Overcoming drug-resistance is one of the major challenges to control tuberculosis (TB). The up-regulation of efflux pumps is one common mechanism that leads to drug-resistance. Therefore, immunotherapy targeting these efflux pump antigens could be promising strategy to be combined with current chemotherapy. Considering that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induced by antigenic peptides (epitopes) could elicit HLA-restricted anti-TB immune response, efflux pumps from classical ABC family (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mtb) were chosen as target antigens to identify CTL epitopes. HLA-A2 restricted candidate peptides from Rv2937, Rv2686c and Rv2687c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were predicted, synthesized and tested. Five peptides could induce IFN-γ release and cytotoxic activity in PBMCs from HLA-A2+ PPD+ donors. Results from HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice immunization assay suggested that four peptides Rv2937-p168, Rv2937-p266, Rv2686c-p151, and Rv2686c-p181 could induce significant CTL response in vivo. These results suggested that these novel epitopes could be used as immunotherapy candidates to TB drug-resistance.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes; Efflux pump; Epitope; Immunotherapy; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
In this study, we identified Nrf2
as a molecular target of -shogaol
(6S), a bioactive compound isolated from ginger, in colon epithelial
cells in vitro and in vivo. Following
6S treatment of HCT-116 cells, the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was
initially diminished but was then elevated above the basal level.
Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated inversely with
the GSH/GSSG ratio. Further analysis using gene microarray showed
that 6S upregulated the expression of Nrf2 target genes (AKR1B10,
FTL, GGTLA4, and HMOX1) in HCT-116 cells. Western blotting confirmed
upregulation, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 protein
followed by Keap1 decrease and upregulation of Nrf2 target genes (AKR1B10,
FTL, GGTLA4, HMOX1, and MT1) and glutathione synthesis genes (GCLC
and GCLM). Pretreatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of p38
(SB202190), PI3K (LY294002), or MEK1 (PD098059) attenuated these effects
of 6S. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem
mass spectrometry, we found that 6S modified multiple cysteine residues
of Keap1 protein. In vivo 6S treatment induced Nrf2
nuclear translocation and significantly upregulated the expression
of MT1, HMOX1, and GCLC in the colon of wild-type mice but not Nrf2–/– mice. Similar to 6S, a cysteine-conjugated
metabolite of 6S (M2), which was previously found to be a carrier
of 6S in vitro and in vivo, also
activated Nrf2. Our data demonstrated that 6S and its cysteine-conjugated
metabolite M2 activate Nrf2 in colon epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo through Keap1-dependent and -independent
Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2θ 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation.
banana; constipation; laxative; resistant starch; structure
Defining the full complement of substrates for each ubiquitin ligase remains an important challenge. Improvements in mass spectrometry instrumentation and computation and in protein biochemistry methods have resulted in several new methods for ubiquitin ligase substrate identification. Here we used the parallel adapter capture (PAC) proteomics approach to study βTrCP2/FBXW11, a substrate adaptor for the SKP1–CUL1–F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. The processivity of the ubiquitylation reaction necessitates transient physical interactions between FBXW11 and its substrates, thus making biochemical purification of FBXW11-bound substrates difficult. Using the PAC-based approach, we inhibited the proteasome to “trap” ubiquitylated substrates on the SCFFBXW11 E3 complex. Comparative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified FBXW11 protein complexes before and after proteasome inhibition revealed 21 known and 23 putatively novel substrates. In focused studies, we found that SCFFBXW11 bound, polyubiquitylated, and destabilized RAPGEF2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates the small GTPase RAP1. High RAPGEF2 protein levels promoted cell-cell fusion and, consequently, multinucleation. Surprisingly, this occurred independently of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) catalytic activity and of the presence of RAP1. Our data establish new functions for RAPGEF2 that may contribute to aneuploidy in cancer. More broadly, this report supports the continued use of substrate trapping proteomics to comprehensively define targets for E3 ubiquitin ligases. All proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001062.
The UHRF1 protein is pivotal for DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation, leading to decreased expressions of tumor suppressor genes and contributing to tumorigenesis. However, the factors that modulate UHRF1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Here we showed that, compared with corresponding normal tissues, UHRF1 was upregulated and microRNA-9 (miR-9) was downregulated in CRC tissues. The expression of UHRF1 was inversely correlated with overall survival rates of patients with CRC. Overexpression of miR-9 in CRC cell lines significantly attenuated CRC cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. The expression of UHRF1 was markedly reduced in pre-miR-9 transfected CRC cells. Using luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-9 was a direct upstream regulator of UHRF1. Finally, analysis of miR-9 and UHRF1 levels in human CRC tissues revealed that expression of miR-9 was inversely correlated with UHRF1 expression. Collectively, our results offer in vitro validation of the concept that miR-9 could repress the expression of UHRF1, and function as a tumor-suppressive microRNA in CRC. It may serve as a prognostic and therapeutic marker for CRC.
Colorectal cancer; miR-9; prognosis; tumorigenesis; UHRF1
To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values.
Materials and Methods
26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A). Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI) of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B). GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis.
As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684). CT dose index (CTDI) values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000), respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B.
The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.
The apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele is a well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, which also impacts the cognitive functions and brain network connectivity in healthy middle-aged adults without dementia. Previous studies mainly focused on the effects of apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele on single index using task or resting-state fMRI. However, how these evoked and spontaneous BOLD indices interact with each other remains largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the ‘rest-stimulus interaction’ between working-memory activation and resting-state connectivity in middle-aged apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers (n=9) and non-carriers (n=8). Four n-back task scans (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) and one resting-state scan were acquired at a 3T clinical MRI scanner. The working-memory beta maps of low-, moderate-, and high-memory loads and resting-state connectivity maps of default mode, executive control, and hippocampal networks were derived and compared between groups. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers presented declined working-memory activation in the high-memory load across whole brain regions and reduced hippocampal connectivity compared with non-carriers. In addition, disrupted rest-stimulus interactions were found in the right anterior insula and bilateral parahippocampal regions for middle-aged adults with apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele. The rest-stimulus interaction improved the detectability of network integrity changes in apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers, demonstrating the disrupted intrinsic connectivity within the executive-functional regions and the modulated memory-encoding capability within hippocampus-related regions.
The Cullin 9 (CUL9) gene encodes a putative E3 ligase that localizes in the cytoplasm. Cul9 null mice develop spontaneous tumors in multiple organs, however either the cellular or molecular mechanisms of CUL9 in tumor suppression are currently not known. We show here that deletion of Cul9 leads to abnormal nuclear morphology, increased DNA damage and aneuploidy. CUL9 knockdown rescues the microtubule and mitosis defects in cells depleted for CUL7 or OBSL1, two genes that are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M growth retardation syndrome and function in microtubule dynamics. CUL9 promotes the ubiquitylation and degradation of survivin and is inhibited by CUL7. Depletion of CUL7 decreases survivin level and overexpression of survivin rescues the defects caused by CUL7 depletion. We propose a 3M–CUL9-survivin pathway in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity, normal development and tumor suppression.
cullins; genome integrity; 3M disease; survivin
CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development.
An acoustic asymmetric transmission device exhibiting unidirectional transmission property for acoustic waves is extremely desirable in many practical scenarios. Such a unique property may be realized in various configurations utilizing acoustic Zeeman effects in moving media as well as frequency-conversion in passive nonlinear acoustic systems and in active acoustic systems. Here we demonstrate a new acoustic frequency conversion process in a time-varying system, consisting of a rotating blade and the surrounding air. The scattered acoustic waves from this time-varying system experience frequency shifts, which are linearly dependent on the blade’s rotating frequency. Such scattering mechanism can be well described theoretically by an acoustic linear time-varying perturbation theory. Combining such time-varying scattering effects with highly efficient acoustic filtering, we successfully develop a tunable acoustic unidirectional device with 20 dB power transmission contrast ratio between two counter propagation directions at audible frequencies.
This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets.
Fermented cottonseed meal; Lipid metabolism; Broiler; Gene expression; Metabolomics
Previous studies have shown that the therapeutic action of tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) is effective for acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the molecular mechanism of the action of As4S4 in retinoic acid-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) therapy remains unclear. In the present study, the signaling of the cytotoxic effects induced by As4S4 on retinoic acid-resistant APL NB4-R1 cells was investigated. A time-dependent increase in cell death and DNA cleavage was observed following As4S4 treatment. Changes in B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bax accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase were observed as actions of As4S4. As4S4 induced an accumulation of NB4-R1 cells in the S and G2/M phases, as detected by flow cytometry. Therefore, the present results suggest that As4S4-mediated apoptosis in NB4-R1 cells involves a mitochondria-dependent pathway.
tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide; NB4-R1 cells; acute promyelocytic leukemia; cell cycle; apoptosis
The appropriate assessment of intermediate coronary artery stenosis continues to be a challenge for cardiologists. Several studies have shown that anatomic parameters obtained by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a correlation with fractional flow reserve (FFR) values in identifying hemodynamically severe coronary stenoses. However, the efficacy of IVUS/OCT versus FFR integration in intermediate coronary lesions is still debated. This review will allow for an independent analysis of research data and outlines the diagnostic efficiency of IVUS and OCT derived-anatomical parameters in identifying the hemodynamic significance of an angiographically intermediate stenosis as determined by FFR.
Intravascular ultrasound; optical coherence tomography; fractional flow reserve; co-registration; intermediate lesions
Blunt injuries/contusion on eyes might cause retina blunt trauma. This study is to evaluate the protective function of BN52021 against retinal trauma.
A total of 70 cats, 6 months old, were divided into six groups: Group A to E (n = 12) and normal control (N) group (n = 10). The right eyes in Group A to E were contused. All experiments were performed under general anesthetization. Retrobulbar injections of medication in right eyes were performed. Cats were administrated with 0.5 mL of normal saline (NS), dimethyl sulphoxide, 0.2 g/L BN52021, 1 g/L BN52021 and 5 g/L BN52021, respectively. Cats in Group N were administrated with 0.5 mL of NS. Intraocular pressure (IOP), flash electroretinogram (ERG), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were detected.
No significant difference was observed in IOP levels among groups. Comparing with cats in Group N, those in Group A to E showed significant lower amplitudes of rod a- and b-waves (P < 0.05). Amplitudes of rod a- and b-waves were increased by administration of high concentration of BN52021 (≥1 g/L). Moreover, high concentration of BN52021 decreased the RNFL thickness increased by contusion. Axons in RNFL in Group E arranged neatly at 7 days after modeling.
The degenerated axons caused by contusion were repaired by BN52021. The administration of high concentration of (≥1 g/L) BN52021 could partially repair retinal function in contused cat eyes.
Retina trauma; BN52021; Electroretinogram; Intraocular pressure; Retinal nerve fiber layer
Intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer remains a challenging manipulation due to the uncontrolled direction of the jejunal side or unintended embedded tissues, although several methods have been introduced. In this study, we simplified the procedure based on a surgical string fixing technique using a transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™; Covidien Ltd., Mansfield, MA, USA).
From March 2012 to September 2013, 14 consecutive patients underwent simplified intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy using OrVil™ during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer at our hospital. Clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical outcomes of these patients were retrospectively analyzed.
All of the procedures were successful completed with no complication or conversion to open surgery. The mean overall operative time was 193.8 ± 41.8 min, whereas the mean reconstruction time was 32.6 ± 4.6 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 105.7 ± 65.4 ml. The mean diameter of anastomosis measured by upper gastrointestinal contrast X-ray test at 1 month after operation was 2.3 cm. During a median follow-up period of 12 months, neither local recurrence nor anastomosis-related morbidity was observed.
Our preliminary results suggested that this automatically contamination-avoiding technique based on a surgical-string-fixing strategy using OrVil™ during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer might be feasible and safe and provide a simple solution for intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy.
Gastric cancer; Laparoscopy; Esophagojejunostomy; Gastrectomy
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been studied extensively because of their potential use in clinical therapy, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. However, their application in tumor therapy remains yet in preclinical stage because of the distinct results from different researches and vagueness of their functional mechanism. In this study, the influence of BMSCs on tumor growth was observed and the potential mechanism was investigated.
Two animal models, H22 ascitogenous hepatoma in BALb/c mouse and B16-F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma in C57 mouse, were adopted in experience in vivo and treated with BMSCs by intravenous injection. The percentage of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and IFN-γ+ T cells were observed in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) by Flow Cytometry. BMSCs were co-cultured in vitro with tumor cells and MDSCs in a tumor conditioned medium separately in order to illustrate the mechanism.
Our results demonstrated that BMSCs treatment caused a delayed tumor growth and a prolonged survival in both tumor models, the homing fraction of BMSCs in BM was 2% - 5% in 24–72 hours after transfusion and the percentage of Gr-1+CD11b+ MDSCs was downregulated in peripheral blood and BM. Meanwhile, IFN-γ+ T lymphocytes in PB increased. In vitro co-culture showed that BMSCs inhibited the induction and proliferation of MDSCs in tumor conditioned medium, whereas they didn’t affect the proliferation of B16-F10 and H22 cells by in vitro co-culture. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed that BMSCs have a systemic suppressive effect on MDSCs.
Our data suggest that BMSCs has suppressive effect on tumor and is feasible to be applied in cancer treatment. BMSCs inhibiting MDSCs induction and proliferation is likely one of the mechanism.
The charge-spin interactions in multiferroic materials (e.g., BiFeO3) have attracted enormous attention due to their high potential for next generation information electronics. However, the weak and deficient manipulation of charge-spin coupling notoriously limits their commercial applications. To tailor the spontaneous charge and the spin orientation synergistically in BiFeO3 (BFO), in this report, the 3d element of Mn doping engineering is employed and unveils the variation of surface phase transition and magnetic behaviors by introducing chemical strain. The spontaneous ferroelectric response and the corresponding domain structures, magnetic behaviors and spin dynamics in Mn-doped BFO ceramics have been investigated systematically. Both the surface phase transition and magnetization were enhanced in BFO via Mn doping. The interaction between the spontaneous polarization charge and magnetic spin reorientation in Mn-doped BFO are discussed in detail. Moreover, our extensive electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results demonstrate that the 3d dopant plays a paramount role in the surface phase transition, which provides an alternative route to tune the charge-spin interactions in multiferroic materials.
Splenic abscess is a rare clinical entity. The present study reports a case of a patient that suffered from splenic abscess secondary to septicemia resulting from Klebsiella pneumoniae infection following the removal of the feeding jejunostomy tube that was utilized subsequent to the patient undergoing total gastrectomy as part of the treatment regimen for gastric adenocarcinoma. The early clinical presentation was nonspecific and multiple splenic abscesses were subsequently identified. To reduce the risks of an additional surgical procedure in this particular patient, laparoscopic assisted splenotomy and catheter drainage were performed. Due to the severe complications that occurred in the present patient, no adjuvant chemotherapy was administered. Therefore, the unusual complication of splenic abscess subsequent to total gastrectomy should be noted, and the routine feeding jejunostomy tube placement at the time of total gastrectomy should be discussed and re-assessed.
splenic abscess; feeding jejunostomy tube; total gastrectomy
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only type of cells that transmit genes to the subsequent generations. The proliferation, cultivation and identification of SSCs in vitro are critical to understanding of male infertility, genetic resources and conservation of endangered species. To investigate the effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on the proliferation of mouse SSCs in vitro, supplement of GDNF and/or LIF were designed to culture SSCs. The testes of 6–8 d mouse were harvested and digested by two-step enzyme digestion method. The SSCs and Sertoli cells were separated by differential plating. Then the SSCs were identified by alkaline phosphatase staining, RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence cell analysis. The cellular proliferation capacity was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The results showed that addition of 20 and 40 ng/ml of GDNF could strongly promote growth of mouse SSCs (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between LIF treatment groups and the control group in promoting proliferation of the mouse SSCs (p > 0.05). However, the combination of 20 ng/ml GDNF and 1,000 U/ml LIF could significantly enhance the invitro proliferation of mouse SSCs (p < 0.05), and the OD490 value was 0.696 at day 5 of culture when the density of SSCs was 5–10 × 104 cells/ml.
Mouse; Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF); Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF); Proliferation
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) using a reverse-“V” approach with four ports.
METHODS: This is a retrospective study of selected patients who underwent LPD at our center between April 2011 and April 2012. The following data were collected and reviewed: patient characteristics, tumor histology, surgical outcome, resection margins, morbidity, and mortality. All patients were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively by complete hematologic investigations, triple-phase helical computed tomography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and biopsy of ampullary lesions (when present). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed for doubtful cases of lower common bile duct lesions.
RESULTS: There was no perioperative mortality. LPD was performed with tumor-free margins in all patients, including patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 6), ampullary carcinoma (n = 6), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (n = 2), pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma (n = 2), pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (n = 3), and bile duct cancer (n = 2). The mean patient age was 65 years (range, 42-75 years). The median blood loss was 240 mL, and the mean operative time was 368 min.
CONCLUSION: LPD using a reverse-“V” approach can be performed safely and yields good results in elective patients. Our preliminary experience showed that LDP can be performed via a reverse-“V” approach. This approach can be used to treat localized malignant lesions irrespective of histopathology.
Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy; Operation; Indications
Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 μM and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.
The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing.
ALD; Al2O3 thin film; Optical properties; Spectroscopic ellipsometry
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called human herpesvirus 8) is linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV expresses several proteins that modulate host cell signaling pathways. One of these proteins is viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), which is a homolog of human IL-6 (hIL-6). vIL-6 is able to prevent apoptosis and promote proinflammatory signaling, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Although it can be secreted, vIL-6 is mainly an intracellular protein that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We performed affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify novel vIL-6 binding partners and found that a cellular ER chaperone, hypoxia-upregulated protein 1 (HYOU1), interacts with vIL-6. Immunohistochemical staining reveals that both PEL and KS tumor tissues express significant amounts of HYOU1. We also show that HYOU1 increases endogenous vIL-6 protein levels and that HYOU1 facilitates vIL-6-induced JAK/STAT signaling, migration, and survival in endothelial cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that HYOU1 also modulates vIL-6's ability to induce CCL2, a chemokine involved in cell migration. Finally, we investigated the impact of HYOU1 on cellular hIL-6 signaling. Collectively, our data indicate that HYOU1 is important for vIL-6 function and may play a role in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers.
IMPORTANCE KSHV vIL-6 is detectable in all KSHV-associated malignancies and promotes tumorigenesis and inflammation. We identified a cellular protein, called hypoxia-upregulated protein 1 (HYOU1), that interacts with KSHV vIL-6 and is present in KSHV-infected tumors. Our data suggest that HYOU1 facilitates the vIL-6-induced signaling, migration, and survival of endothelial cells.
Multiple mononeuropathy is an unusual form of peripheral neuropathy involving two or more nerve trunks. It is a syndrome with many different causes. We reviewed the clinical, electrophysiological and nerve biopsy findings of 14 patients who suffered from multiple mononeuropathy in our clinic between January 2009 and June 2013. Patients were diagnosed with vasculitic neuropathy (n = 6), perineuritis (n = 2), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 2) or Lewis-Sumner syndrome (n = 1) on the basis of clinical features, laboratory data, electrophysiological investigations and nerve biopsies. Two patients who were clinically diagnosed with vasculitic neuropathy and one patient who was clinically diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy were not confirmed by nerve biopsy. Nerve biopsies confirmed clinical diagnosis in 78.6% of the patients (11/14). Nerve biopsy pathological diagnosis is crucial to the etiological diagnosis of multiple mononeuropathy.
nerve regeneration; peripheral nerve regeneration; multiple mononeuropathy; asymmetrical sensory-motor polyneuropathy; systemic vasculitic neuropathy; nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy; perineuritis; inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; Lewis-Sumner syndrome; sural nerve biopsy; skin biopsy; peripheral nervous system