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2.  Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy via a reverse-''V'' approach with four ports: Initial experience and perioperative outcomes 
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) using a reverse-“V” approach with four ports.
METHODS: This is a retrospective study of selected patients who underwent LPD at our center between April 2011 and April 2012. The following data were collected and reviewed: patient characteristics, tumor histology, surgical outcome, resection margins, morbidity, and mortality. All patients were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively by complete hematologic investigations, triple-phase helical computed tomography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and biopsy of ampullary lesions (when present). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed for doubtful cases of lower common bile duct lesions.
RESULTS: There was no perioperative mortality. LPD was performed with tumor-free margins in all patients, including patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 6), ampullary carcinoma (n = 6), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (n = 2), pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma (n = 2), pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (n = 3), and bile duct cancer (n = 2). The mean patient age was 65 years (range, 42-75 years). The median blood loss was 240 mL, and the mean operative time was 368 min.
CONCLUSION: LPD using a reverse-“V” approach can be performed safely and yields good results in elective patients. Our preliminary experience showed that LDP can be performed via a reverse-“V” approach. This approach can be used to treat localized malignant lesions irrespective of histopathology.
PMCID: PMC4316101  PMID: 25663778
Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy; Operation; Indications
3.  Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:8311.
Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 μM and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.
PMCID: PMC4319171  PMID: 25655666
4.  Modulation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Interleukin-6 Function by Hypoxia-Upregulated Protein 1 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(16):9429-9441.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called human herpesvirus 8) is linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV expresses several proteins that modulate host cell signaling pathways. One of these proteins is viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), which is a homolog of human IL-6 (hIL-6). vIL-6 is able to prevent apoptosis and promote proinflammatory signaling, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Although it can be secreted, vIL-6 is mainly an intracellular protein that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We performed affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify novel vIL-6 binding partners and found that a cellular ER chaperone, hypoxia-upregulated protein 1 (HYOU1), interacts with vIL-6. Immunohistochemical staining reveals that both PEL and KS tumor tissues express significant amounts of HYOU1. We also show that HYOU1 increases endogenous vIL-6 protein levels and that HYOU1 facilitates vIL-6-induced JAK/STAT signaling, migration, and survival in endothelial cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that HYOU1 also modulates vIL-6's ability to induce CCL2, a chemokine involved in cell migration. Finally, we investigated the impact of HYOU1 on cellular hIL-6 signaling. Collectively, our data indicate that HYOU1 is important for vIL-6 function and may play a role in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers.
IMPORTANCE KSHV vIL-6 is detectable in all KSHV-associated malignancies and promotes tumorigenesis and inflammation. We identified a cellular protein, called hypoxia-upregulated protein 1 (HYOU1), that interacts with KSHV vIL-6 and is present in KSHV-infected tumors. Our data suggest that HYOU1 facilitates the vIL-6-induced signaling, migration, and survival of endothelial cells.
PMCID: PMC4136275  PMID: 24920810
5.  CCR7 Expressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potently Inhibit Graft-versus-Host Disease by Spoiling the Fourth Supplemental Billingham’s Tenet 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115720.
The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham’s tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.
PMCID: PMC4280136  PMID: 25549354
6.  MicroRNA-33b Suppresses Migration and Invasion by Targeting c-Myc in Osteosarcoma Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115300.
MicroRNAs have emerged as fundamental regulators in gene expression through silencing gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational levels. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor and is characterized by complex genetic changes and resistance to conventional treatments. In our study, the role of miR-33b in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma was investigated. Our results showed that miR-33b was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma tissue and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-33b significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Moreover, we also showed that c-Myc was negatively regulated by miR-33b at the posttranscriptional level, via a specific target site within the 3′UTR. Overexpression of c-Myc impaired miR-33b-induced inhibition of proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma cells. The expression of c-Myc was frequently downregulated in osteosarcoma tumors and cell lines and was inversely correlated with miR-33b expression. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-33b inhibits osteosarcoma cells migration and invasion by targeting the c-Myc gene, acting as tumor suppressor. The findings of this study contribute to current understanding of the functions of miR-33b in osteosarcoma.
PMCID: PMC4278906  PMID: 25546234
7.  Global chromatin profiling reveals NSD2 mutations in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):1386-1391.
Epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging hallmark of cancers. We developed a high-information-content mass spectrometry approach to profile global histone modifications in human cancers. When applied to 115 lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia1, this approach identified distinct molecular chromatin signatures. One signature was characterized by increased histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) dimethylation, exhibited by several lines harboring translocations in NSD2, which encodes a methyltransferase. A previously unknown NSD2 p.Glu1099Lys (p.E1099K) variant was identified in nontranslocated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines sharing this signature. Ectopic expression of the variant induced a chromatin signature characteristic of NSD2 hyperactivation and promoted transformation. NSD2 knockdown selectively inhibited the proliferation of NSD2-mutant lines and impaired the in vivo growth of an NSD2-mutant ALL xenograft. Sequencing analysis of >1,000 pediatric cancer genomes identified the NSD2 p.E1099K alteration in 14% of t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1–containing ALLs. These findings identify NSD2 as a potential therapeutic target for pediatric ALL and provide a general framework for the functional annotation of cancer epigenomes.
PMCID: PMC4262138  PMID: 24076604
8.  Association of XPC Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer: Evidence from 3,936 Subjects 
Aim: Polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) are thought to have significant effects on prostate cancer (PCa) risk. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of XPC gene polymorphisms on PCa risk by using a meta-analysis. Methods: Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and CNKI, with the last report up to April 30, 2013. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association. Results: A total of five separate case–control studies (1966 cases and 1970 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed for the rs2228001 and PAT+/−polymorphisms. We did not detect a significant association between rs2228001 polymorphism and PCa (p>0.05). Similar results were found in stratification analyses by ethnicity and tumor stage. We detected a significant association of PAT+/−polymorphism with PCa (p<0.05). In stratification analysis, we did not detect a significant association of PAT+/−polymorphism with risk of bone metastasis in PCa patients (p>0.05). Conclusion: These analyses suggest that XPC gene PAT+/−polymorphism, but not rs2228001, likely contributes to susceptibility to PCa.
PMCID: PMC3865621  PMID: 24093803
9.  A Method to Harvest Tragal Cartilage Through only Endaural Approach 
PMCID: PMC3889368  PMID: 24427732
Tragal cartilage; Endaural incision
10.  Laparoscopic vs open D2 gastrectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(44):16750-16764.
AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis comparing laparoscopic (LGD2) and open D2 gastrectomies (OGD2) for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs comparing LGD2 with OGD2 for AGC treatment, published between 1 January 2000 and 12 January 2013, were identified in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Primary endpoints included operative outcomes (operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and conversion rate), postoperative outcomes (postoperative analgesic consumption, time to first ambulation, time to first flatus, time to first oral intake, postoperative hospital stay length, postoperative morbidity, incidence of reoperation, and postoperative mortality), and oncologic outcomes (the number of lymph nodes harvested, tumor recurrence and metastasis, disease-free rates, and overall survival rates). The Cochrane Collaboration tools and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality and risk of bias of RCTs and non-RCTs in the study. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the incidence rate of various postoperative morbidities as well as recurrence and metastasis patterns. A Begg’s test was used to evaluate the publication bias.
RESULTS: One RCT and 13 non-RCTs totaling 2596 patients were included in the meta-analysis. LGD2 in comparison to OGD2 showed lower intraoperative blood loss [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -137.87 mL, 95%CI: -164.41--111.33; P < 0.01], lower analgesic consumption (WMD = -1.94, 95%CI: -2.50--1.38; P < 0.01), shorter times to first ambulation (WMD = -1.03 d, 95%CI: -1.90--0.16; P < 0.05), flatus (WMD = -0.98 d, 95%CI: -1.30--0.66; P < 0.01), and oral intake (WMD = -0.85 d, 95%CI: -1.67--0.03; P < 0.05), shorter hospitalization (WMD = -3.08 d, 95%CI: -4.38--1.78; P < 0.01), and lower postoperative morbidity (odds ratio = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.61-0.99; P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between LGD2 and OGD2 for the following criteria: reoperation incidence, postoperative mortality, number of harvested lymph nodes, tumor recurrence/metastasis, or three- or five-year disease-free and overall survival rates. However, LGD2 had longer operative times (WMD = 57.06 min, 95%CI: 41.87-72.25; P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Although a technically demanding and time-consuming procedure, LGD2 may be safe and effective, and offer some advantages over OGD2 for treatment of locally AGC.
PMCID: PMC4248223  PMID: 25469048
D2 lymph node dissection; Gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Laparoscopy; Meta-analysis
11.  Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7038.
We numerically realize the acoustic rainbow trapping effect by tapping an air waveguide with space-coiling metamaterials. Due to the high refractive-index of the space-coiling metamaterials, our device is more compact compared to the reported trapped-rainbow devices. A numerical model utilizing effective parameters is also calculated, whose results are consistent well with the direct numerical simulation of space-coiling structure. Moreover, such device with the capability of dropping different frequency components of a broadband incident temporal acoustic signal into different channels can function as an acoustic wavelength division de-multiplexer. These results may have potential applications in acoustic device design such as an acoustic filter and an artificial cochlea.
PMCID: PMC4229664  PMID: 25392033
12.  Ellman’s reagent in promoting crystallization and structure determination of Anabaena CcbP 
Acta Crystallographica Section F  2012;68(Pt 11):1409-1414.
Ellman’s reagent oxidized the free sulfhydryl group of cysteine in Anabaena CcbP protein, facilitating its crystallization.
Obtaining crystals presented a bottleneck in the structural study of Anabaena cyanobacterial Ca2+-binding protein (CcbP). In this report, the promoting effect of Ellman’s reagent [5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid); DTNB] on the crystallization of CcbP is described. CcbP contains one free cysteine. A quick and simple oxidation reaction with DTNB blocked the free cysteine in purified CcbP and generated a homogenous monomeric protein for crystallization. The crystal structure of DTNB-modified CcbP was determined by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method. Structure analysis indicated that DTNB modification facilitated crystallization of CcbP by inducing polar inter­actions in the crystal lattice. DTNB-mediated cysteine modification was demonstrated to have little effect on the overall structure and the Ca2+ binding of CcbP. Thus, DTNB modification may provide a simple and general approach for protein modification to improve the success of crystallization screening.
PMCID: PMC3515393  PMID: 23143261
Ellman’s reagent; chemical modification; Anabaena CcbP
13.  Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase and Protein Kinase C µ Are Required for TLR7/9-Induced IKKα and IRF-1 Activation and Interferon-β Production in Conventional Dendritic Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105420.
Stimulation of TLR7/9 by their respective ligands leads to the activation of IκB kinase α (IKKα) and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) and results in interferon (IFN)-β production in conventional dendritic cells (cDC). However, which other signaling molecules are involved in IKKα and IRF-1 activation during TLR7/9 signaling pathway are not known. We and others have shown that Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) played a part in TLR9-mediated cytokine production in B cells and macrophages. However, it is unclear if BTK participates in TLR7/9-induced IFN-β production in cDC. In this study, we show that BTK is required for IFN-β synthesis in cDC upon TLR7/9 stimulation and that stimulated BTK-deficient cDC are defective in the induction of IKKα/β phosphorylation and IRF-1 activation. In addition, we demonstrate that Protein Kinase C µ (PKCµ) is also required for TLR7/9-induced IRF-1 activation and IFN-β upregulation in cDC and acts downstream of BTK. Taken together, we have uncovered two new molecules, BTK and PKCµ, that are involved in TLR7/9-triggered IFN-β production in cDC.
PMCID: PMC4149510  PMID: 25170774
14.  Allogeneic corneoscleral limbus tissue transplantation for treatment of the necrosis in porphyria eye disease 
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) with ocular complications are rarely reported. To the best of our knowledge, no reports exist on allogeneic corneoscleral limbus tissue transplantation for treatment of these. Amniotic membrane grafting had been performed in their patient suffering from porphyria eye disease, but necrosis developed in the grafts. Nevertheless, in our patient, allogeneic corneoscleral limbus transplantation prevented necrosis from development at corneoscleral limbus. So we considered that the allogeneic corneoscleral limbus transplantation might be an option to repair the necrosis in porphyria eye disease with avoiding sunlight and using artificial tear drops.
PMCID: PMC4137216  PMID: 25161952
porphyria; scleral necrosis; allogeneic; transplantation
15.  Brain Aging and AD-Like Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2014;2014:796840.
Objective. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM) with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. Research Design and Methods. Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the brain in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced rats. Neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated using Fluoro-Jade C (FJC). Aβ aggregation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was tested using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Dendritic spine density in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was measured using Golgi staining, and western blot was conducted to detect the levels of synaptophysin. Cognitive ability was evaluated through the Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidant box. Results. Rats are characterized by insulin deficiency accompanied with polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss after STZ injection. The number of FJC-positive cells significantly increased in discrete brain regions of the diabetic rats compared with the age-matched control rats. Hippocampal atrophy, Aβ aggregation, and synapse loss were observed in the diabetic rats compared with the control rats. The learning and memory of the diabetic rats decreased compared with those of the age-matched control rats. Conclusions. Our results suggested that aberrant metabolism induced brain aging as characterized by AD-like pathologies.
PMCID: PMC4150474  PMID: 25197672
16.  Spatial Memory Impairment Is Associated with Hippocampal Insulin Signals in Ovariectomized Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104450.
Estrogen influences memory formation and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, glucose utilization directly affects learning and memory, which are modulated by insulin signals. Therefore, this study investigated whether or not the effect of estrogen on memory is associated with the regulatory effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism. The relative expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated by western blot. Insulin level was assessed by ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR, and spatial memory was tested by the Morris water maze. Glucose utilization in the hippocampus was measured by 2-NBDG uptake analysis. Results showed that ovariectomy impaired the spatial memory of rats. These impairments are similar as the female rats treated with the ERβ antagonist tamoxifen (TAM). Estrogen blockade by ovariectomy or TAM treatment obviously decreased glucose utilization. This phenomenon was accompanied by decreased insulin level and GLUT4 expression in the hippocampus. The female rats were neutralized with hippocampal insulin with insulin antibody, which also impaired memory and local glucose consumption. These results indicated that estrogen blockade impaired the spatial memory of the female rats. The mechanisms by which estrogen blockade impaired memory partially contributed to the decline in hippocampal insulin signals, which diminished glucose consumption.
PMCID: PMC4123983  PMID: 25099767
17.  Affinity Purification of Binding miRNAs for Messenger RNA Fused with a Common Tag 
Prediction of microRNA–mRNA interaction typically relies on bioinformatic methods, but these methods only suggest the possibility of microRNA binding and may miss important interactions as well as falsely predict others. A major obstacle to the miRNA research has been the lack of experimental procedures for the identification of miRNA–mRNA interactions. Recently, a few studies have attempted to explore experimental methods to isolate and identify miRNA targets or miRNAs targeting a single gene. Here, we developed an more convenient experimental approach for the isolation and identification of miRNAs targeting a single gene by applying short biotinylated DNA anti-sense oligonucleotides mix to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mRNA which was fused to target gene mRNA. This method does not require a design of different anti-sense oligonucleotides to any mRNA. This is a simple and an efficient method to potentially identify miRNAs targeting specific gene mRNA combined with chip screen.
PMCID: PMC4159880  PMID: 25153630
affinity purification; mRNA; target miRNA
18.  Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII α in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102161.
To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II α expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated.
Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II α protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope.
The CaMK II α expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes.
GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II α expression to protect epileptic neurons.
PMCID: PMC4092074  PMID: 25010576
19.  Thermal Cycling Life Prediction of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joint Using Type-I Censored Data 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:807693.
Because solder joint interconnections are the weaknesses of microelectronic packaging, their reliability has great influence on the reliability of the entire packaging structure. Based on an accelerated life test the reliability assessment and life prediction of lead-free solder joints using Weibull distribution are investigated. The type-I interval censored lifetime data were collected from a thermal cycling test, which was implemented on microelectronic packaging with lead-free ball grid array (BGA) and fine-pitch ball grid array (FBGA) interconnection structures. The number of cycles to failure of lead-free solder joints is predicted by using a modified Engelmaier fatigue life model and a type-I censored data processing method. Then, the Pan model is employed to calculate the acceleration factor of this test. A comparison of life predictions between the proposed method and the ones calculated directly by Matlab and Minitab is conducted to demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. At last, failure analysis and microstructure evolution of lead-free solders are carried out to provide useful guidance for the regular maintenance, replacement of substructure, and subsequent processing of electronic products.
PMCID: PMC4121147  PMID: 25121138
20.  Laparoscopic vs open extended right hemicolectomy for colon cancer 
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy (LERH) for colon cancer.
METHODS: Since its establishment in 2009, the Southern Chinese Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgical Study (SCLCSS) group has been dedicated to promoting patients’ quality of life through minimally invasive surgery. The multicenter database was launched by combining existing datasets from members of the SCLCSS group. The study enrolled 220 consecutive patients who were recorded in the multicenter retrospective database and underwent either LERH (n = 119) or open extended right hemicolectomy (OERH) (n = 101) for colon cancer. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, and oncologic outcomes were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), history of previous abdominal surgery, tumor location, and tumor stage between the two groups. The blood loss was lower in the LERH group than in the OERH group [100 (100-200) mL vs 150 (100-200) mL, P < 0.0001]. The LERH group was associated with earlier first flatus (2.7 ± 1.0 d vs 3.2 ± 0.9 d, P < 0.0001) and resumption of liquid diet (3.6 ± 1.0 d vs 4.2 ± 1.0 d, P < 0.0001) compared to the OERH group. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LERH group (11.4 ± 4.7 d vs 12.8 ± 5.6 d, P = 0.009) than in the OERH group. The complication rate was 11.8% and 17.6% in the LERH and OERH groups, respectively (P = 0.215). Both 3-year overall survival [LERH (92.0%) vs OERH (84.4%), P = 0.209] and 3-year disease-free survival [LERH (84.6%) vs OERH (76.6%), P = 0.191] were comparable between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: LERH with D3 lymphadenectomy for colon cancer is a technically feasible and safe procedure, yielding comparable short-term oncologic outcomes to those of open surgery.
PMCID: PMC4069319  PMID: 24976728
Colon cancer; Laparoscopic surgery; Extended right hemicolectomy; D3 lymphadenectomy; Survival
21.  Apolipoprotein E gene ε4ε4 is associated with elevated risk of primary open angle glaucoma in Asians: a meta-analysis 
BMC Medical Genetics  2014;15:60.
Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and glaucoma susceptibility. However, the published data are still inconclusive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism on glaucoma risk by using meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and CNKI databases was conducted to identify relevant articles, with the last report up to January 5, 2014. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association by using the fixed or random effect model.
Fifteen separate studies including 2,700 cases and 2,365 controls were included in the meta-analysis. We did not detect a significant association between APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and glaucoma in overall population (P > 0.0083). In Asians, we detected an association of the ε4ε4 genotype with elevated risk for glaucoma (OR = 5.22, 95% CI = 1.85-14.68, P = 0.002), mainly for primary open angle glaucoma (OR = 4.98, 95% CI = 1.75-14.20, P = 0.003).
The meta-analysis suggests that APOE gene ε4ε4 may be associated with elevated risk for primary open angle glaucoma in Asians. However, more epidemiologic studies based on larger sample size, case–control design and stratified by ethnicity as well as types of glaucoma are suggested to further clarify the relationship between APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and genetic predisposition to glaucoma.
PMCID: PMC4035820  PMID: 24885013
Glaucoma; APOE; Genetic; Meta-analysis
22.  Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review 
Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder.
PMCID: PMC4097238  PMID: 25031759
Intraneural perineurioma; neuropathology; pseudo-onion bulbs; MR
23.  Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA Nanoparticles 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97358.
A PEG-based, folate mediated, active tumor targeting drug delivery system using DOX-hyd-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared. DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs showed a significantly faster DOX release in pH 5.0 medium than in pH 7.4 medium. Compared with DOX-hyd-PEG NPs, DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and showed a DOX translocation from lysosomes to nucleus. The cytotoxicity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs on KB cells was much higher than that of free DOX, DOX-ami-PEG-FA NPs and DOX-hyd-PEG NPs. The cytotoxicity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs on KB cells was attenuated in the presence of exogenous folic acid. The IC50 of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs and DOX-hyd-PEG NPs on A549 cells showed no significant difference. After DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs were intravenously administered, the amount of DOX distributed in tumor tissue was significantly increased, while the amount of DOX distributed in heart was greatly decreased as compared with free DOX. Compared with free DOX, NPs yielded improved survival rate, prolonged life span, delayed tumor growth and reduced the cardiotoxicity in tumor bearing mice model. These results indicated that the acid sensitivity, passive and active tumor targeting abilities were likely to act synergistically to enhance the drug delivery efficiency of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs. Therefore, DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs are a promising drug delivery system for targeted cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC4020841  PMID: 24828815
24.  Central Projections of Gustatory Receptor Neurons in the Medial and the Lateral Sensilla Styloconica of Helicoverpa armigera Larvae 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95401.
Food selection behavior of lepidopteran larvae is predominantly governed by the activation of taste neurons present in two sensilla styloconica located on the galea of the maxilla. In this study, we present the ultrastructure of the sensilla styloconica and the central projection pattern of their associated receptor neurons in larvae of the heliothine moth, Helicoverpa armigera. By means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the previous findings of two morphologically fairly similar sensilla comprising a socketed conic tip inserted into a large peg were confirmed. However, the peg size of the medial sensillum was found to be significantly bigger than that of the lateral sensillum. The sensory neurons derived from each sensillum styloconicum were mapped separately using anterograde staining experiments combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. For determining the afferents’ target regions relative to each other, we reconstructed the labeled axons and placed them into a common reference framework. The sensory axons from both sensilla projected via the ipsilateral maxillary nerve to the suboesophageal ganglion and further through the ipsilateral circumoesophageal connective to the brain. In the suboesophageal ganglion, the sensory projections targeted two areas of the ipsilateral maxillary neuropil, one located in the ventrolateral neuromere and the other adjacent to the neuromere midline. In the brain, the axon terminals targeted the dorso-anterior area of the ipsilateral tritocerebrum. As confirmed by the three-dimensional reconstructions, the target regions of the neural projections originating from each of the two sensilla styloconica were identical.
PMCID: PMC3989337  PMID: 24740428
25.  Notch-1 and Ki-67 receptor as predictors for the recurrence and prognosis of Kimura’s disease 
Kimura’s disease (KD) is a rare chronic disease with unknown origin. It remains controversial in KD’s diagnosis, treatment, transformation and need further research. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathologic features of KD and the relationship between the expression of Notch-1, Ki-67 receptor and the recurrence of KD. The hematoxylin and eosin sections and clinical data of 40 patients diagnosed with KD were examined retrospectively. Specimens were available in these 40 cases. Notch-1 and Ki-67 expression were examined using IHC (immunohistochemistry staining) analysis. Of 40 cases of KD (average age, 38.4 years; median age, 36.0 years), 34 cases (85.0%) were clinically seen to involve swelling of the head and neck region. Notch-1 and Ki-67 have a high expression in recurrent patients. High expression of Notch-1 receptor and Ki-67 tended to be found in patients who relapsed. This is the first study to discuss the correlation among Notch-1, Ki-67 and recurrent KD. These results suggest both of the markers may act as promising predictors for the recurrence and prognosis of KD. However, Notch-1 immunoexpression had no statistically significant association with the Ki-67 proliferation index.
PMCID: PMC4069944  PMID: 24966950
Notch-1 receptor; Ki-67 proliferation index; recurrence; Kimura’s disease (KD)

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