The tissue equivalent that mimics the structure and function of normal tissue is a major bioengineering challenge. Tissue engineered replacement of diseased or damaged tissue has become a reality for some types of tissue such as skin and cartilage. The tissue engineered corneal epithelium, stroma, and endothelium scaffold are promising concepts in overcoming the current limitations of a cornea replacement with an allograft.
The acellular corneal matrix from porcine (ACMP) was examined as a potential corneal cell sheet frame. The physical and mechanical properties of strength, expansion, transparency, and water content of the ACMP were measured. The major antigens of the cell components were completely removed with series of extraction methods, the major antigens of the cell components were identified by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), immunofluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The structural properties were investigated by HE stain and scanning electron microscopy. The three types of rabbit corneal cells were cultured in vitro, and characteristics were investigated by colony formation efficiency (CFE), BrdU staining, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot assay of keratin 3 (K3), vimentin, and aquaporin A. The biocompatibility of the ACMP was investigated for one month using rabbit corneal stroma and three types of cultured corneal cells both in vivo and in vitro. The three types of cultured rabbit corneal cells were seeded onto ACMP of each side at a cell density of 5.0×103 cells/mm2.
The optical and mechanical properties of the ACMP were similar to the normal porcine cornea. The collagen fiber interconnected to the network, formed regular collagen bundles of the ACMP, and was parallel to the corneal surface. The ACMP was transferred to the rabbit cornea stroma, which showed an intact epithelium and keratocytes in the implant region. There were no inflamed cells or new vessel invasion one month after transplantation. The three types of cultured rabbit corneal cells were positive for K3, vimentin, and aquaporin A. CFE and BrdU (5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine) staining showed no statistical difference. The cultured rabbit corneal limbal epithelial cells, keratocyte cells, and endothelial cells formed a confluent cell sheet on the ACMP, which consisted of one to two cell layers. Immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy examination showed that the cells steadily adhered to the surface of the ACMP and maintained their conformation and special molecule expression such as K3, vimentin, and aquaporin A. Rabbit corneal epithelium-ACMP, keratocytes-ACMP, and endothelium-ACMP scaffold was built in vitro.
The rabbit corneal scaffold was made by the ACMP as a frame with three types of allogeneic rabbit corneal cells. This is a new concept in treating injured corneas.
Accumulating evidence has suggested that Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (SMAD7) rs12953717 polymorphism might be related to cancer risk. However, epidemiologic findings have been inconsistent. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to clarify the association between the SMAD7 rs12953717 polymorphism and cancer risk.
A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies of SMAD7 rs12953717 polymorphism and cancer risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) to assess the strength of the association, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to give a sense of the precision of the estimate. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also explored.
A total of 14 case-control studies, including 16928 cases and 14781 controls, were included in the present meta-analysis. The overall results showed that the variant genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of all cancer types (homozygote comparison, OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.10–1.38, P<0.01; heterozygote comparison, OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.02–1.22, P = 0.02; recessive model, OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.07–1.29, P<0.01; dominant model, OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.06–1.25, P<0.01; allelic model, OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.06–1.18, P<0.01). Further sensitivity analysis confirmed the significant association. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, SMAD7 rs12953717 polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in both Caucasians and Asians. In the subgroup analysis by cancer types, SMAD7 rs12953717 polymorphism was significantly associated with colorectal cancer.
Our investigations demonstrate that rs12953717 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility of cancer. Large-scale and well-designed case-control studies are necessary to validate the risk identified in the present meta-analysis.
We have established a model system of hormone action, in an Sf9 cell transfection system, using defined enhancer motifs and natural core promoters of metamorphosis-associated genes. The DR1 enhancer, that is an established DNA binding site for the ecdysone receptor/ultraspiracle heterodimer, was necessary for transcriptional activation by 20-OH ecdysone. For this activated transcription, a natural sequence closely 5′ to the TATA box is necessary. Cotreatment with juvenile hormone III strongly suppressed the steroid activation of transcription. However, in the absence of the sequence located closely 5′ to the TATA box, cotreatment with juvenile hormone instead increased transcription over that occurring due to 20-hydroxy-ecdysone alone. This sensitivity to activation by cotreatment with juvenile hormone could be transferred to a related, but otherwise unresponsive, hexamerin core promoter simply by transferring to the unresponsive promoter the five base transcription start site (ACAGT) from the responsive hexamerin gene. These are the first reports that the direction of JH action on 20-OH ecdysone-activated transcription can be reversed by removal of a sequence at the core promoter, and that modulatory action of juvenile hormone can be transferred to a different gene by transferring the transcription start site motif.
Ecdysone; Juvenile Hormone; Core Promoter; Metamorphosis; Enhancer; Transcription; Ultraspiracle; Ecdysone Receptor; RXR
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs) and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and rootstock in grafted watermelon, and its relevance to diverse biological processes and environmental adaptation.
BIRC6 is a member of the Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family which is thought to protect a variety of cancer cells from apoptosis. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether BIRC6 plays a role in prostate cancer and could be useful as a novel therapeutic target.
BIRC6 expression in cell lines was assessed using Western blot analysis and in clinical samples using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. The biological significance of BIRC6 was determined by siRNA-induced reduction of BIRC6 expression in LNCaP cells followed by functional assays.
Elevated BIRC6 protein expression was found in prostate cancer cell lines and clinical specimens as distinct from their benign counterparts. Increased BIRC6 expression was associated with Gleason 6–8 cancers and castration resistance. Reduction of BIRC6 expression in LNCaP cells led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation which was associated with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in autophagosome formation. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was found to be coupled to a reduction in BIRC6 protein expression.
The data suggest a role for BIRC6 in prostate cancer progression and treatment resistance, and indicate for the first time that the BIRC6 gene and its product are potentially valuable targets for treatment of prostate cancers.
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (SRMS) is exceedingly rare, and may cause a great diagnostic confusion. Histologically, it is characterized by abundant extracellular hyalinized matrix mimicking primitive chondroid or osteoid tissue. So, it may be easily misdiagnosed as chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, angiosarcoma and so on. Herein, we report a case of SRMS occurring in the masseter muscle in a 40-year-old male. The tumor showed a diverse histological pattern. The tumor cells were arranged into nests, cords, pseudovascular, adenoid, microalveoli and even single-file arrays. Immunostaining showed that the tumor was positive for the Vimentin, Desmin and MyoD1, and was negative for CK, P63, NSE, CD45, CD30, S-100, CD99, Myoglobin, CD68, CD34, CD31, and α–SMA. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a SRMS. In addition, focally, our case also displayed a cribriform pattern resembling adenoid cystic carcinoma. This may represent a new histological feature which can broaden the histological spectrum of this tumor and also may lead to diagnostic confusion.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1615846455818924
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Sarcoma
Objective: To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of target percutaneous laser disc decompression (T-PLDD) for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Background data: PLDD using the Nd:YAG laser has been regarded as an effective alternative treatment for disc herniation. However, all the previous studies were concentrated on vaporizing the nucleus pulposus in the intervertebral space. We hypothesize that insertion of the needle into the extruded part of the nucleus pulposus will decrease its volume and provide superior clinical effects compared to therapies that decrease the volume of the intradiscal nucleus pulposus. Materials and methods: A total of 25 patients suffering from posterolateral extruded but nonsequestered lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated with T-PLDD. After treatment, the patients were followed up and the therapeutic effect was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months using the modified MacNab criteria. Results: The success rate was 80.0% (18 of 25), 88.0% (22 of 25), 92.0% (23 of 25), and 92.0% (23 of 25) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months respectively. No serious complications occurred in any of the patients. Furthermore, we did not observe any neurological sequelae. Conclusions: T-PLDD can significantly decrease pain and improve function of patients who have extruded but nonsequestered lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.
The exact effect of hypoxia on cancer development is controversial. The present study investigates the ability of osteosarcoma to form tumors in the hypoxic microenvironment induced by CoCl2. MG63 human osteosarcoma cells were cultured with different concentrations (0, 150 and 300 μM) of CoCl2 for 24 h to simulate hypoxia in vitro. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was analyzed by western blotting. The proliferation and drug resistance of MG63 cells were examined using the CCK-8 assay, the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, the ability to form spheroids was assessed by a sarcosphere culture system and invasiveness was determined by a vertical invasion assay. A transplantation assay was used to evaluate the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation of MG63 cells was inhibited by treatment with CoCl2, while no effect on drug toxicity was observed. The apoptotic rate was increased in a dose-dependent manner, the ability to form sarcospheroids was suppressed, the invasiveness was inhibited and the expression of HIF-1α was upregulated following CoCl2 treatment. We also found that the ability to form tumors in vivo was inhibited. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that CoCl2 has the ability to inhibit osteosarcoma development; the mechanism may be related to the hypoxic microenvironment and HIF-1α may be a critical regulatory factor.
hypoxia; CoCl2; osteosarcoma; HIF-1α
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that localizes to the mitochondria. Expression of MnSOD is essential for the survival of aerobic life. Transgenic mice expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human MnSOD promoter demonstrate that the level of MnSOD is reduced prior to the formation of cancer. Overexpression of MnSOD in transgenic mice reduces the incidences and multiplicity of papillomas in a DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis model. However, MnSOD deficiency does not lead to enhanced tumorigenicity of skin tissue similarly treated because MnSOD can modulate both the p53-mediated apoptosis and AP-1-mediated cell proliferation pathways. Apoptosis is associated with an increase in mitochondrial levels of p53 suggesting a link between MnSOD deficiency and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Activation of p53 is preventable by application of a SOD mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP5+). Thus, p53 translocation to mitochondria and subsequent inactivation of MnSOD explain the observed mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to transcription-dependent mechanisms of p53-induced apoptosis. Administration of MnTE-2-PyP5+ following apoptosis but prior to proliferation leads to suppression of protein carbonyls and reduces the activity of AP-1 and the level of the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen, without reducing the activity of p53 or DNA fragmentation following TPA treatment. Remarkably, the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors are drastically reduced in mice that receive MnTE-2-PyP5+ prior to cell proliferation. The results demonstrate the role of MnSOD beyond its essential role for survival and suggest a novel strategy for an antioxidant approach to cancer intervention.
MnSOD; p53; Cancer; Chemotherapy
Gd2InSbO7 and Gd2FeSbO7 were synthesized first, and their structural and photocatalytic properties were studied. The lattice parameters and the band gaps for Gd2InSbO7 and Gd2FeSbO7 were 10.449546 Å, 10.276026 Å, 2.897 eV and 2.151 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B was performed with Gd2InSbO7 and Gd2FeSbO7 under visible light irradiation. Gd2InSbO7 and Gd2FeSbO7 had higher catalytic activity compared with Bi2InTaO7. Gd2FeSbO7 exhibited higher catalytic activity than Gd2InSbO7. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B followed with the first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant k was 0.01606, 0.02220 or 0.00329 min−1 with Gd2InSbO7, Gd2FeSbO7 or Bi2InTaO7 as photocatalyst. Complete removal of rhodamine B was observed after visible light irradiation for 225 min or 260 min with Gd2FeSbO7 or Gd2InSbO7 as photocatalyst. The evolution of CO2 was realized, and it indicated continuous mineralization of rhodamine B during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of rhodamine B was proposed.
inorganic compounds; crystal growth; X-ray diffraction; catalytic properties; optical properties
Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is an uncommon pulmonary tumor. Histologically, PSH typically consists of two types of cells, surface cuboidal cells and polygonal cells, four architectural patterns including papillary, sclerotic, solid, and hemorrhagic. Herein, we present a case of PSH in a 59-year-old Chinese female. The tumor was predominantly composed of solid area presenting with diffuse spindle cells rather than polygonal cells. Focally, classical papillary and sclerotic area could be seen. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for TTF-1, EMA, Actin(SM) and Vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin, cytokeratin7, cytokeratin5/6, surfactant apoprotein A, surfactant apoprotein B, CD34, CD99, S-100, HMB45, Desmin, Synaptophysin, CD56, ALK and Calretinin. The immunophenotype of the dense spindle cells in this case was similar to that of the polygonal cells, and thus the spindle cells may be the variants of polygonal cells. Based on morphologic features and the immunohistochemical profile, the tumor was diagnosed as a PSH. The significance of spindle cells change is unclear for us. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PSH showing dense spindle cells in solid area. This case represents a potential diagnostic pitfall, as it may be misdiagnosed as a mesenchymal tumor such as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, synovial sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, or even mesothelioma, especially if the specimen is limited or from fine- needle aspiration.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma; Mesenchymal tumor
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma which was classified into 2 types based on histology. EATL is often, but not always, associated with celiac disease. EATL type I is a large cell lymphoma which is more common in frequency and highly associated with celiac disease compared with type II. Jejunum and ileum are the common sites, although EATL can rarely occur in the duodenum, stomach and colon or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We herein presented one case of gastric EATL, which happened in a 73-year-old Chinese male patient. Histologically, the tumor was composed of polymorphic (pleomorphic, anaplastic, immunoblastic) lymphoid cells and numerous inflammatory cells, including histiocytes, neutrophils and eosnophils in the background. The pleomorphic lymphoid cells were diffuse and strongly positive for CD3 and partially positive for CD30, while negative for CD4, CD5, CD8 or CD56. The gastric EATL should be distinguished from other gastric lesions, such as peptic ulcer, poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma and other types of lymphoma.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma; Ulcer; Diagnosis; Stomach
Isoform-selective agonists and antagonists of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important potential applications in cell biology and therapy. LPA GPCRs regulate cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and biochemical resistance to chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced apoptosis. LPA and its analogues are also feedback inhibitors of the enzyme lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD, also known as autotaxin), a central regulator of invasion and metastasis. For cancer therapy, the ideal therapeutic profile would be a metabolically stabilized pan-LPA receptor antagonist that also inhibits lysoPLD. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel α-substituted methylene phosphonate analogues of LPA. Each of these analogues contains a hydrolysis-resistant phosphonate mimic of the labile monophosphate of natural LPA. The pharmacological properties of these phosphono-LPA analogues were characterized in terms of LPA receptor subtype-specific agonist and antagonist activity using Ca2+ mobilization assays in RH7777 and CHO cells expressing the individual LPA GPCRs. In particular, the methylene phosphonate LPA analogue is a selective LPA2 agonist, whereas the corresponding α-hydroxymethylene phosphonate is a selective LPA3 agonist. Most importantly, the α-bromomethylene and α-chloromethylene phosphonates show pan-LPA receptor subtype antagonist activity. The α-bromomethylene phosphonates are the first reported antagonists for the LPA4 GPCR. Each of the α-substituted methylene phosphonates inhibits lysoPLD, with the unsubstituted methylene phosphonate showing the most potent inhibition. Finally, unlike many LPA analogues, none of these compounds activate the intracellular LPA receptor PPARγ.
autotaxin; lysophospholipase D; phosphonates; PPARγ; receptors
PTPσ is a dual-domain receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) with physiologically important functions which render this enzyme an attractive biological target. Specifically, loss of PTPσ has been shown to elicit a number of cellular phenotypes including enhanced nerve regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI), chemoresistance in cultured cancer cells, and hyperactive autophagy, a process critical to cell survival and the clearance of pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Owing to these functions, modulation of PTPσ may provide therapeutic value in a variety of contexts. Furthermore, a small molecule inhibitor would provide utility in discerning the cellular functions and substrates of PTPσ. To develop such molecules, we combined in silico modeling with in vitro phosphatase assays to identify compounds which effectively inhibit the enzymatic activity of PTPσ. Importantly, we observed that PTPσ inhibition was frequently mediated by oxidative species generated by compounds in solution, and we further optimized screening conditions to eliminate this effect. We identified a compound that inhibits PTPσ with an IC50 of 10 µM in a manner that is primarily oxidation-independent. This compound favorably binds the D1 active site of PTPσ in silico, suggesting it functions as a competitive inhibitor. This compound will serve as a scaffold structure for future studies designed to build selectivity for PTPσ over related PTPs.
Pleomorphic lipoma is a relatively uncommon entity, and is considered as a variant of spindle cell lipoma. Histologically, spindle cell lipoma/pleomorphic lipoma consists of varying quantity of mature fat, bland spindle cells and ropey collagen. In addition, pleomorphic lipoma is characterized by multinucleate giant cells, which possess the “floret-like” nuclei and marked pleomorphism. So, in contrast to spindle cell lipoma, pleomorphic lipoma is more easily misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor. Herein, we report a peculiar case of pleomorphic lipoma occurring in axilla with entirely devoid of mature fat in a 71-year-old male. The histopathological findings demonstrated the tumor was made up of bland spindle cells admixed with scattered “floret-like” cells and irregular ropey collagen in an extensive myxoid stroma. Immunostaining showed that the tumor was positive for the Vimentin, Bcl-2 and CD34, and was negative for S-100, desmin, CD68, and α–SMA. Although no fat component was found in the whole section, the tumor was still diagnosed as a pelomprphic lipoma. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of pelomprphic lipoma which entirely lacked lipomatous component. Because of the existence of atypical multinucleate giant cells and lack of mature fat, this tumor may be easily misdiagnosed nonlipomatous lesions, such as myxoid fibrosarcoma, giant cell fibroblastoma.
So, it is necessary to pay careful attention to the histological spectrum of pleomorphic lipoma, including the tumor with devoid of fat, and it should be kept in mind that pelomprphic lipoma still can be diagnosed even if lacking lipomatous component.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Background and Objectives
Photothermal therapies have limited efficacy and application due to the poor penetration depth of light inside tissue. In earlier work, we described the development of novel fiberoptic microneedles to provide a means to mechanically penetrate dermal tissue and deliver light directly into a localized target area. This paper presents an alternate fiberoptic microneedle design with the capability of delivering more diffuse, but therapeutically useful photothermal energy. Laser lipolysis is envisioned as a future clinical application for this design.
Materials and Methods
A novel fiberoptic microneedle was developed using hydrofluoric acid etching of optical fiber to permit diffuse optical delivery. Microneedles etched for 10, 30, and 50 minutes, and an optical fiber control were compared with three techniques. First, red light delivery from the microneedles was evaluated by imaging the reflectance of the light from a white paper. Second, spatial temperature distribution of the paper in response to near-IR light (1064 nm, 1 W CW) was recorded using infrared thermography. Third, ex vivo adipose tissue response during 1064 nm, (5 W CW) irradiation was recorded with bright field microscopy.
The acid etching exposed a 3 mm length of the fiber core, allowing circumferential delivery of light along this length. Increasing etching time decreased microneedle diameter, resulting in increased uniformity of red and 1064 nm light delivery along the microneedle axis. For equivalent total energy delivery, thinner microneedles reduced carbonization in the adipose tissue experiments.
We developed novel microscale optical diffusers that provided a more homogeneous light distribution from their surfaces, and compared performance to a flat-cleaved fiber, a device currently utilized in clinical practice. These fiberoptic microneedles can potentially enhance clinical laser procedures by providing direct delivery of diffuse light to target chromophores, while minimizing undesirable photothermal damage in adjacent, non-target tissue.
Liquefaction; adipose; lipolysis; laser; carbonization; fat; etching; silica; thermography
Manganese superoxide dismutase is a nuclear encoded primary antioxidant enzyme localized exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix. Genotoxic agents, such as UV radiation, generates oxidative stress and cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. The mitochondrial DNA polymerase (Polγ), a major constituent of nucleoids, is responsible for the replication and repair of the mitochondrial genome. Recent studies suggest that mitochondria contain fidelity proteins and MnSOD constitutes an integral part of the nucleoid complex. However, it is not known whether or how MnSOD participates in the mitochondrial repair processes. Using skin tissue from C57/BL6 mice exposed to UVB radiation, we demonstrate that MnSOD plays a critical role in preventing mtDNA damage by protecting the function of Polγ. Q-PCR analysis shows an increase in mtDNA damage after UVB exposure. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies demonstrate p53 translocation to mitochondria and interaction with Polγ after UVB exposure. The mtDNA immunoprecipitation assay with Polγ and p53 antibodies in p53+/+ and p53−/− mice demonstrates an interaction between MnSOD, p53, and Polγ. The results suggest that these proteins form a complex for the repair of UVB-associated mtDNA damage. The data also demonstrate that UVB exposure injures the mtDNA D-loop in a p53-dependent manner. Using MnSOD-deficient mice we demonstrate that UVB-induced mtDNA damage is MnSOD-dependent. Exposure to UVB results in nitration and inactivation of Polγ, which is prevented by addition of the MnSOD mimetic MnIIITE-2-PyP5+. These results demonstrate for the first time that MnSOD is a fidelity protein that maintains the activity of Polγ by preventing UVB-induced nitration and inactivation of Polγ. The data also demonstrate that MnSOD plays a role along with p53 to prevent mtDNA damage.
Fidelity gene; Polymerase gamma; p53; MnSOD; Oxidative/nitrative stresses; MnIIITE-2-PyP5+
d-Fenfluramine (d-Fen) increases serotonin (5-HT) content in the synaptic cleft and exerts anorexigenic effects in animals and humans. However, the neural circuits that mediate these effects are not fully identified. To address this issue, we assessed the efficacy of d-Fen-induced hypophagia in mouse models with manipulations of several genes in selective populations of neurons. Expectedly, we found that global deletion of 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) significantly attenuated d-Fen-induced anorexia. These anorexigenic effects were restored in mice with 5-HT2CRs expressed only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Further, we found that deletion of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs), a downstream target of POMC neurons, abolished anorexigenic effects of d-Fen. Reexpression of MC4Rs only in SIM1 neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and neurons in the amygdala was sufficient to restore the hypophagic property of d-Fen. Thus, our results identify a neurochemically defined neural circuit through which d-Fen influences appetite and thereby indicate that this 5-HT2CR/POMC-MC4R/SIM1 circuit may yield a more refined target to exploit for weight loss.
Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intake, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, respectively. Finally, multiple hormonal and neural cues (e.g., leptin, estrogen, and serotonin) that use the melanocortin systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis will be reviewed. These findings suggest that targeting the specific branches of melanocortin circuits may be potential avenues to combat the current obesity and diabetes epidemics.
melanocortins; leptin; estrogen; serotonin; body weight
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a common malignant epithelial tumor of salivary glands, but relatively rare in lung. The histological features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung are similar to its counterpart arising from the salivary glands. Here, we reported a special tumor that occurred in the medial segment of the right lower lobe in a 22-year-old man. This tumor exhibited typical features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma with 3 cell types: squamoid cells, mucin-secreting cells and cells of intermediate type. These 3 types of cells organized into cysts, nests, glands and solid patterns. Specially, the inner lining cells of some glandular structures were uniform cuboidal and hobnail-like, similar to the alveolar epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the inner lining cells of glandular structures were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-B, used as markers of alveolar epithelial cells, and were negative for p63. These findings for the first time demonstrated a rare alveolar epithelial differentiation of glandular inner lining cells in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma; Lung neoplasm; Thyroid transcription factor-1; Surfactant protein-B
Estrogens regulate body weight and reproduction primarily through actions on estrogen receptor-α (ERα). However, ERα-expressing cells mediating these effects are not identified. We demonstrate that brain-specific deletion of ERα in female mice causes abdominal obesity stemming from both hyperphagia and hypometabolism. Hypometabolism and abdominal obesity, but not hyperphagia, are recapitulated in female mice lacking ERα in hypothalamic steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) neurons. In contrast, deletion of ERα in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to hyperphagia, without directly influencing energy expenditure or fat distribution. Further, simultaneous deletion of ERα from both SF1 and POMC neurons causes hypometabolism, hyperphagia and increased visceral adiposity. Additionally, female mice lacking ERα in SF1 neurons develop anovulation and infertility, while POMC-specific deletion of ERα inhibits negative feedback regulation of estrogens and impairs fertility in females. These results indicate that estrogens act on distinct hypothalamic ERα neurons to regulate different aspects of energy homeostasis and reproduction.
The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women.
A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants.
The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (–0.012, 95%CI: –.038∼0.006, p = 0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022∼0.044, p<0.001) and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005∼0.023, p<0.01), respectively.
Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.
It is mandatory to confirm the absence of mutations in the KRAS gene before treating metastatic colorectal cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, and similar regulations are being considered for non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and other tumor types. Routine diagnosis of KRAS mutations in NSCLC is challenging because of compromised quantity and quality of biological material. Although there are several methods available for detecting mutations in KRAS, there is little comparative data regarding their analytical performance, economic merits, and workflow parameters.
We compared the specificity, sensitivity, cost, and working time of five methods using 131 frozen NSCLC tissue samples. We extracted genomic DNA from the samples and compared the performance of Sanger cycle sequencing, Pyrosequencing, High-resolution melting analysis (HRM), and the Conformité Européenne (CE)-marked TheraScreen DxS and K-ras StripAssay kits.
Results and conclusions
Our results demonstrate that TheraScreen DxS and the StripAssay, in that order, were most effective at diagnosing mutations in KRAS. However, there were still unsatisfactory disagreements between them for 6.1% of all samples tested. Despite this, our findings are likely to assist molecular biologists in making rational decisions when selecting a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective method for detecting KRAS mutations in heterogeneous clinical tumor samples.
SNP - single nucleotide polymorphism; KRAS - Kiras2 kristen rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; NSCLC - Non-small cell lung cancer; Genotyping