This study reports a 10-year retrospective analysis of multiple trauma complicated by pulmonary contusion. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the risk factors for mortality due to trauma in patients with pulmonary contusion, the impact of various treatment options for prognosis, and the risk factors for concurrent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).
We retrospectively analyzed 252 trauma patients with lung contusion admitted to the General Hospital of Guangzhou Command from January 2000 to June 2011 by using the statistical processing system SPSS 17.0 for Windows.
We included 252 patients in our study, including 214 males and 38 females. The average age was 37.1 ± 14.9 years. There were 110 cases admitted to the ICU, of which 26 cases with ARDS. Nine of the 252 patients died. We compared those who survived with those who died by gender and age, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.199, P = 0.200). Separate univariate analysis of those who died and those who survived found that shock on admission (P = 0.000), coagulation disorders (P = 0.000), gastrointestinal bleeding (P = 0.02), the need for emergency surgery on admission (P = 0.000), pre-hospital intubation (P = 0.000), blood transfusion within 24 hours (P = 0.006), the use of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.000), and concurrent ARDS (P = 0.000) are poor prognosis risk factors. Further logistic analysis, including the admission GCS score (OR = 0.708, 95% CI 0.516-0.971, P = 0.032), ISS score (OR 1.135, 95% CI 1.006-1.280, P = 0.039), and concurrent ARDS (OR = 15.814, 95% CI 1.819-137.480, P = 0.012), identified the GCS score, ISS score and concurrent ARDS as independent risk factors of poor prognosis. Shock (OR = 9.121, 95% CI 0.857-97.060, P = 0.067) was also related to poor prognosis. Patients with injury factors such as road accident, falling injury, blunt injury and crush injury, et al.(P = 0.039), infection (P = 0.005), shock (P = 0.004), coagulation disorders (P = 0.006), emergency surgery (P = 0.01), pre-hospital intubation (P = 0.000), chest tube insertion (P = 0.004), blood transfusion (P = 0.000), usage of hormones (P = 0.002), phlegm (P = 0.000), ventilation (P = 0.000) were at a significantly increased risk for ARDS complications.
Those patients with multiple trauma and pulmonary contusion admitted to the hospital with shock, coagulopathy, a need for emergency surgery, pre-hospital intubation, and a need for mechanical ventilation could have a significantly increased risk of mortality and ARDS incidence. A risk for poor prognosis was associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. A high ISS score, high APACHE2, and low GCS score were independent risk factors for poor prognosis. If patients developed an infection or were given drainage, hormones, and phlegm treatment, they were at higher risk of ARDS. Pre-hospital intubation and drainage were independent risk factors for ARDS. In patients with ARDS, the ICU stay, total length of stay, and hospital costs might increase significantly. A GCS score < 5.5, APACHE 2 score > 16.5, and ISS score > 20.5 could be considered indicators of poor prognosis for patients with multiple trauma and lung contusion.