Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-8 (8)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii as immune-health promoting factor to improve growth performance and productivity in post-weaning pigs 
BMC Immunology  2014;15:24.
Immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics) have been proposed to improve piglets’ immune system to avoid intestinal infections and reduce unproductive inflammation after weaning. Previously, it was demonstrated that Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 (LjTL2937) attenuated the inflammatory response triggered by activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) from porcine Peyer’s patches (PP).
In view of the critical importance of PIE-APCs interactions in the regulation of intestinal immune responses, we aimed to examine the effect of LjTL2937 on activation patterns of APCs from swine PPs in co-cultures with PIE cells. In addition, we investigated whether LjTL2937 was able to beneficially modulate intestinal immunity of piglets after weaning to improve immune-health status.
Stimulation of PIE-APCs co-cultures with LjTL2937 increased the expression of MHC-II, CD80/86, IL-10, and Bcl-3 in CD172a+CD11R1- and CD172a+CD11R1high APCs. In addition, the TL2937 strain caused the upregulation of three negative regulators of TLR4 in PIE cells: MKP-1, Bcl-3 and A20. These changes significantly reduced the inflammatory response triggered by TLR4 activation in PIE-APCs co-cultures. The in vivo experiments using castrated male piglets (crossbreeding (LWD) with Landrace (L), Large Yorkshire (W) and Duroc (D))of 3 weeks of age demonstrated that feeding with LjTL2937 significantly reduced blood complement activity and C reactive protein concentrations while no changes were observed in blood leukocytes, ratio of granulocytes to lymphocyte numbers, macrophages’ activity and antibody levels. In addition, treatment with LjTL2937 significantly improved growth performance and productivity, and increased carcass quality.
We demonstrated that the use of immunobiotics strains like LjTL2937, as supplemental additives for piglets feedings, could be used as a strategy to maintain and improve intestinal homeostasis; that is important for the development of the pig and for health and performance throughout the productive life of the animal.
PMCID: PMC4068960  PMID: 24943108
Immunobiotics; Immune performance; Productivity; Piglets; Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937; TLR4; TLRs negative regulators
2.  Immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate antiviral immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial and antigen presenting cells 
BMC Microbiology  2014;14:126.
Previous findings suggested that Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 is able to increase resistance of children to intestinal viral infections. However, the intestinal cells, cytokines and receptors involved in the immunoregulatory effect of this probiotic strain have not been fully characterized.
We aimed to gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effect of the CRL1505 strain and therefore evaluated in vitro the crosstalk between L. rhamnosus CRL1505, porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and antigen presenting cells (APCs) from swine Peyer’s patches in order to deepen our knowledge about the mechanisms, through which this strain may help preventing viral diarrhoea episodes. L. rhamnosus CRL1505 was able to induce IFN–α and –β in IECs and improve the production of type I IFNs in response to poly(I:C) challenge independently of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 or TLR9 signalling. In addition, the CRL1505 strain induced mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α via TLR2 in IECs. Furthermore, the strain significantly increased surface molecules expression and cytokine production in intestinal APCs. The improved Th1 response induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 was triggered by TLR2 signalling and included augmented expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules and expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ in APCs. IL-10 was also significantly up-regulated by CRL1505 in APCs.
It was recently reviewed the emergence of TLR agonists as new ways to transform antiviral treatments by introducing panviral therapeutics with less adverse effects than IFN therapies. The use of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 as modulator of innate immunity and inductor of antiviral type I IFNs, IFN-γ, and regulatory IL-10 clearly offers the potential to overcome this challenge.
PMCID: PMC4035899  PMID: 24886142
Lactobacillus rhamnosus; Poly(I:C); Antiviral immunity; PIE cells; Intestinal antigen presenting cells; TLR2
3.  Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect 
Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117.
PMCID: PMC4034327  PMID: 24936377
bifidobacteria; anti-inflammatory activity; porcine intestinal epithelial cells; Toll-like receptors negative regulators; Toll-like receptor 2
4.  Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection 
BMC Immunology  2013;14:40.
Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before.
The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection.
Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains.
The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible to beneficially modulate the respiratory defenses against RSV by using heat-killed immunobiotics.
PMCID: PMC3751766  PMID: 23947615
Lactobacillus rhamnosus; Nasal treatment; Poly(I:C); Sntiviral immunity; Respiratory tract; Respiratory syncytial virus
5.  Immunoregulatory Effect of Bifidobacteria Strains in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells through Modulation of Ubiquitin-Editing Enzyme A20 Expression 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e59259.
We previously showed that evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities of lactic acid bacteria in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells is useful for selecting potentially immunobiotic strains.
The aims of the present study were: i) to select potentially immunomodulatory bifidobacteria that beneficially modulate the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-triggered inflammatory response in PIE cells and; ii) to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of immunobiotics by evaluating the role of TLR2 and TLR negative regulators in the modulation of proinflammatory cytokine production and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways in PIE cells.
Bifidobacteria longum BB536 and B. breve M-16V strains significantly downregulated levels of interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and IL-6 in PIE cells challenged with heat-killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Moreover, BB536 and M-16V strains attenuated the proinflammatory response by modulating the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. In addition, our findings provide evidence for a key role for the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 in the anti-inflammatory effect of immunobiotic bifidobacteria in PIE cells.
We show new data regarding the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of immunobiotics. Several strains with immunoregulatory capabilities used a common mechanism to induce tolerance in PIE cells. Immunoregulatory strains interacted with TLR2, upregulated the expression of A20 in PIE cells, and beneficially modulated the subsequent TLR4 activation by reducing the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We also show that the combination of TLR2 activation and A20 induction can be used as biomarkers to screen and select potential immunoregulatory bifidobacteria strains.
PMCID: PMC3608626  PMID: 23555642
6.  Advanced application of bovine intestinal epithelial cell line for evaluating regulatory effect of lactobacilli against heat-killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-mediated inflammation 
BMC Microbiology  2013;13:54.
Previously, a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) was successfully established. This work hypothesized that BIE cells are useful in vitro model system for the study of interactions of microbial- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs) with bovine intestinal epithelial cells and for the selection of immunoregulatory lactic acid bacteria (LAB).
All toll-like receptor (TLR) genes were expressed in BIE cells, being TLR4 one of the most strongly expressed. We demonstrated that heat-stable PAMPs of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) significantly enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α and MCP-1 in BIE cells by activating both NF-κB and MAPK pathways. We evaluated the capacity of several lactobacilli strains to modulate heat-stable ETEC PAMPs-mediated inflammatory response in BIE cells. Among these strains evaluated, Lactobacillus casei OLL2768 attenuated heat-stable ETEC PAMPs-induced pro-inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-κB and p38 signaling pathways in BIE cells. Moreover, L. casei OLL2768 negatively regulated TLR4 signaling in BIE cells by up-regulating Toll interacting protein (Tollip) and B-cell lymphoma 3-encoded protein (Bcl-3).
BIE cells are suitable for the selection of immunoregulatory LAB and for studying the mechanisms involved in the protective activity of immunobiotics against pathogen-induced inflammatory damage. In addition, we showed that L. casei OLL2768 functionally modulate the bovine intestinal epithelium by attenuating heat-stable ETEC PAMPs-induced inflammation. Therefore L. casei OLL2768 is a good candidate for in vivo studying the protective effect of LAB against intestinal inflammatory damage induced by ETEC infection or heat-stable ETEC PAMPs challenge in the bovine host.
PMCID: PMC3605377  PMID: 23497067
Bovine intestinal epithelial cells; Immunobiotic; ETEC PAMPs; TLRs negative regulators; Lactobacillus casei OLL2768
7.  Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii Modulates the Toll-Like Receptor 4-Induced Inflammatory Response via Negative Regulation in Porcine Antigen-Presenting Cells 
Previously, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 attenuates the inflammatory response triggered by activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. In view of the critical importance of antigen-presenting cell (APC) polarization in immunoregulation, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of strain TL2937 on the activation patterns of APCs from swine Peyer's patches (PPs). We demonstrated that direct exposure of porcine APCs to L. jensenii in the absence of inflammatory signals increased expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β in CD172a+ APCs and caused them to display tolerogenic properties. In addition, pretreatment of CD172a+ APCs with L. jensenii resulted in differential modulation of the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR4 activation. The immunomodulatory effect of strain TL2937 was not related to a downregulation of TLR4 but was related to an upregulation of the expression of three negative regulators of TLRs: single immunoglobulin IL-1-related receptor (SIGIRR), A20, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M). Our results also indicated that TLR2 has an important role in the anti-inflammatory activity of L. jensenii TL2937, since anti-TLR2 antibodies blocked the upregulation of SIGIRR and IRAK-M in CD172a+ APCs and the production of IL-10 in response to TLR4 activation. We performed, for the first time, a precise functional characterization of porcine APCs from PPs, and we demonstrated that CD172a+ cells were tolerogenic. Our findings demonstrate that adherent cells and isolated CD172a+ cells harvested from swine PPs were useful for in vitro study of the inflammatory responses in the porcine gut and the immunomodulatory effects of immunobiotic microorganisms.
PMCID: PMC3393362  PMID: 22573738
8.  Orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus modulates the respiratory immune response triggered by the viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern poly(I:C) 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:53.
Some studies have shown that probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, had the potential to beneficially modulate the outcome of certain bacterial and viral respiratory infections. However, these studies did not determine the mechanism(s) by which probiotics contribute to host defense against respiratory viruses.
In this work we demonstrated that orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505) was able to increase the levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 in the respiratory tract and the number of lung CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells. To mimic the pro-inflammatory and physiopathological consecuences of RNA viral infections in the lung, we used an experimental model of lung inflammation based on the administration of the artificial viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern poly(I:C). Nasal administration of poly(I:C) to mice induced a marked impairment of lung function that was accompanied by the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell recruitment into the airways. The preventive administration of Lr1505 reduced lung injuries and the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in the respiratory tract after the challenge with poly(I:C). Moreover, Lr1505 induced a significant increase in lung and serum IL-10. We also observed that Lr1505 was able to increase respiratory IFN-γ levels and the number of lung CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells after poly(I:C) challenge. Moreover, higher numbers of both CD103+ and CD11bhigh dendritic cells and increased expression of MHC-II, IL-12 and IFN-γ in these cell populations were found in lungs of Lr1505-treated mice. Therefore, Lr1505 treatment would beneficially regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory mediators and IL-10, allowing an effective inflammatory response against infection and avoiding tissue damage.
Results showed that Lr1505 would induce a mobilization of cells from intestine and changes in cytokine profile that would be able to beneficially modulate the respiratory mucosal immunity. Although deeper studies are needed using challenges with respiratory viruses, the results in this study suggest that Lr1505, a potent inducer of antiviral cytokines, may be useful as a prophylactic agent to control respiratory virus infection.
PMCID: PMC3460727  PMID: 22989047
L. rhamnosus CRL1505; Poly(I:C); Antiviral immunity; Respiratory tract

Results 1-8 (8)