combined with perioperative chemotherapy enabled the authors to treat the patient and to prevent postoperative complications. The diagnostic tools and the treatment of this particular type of echinococcosis are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3852467  PMID: 24421841
Hydatid cyst; Muscular echinococcosis; Pericystectomy; Perioperative chemotherapy
4.  Malaria relevance and diagnosis in febrile Burkina Faso travellers: a prospective study 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:270.
Background
There is a lack of information regarding the epidemiology of malaria among travellers from non-malaria endemic countries to Sahelian areas. The literature provides general statistics about imported malaria in industrialized countries or extensive recommendations about fever management, but none of these recommendations are applicable to developing countries.
Methods
The aim of the study was to evaluate the aetiologies of fever, malaria prevalence, and best diagnostic methods in a population of 306 non-malaria endemic travellers who, over a one-year period, consulted the French embassy’s Centre Médico-Social in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) for fever. All patients underwent a clinical examination, a questionnaire, and three different malaria tests: thick blood film, QBC-test and HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test.
Results
Fever was caused by malaria in 69 cases (23%), while 37 (12%) were due to Pneumonia and 35 cases (8%) to ENT infections. Fever remained unexplained in 87 patients (51.3%). Malaria prevalence varied throughout the year: about 90% of malaria cases were diagnosed during and after the rainy season, between July and December, with up to 50% malaria prevalence for fever cases in October. Malaria diagnosis based solely on clinical signs, combined or not, leads to about 80% of unnecessary treatments.Although anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis was used in only 69% of short-stay patients (who travelled for less than three months), this was effective. Under local conditions, and using blood film examination as the reference method, the QBC test appeared to be more reliable than the HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test, with respective sensitivities of 98.6% versus 84.1%, and specificities of 99.6% versus 98.3%.
Conclusions
Reliable biological diagnosis of malaria among travellers from non-malaria endemic countries in Sahelian areas is necessary because of low malaria prevalence and the poor performance of clinical diagnosis. A fever during the first half of the year requires investigating another aetiology, particularly a respiratory one. Malaria chemoprophylaxis is efficient and must not be overlooked. The QBC test appears to be the most reliable diagnostic test in this context.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-270
PMCID: PMC3751538  PMID: 23914804
Malaria; QBC; HRP2; Fever; Burkina Faso
5.  First case of human gongylonemosis in France 
Parasite  2013;20:5.
Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2013007
PMCID: PMC3718519  PMID: 23425508
Gongylonema; human infection; zoonosis; France; case report
6.  Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer’s disease results in iron deficiency anemia 
Parasite  2013;20:16.
We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this was not enough to explain the anemia without macrocytosis. Laboratory tests, endoscopy and a CT scan eliminated a tumor etiology responsible for occult bleeding. The patient had a mild itchy rash which was linked to the massive colonization by the bed bugs. The C. lectularius bite is most often considered benign because it is not a vector of infectious agents. Far from trivial, a massive human colonization by bed bugs may cause such a hematic depletion that severe microcytic anemia may result.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2013018
PMCID: PMC3718524  PMID: 23673315
Iron deficiency anemia; Cimex lectularius
7.  Cerebral vasculitis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:220.
Background
Cerebral involvement in schistosomiasis is not rare, but it is underdiagnosed because of the lack of clinical suspicion and the frequency of asymptomatic forms. Neurologic complications are generally supported by granuloma formation around ectopic eggs which have migrated to the brain. Moreover, vascular lesions and cerebral arteritis have been well documented in histopathological studies. Nevertheless, cerebral vasculitis in later stages of the Schistosoma mansoni infection have not yet been described in living subjects.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old french woman had a stroke linked with cerebral vasculitis, 6 monthes after returning from Burkina-Faso. At the same time, a S. mansoni disseminated infection was diagnosed. She suffered from a new stroke after undertaking praziquantel therapy, which lead us to associate the S. mansoni infection and cerebral vasculitis.
Conclusion
This is the first report of such association, since cerebral vasculitis has never been described in later stages of the S. mansoni infection. Although the causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, we suggest that S. mansoni is able to cause severe vascular damage in cerebral vessels. Schistosomiasis must be investigated in the event of a brain infarct in young people, particularly in patients originating or returning from an endemic area.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-220
PMCID: PMC3482565  PMID: 22978371
Stroke; Cerebral vasculitis; Schistosoma mansoni; Corticosteroid; Praziquantel
8.  A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France 
Journal of Tropical Medicine  2011;2011:698647.
We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region), in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens.
doi:10.1155/2011/698647
PMCID: PMC3065049  PMID: 21461355
9.  Role of NK Cells and Gamma Interferon in Transplacental Passage of Toxoplasma gondii in a Mouse Model of Primary Infection  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(3):1397-1401.
Protective immunity in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii is mainly mediated by NK cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and type 1 cytokines, such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ). To clarify the roles of NK cells and IFN-γ in protection against primary congenital toxoplasmosis, we used recombination activating gene 2 knockout (RAG-2−/−) mice, which lack T and B lymphocytes, in comparison with the wild-type BALB/c model. RAG-2−/− mice had a significantly lower risk of fetal toxoplasmosis than BALB/c mice (25 versus 63.9%; P = 0.003). This protection was associated with an increased number of maternal NK cells, IFN-γ secretion by spleen cells, and decreased parasitemia. In the RAG-2−/− mice, NK cell depletion increased both the rate of fetal infection, to 56.5% (P = 0.02), and the blood parasite burden. Conversely, in the BALB/c mice, this treatment did not modify maternofetal transmission or the blood parasite burden. Neutralization of IFN-γ in both infected RAG-2−/− and BALB/c mice decreased congenital Toxoplasma transmission, contrasting with an exacerbation of maternal infection. These data suggest that a partially protective immunity against congenital toxoplasmosis is achieved due to the increased number of NK cells in RAG-2−/− mice. However, it seems that IFN-γ enhances, directly or indirectly, the transplacental transmission.
doi:10.1128/IAI.72.3.1397-1401.2004
PMCID: PMC356035  PMID: 14977944
10.  Vaccination with Toxoplasma gondii SAG-1 Protein Is Protective against Congenital Toxoplasmosis in BALB/c Mice but Not in CBA/J Mice 
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(11):6615-6619.
We evaluated the effect of vaccination with the SAG1 protein of Toxoplasma gondii against congenital toxoplasmosis in mice with different genetic backgrounds. In BALB/c mice (H-2d), vaccination reduced the number of infected fetuses by 50% and was associated with a mixed type 1 and type 2 immunity. In CBA/J mice (H-2k), vaccination increased the number of infected fetuses by 50% and was associated with a predominant type 2 response. Our results indicate that the effect of vaccination with SAG1 is controlled by the genetic background of the mouse.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.11.6615-6619.2003
PMCID: PMC219566  PMID: 14573684

Results 1-10 (10)