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1.  An investigation of drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in a comprehensive hospital of East China 
Background
To investigate the drug resistant gene profiles and molecular typing of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected from clinical specimens in a comprehensive hospital, Jiangsu province.
Methods
This study included 120 patients in a comprehensive hospital with drug-resistant A. baumannii infections on clinical specimens from October 2011 to December 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined by Vitek 2 Compact system. OXA-51, OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-58, VIM, IMP, SHV, GES, TEM, AmpC, qacEΔ1-sul1, intI l, CarO, aac(6′)-Ib, and aac(6′)-II were analyzed by PCR. The analysis of molecular typing for 50 multidrug resistant A. baumannii isolates was performed by PFGE.
Results
A total of 64(53%) isolates were multidrug-resistant A.baumannii. The antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that the resistant rates to common antibiotics of mutidrug-resistant A. baumannii were extremely high, most of which over 60%. One hundred and ten isolates harbored OXA-51 (91.7%), 100 for OXA-23(83.3%), 103 for VIM-1(85.8%), 90 for AmpC(75.00%), 50 for aac(6′)-Ib(41.7%), 77 for the loss of CarO (64.2%), 85 for intl1(70.8%), and 64 for qacEΔ1-sul1(53.33%), while OXA-24 was undetected. Fifty multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates belong to 14 clones according to the PFGE DNA patterns. Main clone A includes 24 isolates, while clone B and clone C includes 6 and 9 isolates, respectively and others with no common source identified.
Conclusion
There is high morbidity of A. baumannii infections in the hospital, especially in ICU and sputum is the most common sample type.The mainly drug-resistant genes of A. baumannii are OXA-51, OXA-23, and VIM-1 in the hospital. Clonal dissemination provides evidence for the prevalence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii among clinical isolates. It is suggested that there is an urgent need for effective control and prevention measures.
doi:10.1186/s12941-015-0066-4
PMCID: PMC4328433  PMID: 25643932
Acinetobacter baumannii; Drug-resistant gene; PCR; PFGE
2.  Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 is related to pathologic involvement in IgA nephropathy with normotension, normal renal function and mild proteinuria 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:107.
Background
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) may progress to renal failure for some patients without any clinical risk factors and it is not unusual to find severe pathologic damage in clinically mild IgAN. We therefore investigated whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was related to pathologic involvement in clinically mild IgAN.
Methods
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine of 51 IgAN patients with normotension, normal renal function and proteinuria < 1.0 g/24 h were tested. Relationships between urinary KIM-1 and pathologic features were analyzed.
Results
Eighteen of the 51 patients had elevated urinary KIM-1. The tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis was more severe in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (T0/T1/T2, 13/5/0 vs. 33/0/0, P = 0.004). Proportion of glomeruli containing cresecents was higher in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (50% vs. 18%, P = 0.026). Urinary KIM-1 correlated with the proportion of total crescents (R = 0.303, p = 0.031) and fibrous crescents (R = 0.456, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with the proportion of cellular crescents or fibrocellular crescents. Although the proportion of vascular lesions was higher in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 (44.4%) than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (18.1%), the difference was not significant (p = 0.057). There was no difference of the response to treatment between patients with and without elevated urinary KIM-1 during a short-term follow-up.
Conclusions
Urinary KIM-1 is a reflection of tubularinstitial injury. For patients with clinically mild IgAN, high urinary KIM-1 is related to relatively severe pathologic involvement on renal biopsy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-107
PMCID: PMC4094891  PMID: 24998891
KIM-1; IgA nephropathy; Oxford classification
3.  Epitope analysis of anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in propylthiouracil-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(6):R196.
Introduction
Increasing evidence has suggested that linear epitopes of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) directed to myeloperoxidase (MPO) might provide clues to the pathogenesis of propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study mapped epitopes of MPO-ANCA in sera from patients with PTU-induced MPO-ANCA (with or without vasculitis) and primary AAV, aiming to analyze certain epitopes associated with the development of PTU-induced AAV.
Methods
Six recombinant linear fragments, covering the whole amino acid sequence of a single chain of MPO, were produced from Escherichia coli. Sera from 17 patients with PTU-induced AAV, 17 patients with PTU-induced MPO-ANCA but without clinical evidence of vasculitis, and 64 patients with primary AAV were collected at presentation. Of the 17 patients with PTU-induced AAV, 12 also had sera at remission. The epitope specificities were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using the recombinant fragments as solid-phase ligands.
Results
Compared with patients with PTU-induced MPO-ANCA but without clinical vasculitis, sera from PTU-induced AAV patients showed significantly higher reactivity against the H1 fragment of MPO (optical density values: 0.17 (0.10 to 0.35) versus 0.10 (0.04 to 0.21), P = 0.038) and could recognize a significantly higher number of fragments (two (none to four) versus one (none to two), P = 0.026). Compared with sera from primary AAV patients, sera from PTU-induced AAV patients had significantly higher reactivity to the P fragment and the H4 fragment (47.1% versus 14.1% P < 0.001; 41.2% versus 14.1%, P = 0.034, respectively), and could recognize a significantly higher number of fragments (two (none to four) versus one (none to two), P = 0.013]. Among the 12 PTU-induced AAV patients with sequential samples, the number of fragments recognized in remission was significantly less than that in initial onset (two (none to four) versus none (none to 0.75), P < 0.001].
Conclusions
Linear epitopes of MPO molecules might be associated closely with PTU-induced AAV. In particular, the P and H4 fragments may be important epitopes in PTU-induced AAV.
doi:10.1186/ar4386
PMCID: PMC3979166  PMID: 24252385
4.  Epitope Analysis of Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibodies in Patients with ANCA-Associated Vasculitis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60530.
Objective
Increasing evidences have suggested the pathogenic role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directing myeloperoxidase (MPO) in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). The current study aimed to analyze the association between the linear epitopes of MPO-ANCA and clinicopathological features of patients with AAV.
Methods
Six recombinant linear fragments, covering the whole length amino acid sequence of a single chain of MPO, were produced from E.coli. Sera from 77 patients with AAV were collected at presentation. 13 out of the 77 patients had co-existence of serum anti-GBM antibodies. Ten patients also had sequential sera during follow up. The epitope specificities were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the recombinant fragments as solid phase ligands.
Results
Sera from 45 of the 77 (58.4%) patients with AAV showed a positive reaction to one or more linear fragments of the MPO chain. The Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Scores and the sera creatinine were significantly higher in patients with positive binding to the light chain fragment than that in patients without the binding. The epitopes recognized by MPO-ANCA from patients with co-existence of serum anti-GBM antibodies were mainly located in the N-terminus of the heavy chain. In 5 out of the 6 patients, whose sera in relapse recognize linear fragments, the reactivity to linear fragments in relapse was similar to that of initial onset.
Conclusion
The epitope specificities of MPO-ANCA were associated with disease activity and some clinicopathological features in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060530
PMCID: PMC3618278  PMID: 23577119
5.  p38MAPK, ERK and PI3K Signaling Pathways Are Involved in C5a-Primed Neutrophils for ANCA-Mediated Activation 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e38317.
Background
The complement system is one of the important contributing factors in the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). C5a and the neutrophil C5a receptor play a central role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-mediated neutrophil recruitment and activation. The current study further investigated the signaling pathways of C5a-mediated priming of human neutrophils for ANCA-induced neutrophil activation.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The effects of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) inhibitor (SB202190), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (6o) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) were tested on respiratory burst and degranulation of C5a-primed neutrophils activated with ANCA, as well as on C5a-induced increase in expression of membrane-bound PR3 (mPR3) on neutrophils. For C5a-primed neutrophils for MPO-ANCA-induced respiratory burst, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) value was 254.8±67.1, which decreased to 203.6±60.3, 204.4±36.7, 202.4±49.9 and 188±47.9 upon pre-incubation with SB202190, PD98059, LY294002 and the mixture of above-mentioned three inhibitors (compared with that without inhibitors, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.05), respectively. For PR3-ANCA-positive IgG, the MFI value increased in C5a-primed neutrophils, which decreased upon pre-incubation with above-mentioned inhibitors. The lactoferrin concentration increased in C5a-primed neutrophils induced by MPO or PR3-ANCA-positive IgG supernatant and decreased upon pre-incubation with above-mentioned three inhibitors. mPR3 expression increased from 923.3±182.4 in untreated cells to 1278.3±299.3 after C5a treatment and decreased to 1069.9±188.9, 1100±238.2, 1092.3±231.8 and 1053.9±200.3 by SB202190, PD98059, LY294002 and the mixture of above-mentioned three inhibitors (compared with that without inhibitors, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01), respectively.
Conclusions/Significance
Activation of p38MAPK, ERK and PI3K are important steps in the translocation of ANCA antigens and C5a-induced activation of neutrophils by ANCA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038317
PMCID: PMC3365028  PMID: 22675451
6.  Influence of variable domain glycosylation on anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies and anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:10.
Background
The pathophysiological significance of variable region glycosylation of autoantibodies is still unclear. In the current study, the influence of the variable region N-linked oligosaccharides on the reactivity of three autoantibody specificities was investigated with Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), which mainly binds to oligosaccharides with terminal α2, 6-linked sialic acid on the variable region of IgG.
Methods
Twenty-seven patients with serum positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) against myeploperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3), or autoantibodies against glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were included. Total IgG was isolated and separated into non-SNA-binding and SNA-binding fractions with SNA affinity chromatography. Antigen-specific IgG was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography.
Results
At the same concentration of IgG, the antigen binding level of non-SNA-binding IgG was significantly lower than that of SNA-binding IgG for MPO-ANCA (absorbance value at 405 nm, 0.572 ± 0.590 vs. 0.962 ± 0.670, P < 0.001) and for PR3-ANCA (0.362 ± 0.530 vs. 0.560 ± 0.531, P = 0.003). The antigen binding level of non-SNA-binding IgG was significantly higher than that of SNA-binding IgG for anti-GBM antibodies (1.301 ± 0.594 vs. 1.172 ± 0.583, P = 0.044). The level of variable region glycosylation of total IgG was significantly lower than that of affinity-purified MPO-ANCA (1.021 ± 0.201 vs. 1.434 ± 0.134, P = 0.004). The level of variable region glycosylation of total IgG was significantly higher than that of affinity-purified anti-GBM antibodies (1.034 ± 0.340 vs. 0.734 ± 0.333, P = 0.007). The SNA-binding fraction of MPO-ANCA-containing IgG and PR3-ANCA-containing IgG induced higher levels of neutrophil oxygen radical production than the corresponding non-SNA-binding fractions (P < 0.001 and P = 0.043, respectively). The level of variable region glycosylation of affinity-purified MPO-ANCA was higher in active AAV than the same patients in remission (P = 0.001).
Conclusion
Characteristics of variable region glycosylation of ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies were different from that of total IgG, which might influence the antigen-binding ability of these antibodies. Variable region glycosylation of ANCA might influence the effect of ANCA-induced neutrophils respiratory burst.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-10
PMCID: PMC3324382  PMID: 22404873
Glycosylation; Variable region; ANCA; Anti-GBM
7.  The association of HLA-DQB1, -DQA1 and -DPB1 alleles with anti- glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease in Chinese patients 
BMC Nephrology  2011;12:21.
Background
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that HLA-DRB1*1501 was strongly associated with anti-GBM disease in Chinese. However, the association of anti-GBM disease and other HLA class II genes, including HLA-DQB1, -DQA1,-DPB1 alleles, has rarely been investigated in Asian, especially Chinese patients. The present study further analyzed the association between anti-GBM disease and HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, and -DPB1 genes. Apart from this, we tried to locate the potential risk amino acid residues of anti-GBM disease.
Methods
This study included 44 Chinese patients with anti-GBM disease and 200 healthy controls. The clinical and pathological data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Typing of HLA-DQB1, -DQA1 and -DPB1 alleles were performed by bi-directional sequencing of exon 2 using the SeCoreTM Sequencing Kits.
Results
Compared with normal controls, the prevalence of HLA-DPB1*0401 was significantly lower in patients with anti-GBM disease (3/88 vs. 74/400, p = 4.4 × 10-4, pc = 0.039). Comparing with normal controls, the combination of presence of DRB1*1501 and absence of DPB1*0401 was significantly prominent among anti-GBM patients (p = 2.0 × 10-12, pc = 1.7 × 10-10).
Conclusions
HLA-DPB1*0401 might be a protective allele to anti-GBM disease in Chinese patients. The combined presence of DRB1*1501 and absence of DPB1*0401 might have an even higher risk to anti-GBM disease than HLA-DRB1*1501 alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-12-21
PMCID: PMC3107170  PMID: 21569485
Anti-GBM disease; HLA-DPB1*0401; Chinese

Results 1-7 (7)