Pseudomonas aeruginosa XMG, isolated from soil, utilizes lactate. Here we present a 6.45-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. Besides the lactate utilization mechanism of the strain, the genome sequence may also provide other useful information related to P. aeruginosa, such as identifying genes involved in virulence, drug resistance, and aromatic catabolism.
Bacillus atrophaeus C89, isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara, is a potential producer of bioactive compounds, such as neobacillamide A and bacillamide C. Here, we present a 4.2-Mb assembly of its genome. The nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) make it possible to produce the bioactive compounds.
Both Bacillus licheniformis strains 10-1-A and 5-2-D are efficient producers of 2,3-butanediol. Here we present 4.3-Mb and 4.2-Mb assemblies of their genomes. The key genes for the regulation and metabolism of 2,3-butanediol production were annotated, which may provide further insights into the molecular mechanism for the production of 2,3-butanediol with high yield and productivity.
Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) can differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CMs) in vitro but the differentiation level from ESCs is low. Here we describe a simple co-culture model by commercially available Millicell™ hanging cell culture inserts to control the long-term differentiation of ESCs into CMs.
Mouse ESCs were cultured in hanging drops to form embryoid bodies (EBs) and treated with 0.1 mmol/L ascorbic acid to induce the differentiation of ESCs into CMs. In the indirect co-culture system, EBs were co-cultured with epidermal keratinocytes (EKs) or neonatal CMs (NCMs) by the hanging cell culture inserts (PET membranes with 1 µm pores). The molecular expressions and functional properties of ESC-derived CMs in prolonged culture course were evaluated. During time course of ESC differentiation, the percentages of EBs with contracting areas in NCMs co-culture were significantly higher than that without co-culture or in EKs co-culture. The functional maintenance of ESC-derived CMs were more prominent in NCMs co-culture model.
These results indicate that NCMs co-culture promote ESC differentiation and has a further effect on cell growth and differentiation. We assume that the improvement of the differentiating efficiency of ESCs into CMs in the co-culture system do not result from the effect of co-culture directly on cell differentiation, but rather by signaling effects that influence the cells in proliferation and long-term function maintenance.
The study of systems genetics is changing the way the genetic and molecular basis of phenotypic variation, such as disease susceptibility and drug response, is being analyzed. Moreover, systems genetics aids in the translation of insights from systems biology into genetics. The use of systems genetics enables greater attention to be focused on the potential impact of genetic perturbations on the molecular states of networks that in turn affects complex traits. In this study, we developed models to detect allele-specific perturbations on interactions, in which a genetic locus with alternative alleles exerted a differing influence on an interaction. We utilized the models to investigate the dynamic behavior of an integrated molecular network undergoing genetic perturbations in yeast. Our results revealed the complexity of regulatory relationships between genetic loci and networks, in which different genetic loci perturb specific network modules. In addition, significant within-module functional coherence was found. We then used the network perturbation model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of individual differences in response to 100 diverse small molecule drugs. As a result, we identified sub-networks in the integrated network that responded to variations in DNA associated with response to diverse compounds and were significantly enriched for known drug targets. Literature mining results provided strong independent evidence for the effectiveness of these genetic perturbing networks in the elucidation of small-molecule responses in yeast.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal ChuanXiong Ding Tong herbal formula granule (CXDT-HFG) for migraine patients with “the Syndrome of Liver Wind and Blood Stasis.” Methods. 150 migraine patients were recruited and assigned randomly in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive CXDT-HFG (n = 99) plus necessary analgesics, or placebo (n = 51) plus necessary analgesics for 16 weeks (12 weeks' intervention and 4 weeks' follow up). Outcome measures included migraine days, frequency of migraine attacks, analgesics consumption for acute treatment, and the proportion of responders as well as the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and intensity for pain. Results. Compared with the placebo group, the CXDT-HFG group showed significant reduction in migraine days and attacks frequency at week 12 and follow-up period (P < 0.05) as well as in the reduction of VAS scores at follow-up period.There was significant difference in the proportion of responders between the two groups at follow-up period (P = 0.014). However there were no significant differences between the two groups in analgesics consumption (P > 0.05). Conclusion. CXDT-HFG was more effective than placebo in decreasing days of migraine attacks, frequency, VAS scores, and relieving pain intensity for migraine patients.
NAD-dependent l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases coexist in Lactobacillus genomes and may convert pyruvic acid into l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, respectively. Our findings suggest that the relative catalytic efficiencies of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products are crucial for the optical purity of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus strains.
Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM has an extraordinary characteristic of biomass utilization for 2,3-butanediol production. Here we present a 4.9-Mb assembly of its genome. The key genes for regulation and metabolism of 2,3-butanediol production were annotated, which could provide further insights into the molecular mechanism of high-yield production of 2,3-butanediol.
Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM-LAC is an efficient lactate utilizer with various applications in biocatalysis. Here we present a 4.2-Mb assembly of its genome. The annotated four adjacent genes form a lactate utilization operon, which could provide further insights into the molecular mechanism of lactate utilization.
Vaccination remains one of the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Immune responses to vaccination can be enhanced by inclusion of adjuvant in a vaccine. Paclitaxel extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifola was previously demonstrated to have adjuvant property. Compared to paclitaxel, docetaxel is another member of taxane family, and is more soluble in water and easier to manipulate in medication. To investigate the adjuvant effect of this compound, we measured the immune responses induced by co-administration of a split inactivated influenza H1N1 vaccine antigen with docetaxel.
When co-administered with docetaxel, lower dose antigen (equivalent to 10 ng HA) induced similar levels of IgG and IgG isotypes as well as HI titers to those induced by higher dose antigen (equivalent to 100 ng HA). Docetaxel promoted splenocyte responses to H1N1 antigen, ConA and LPS, mRNA expressions of cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10) and T-bet/GATA-3 by splenocytes. The enhanced immunity was associated with up-expressed microRNAs (miR-155, miR-150 and miR-146a) in docetaxel-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Docetaxel promoted similar IgE level to but alum promoted significantly higher IgE level than the control.
Docetaxel has adjuvant effect on the influenza H1N1 vaccine by up-regulation of Th1/Th2 immune responses. Considering its unique vaccine adjuvant property as well as the safe record as an anti-neoplastic agent clinically used in humans during a long period, docetaxel should be further studied for its use in influenza vaccine production.
Docetaxel; Adjuvant; Influenza; H1N1; Th1/Th2
Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In recent years, evidences suggest that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an inflammatory cytokine, participates in cardiac remodeling; however, the involvement of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HMGB1 is sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to identify the possible mechanisms underlying the hypertrophic response. Cardiomyocytes isolated from 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with recombinant HMGB1, at concentrations ranging from 50 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. After 24 hours, cardiomyocytes were processed for the evaluation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and calcineurin A expression. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR was used to detect protein and mRNA expression levels, respectively. The activity of calcineurin was also evaluated using a biochemical enzyme assay. HMGB1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, characterized by enhanced expression of ANP, and increased protein synthesis. Meanwhile, increased calcineurin activity and calcineurin A protein expression were observed in cardiomyocytes preconditioned with HMGB1. Furthermore, cyclosporin A pretreatment partially inhibited the HMGB1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that HMGB1 leads to cardiac hypertrophy, at least in part through activating calcineurin.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a type of probiotic bacteria with industrial potential for l-lactic acid production. We announce the draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus CASL (2,855,156 bp with a G+C content of 46.6%), which is an efficient producer of l-lactic acid from cheap, nonfood substrate cassava with a high production titer.
Pseudomonas putida Idaho is an organic-solvent-tolerant strain which can degrade and adapt to high concentrations of organic solvents. Here, we announce its first draft genome sequence (6,363,067 bp). We annotated 192 coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for aromatic compound metabolism, 40 CDSs encoding phospholipid synthesis, and 212 CDSs related to stress response.
The commercial gelling agent gellan gum is a heteropolysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis, regulation, and modification of gellan gum have not been fully characterized. Here we describe the draft genome sequence of stain ATCC 31461 and major findings from its annotation.
Pseudomonas putida strain B6-2 can efficiently degrade environmental pollutants/toxicants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dioxin-like compounds, and has unique tolerance to organic solvents. Here, we present a 6.24-Mb draft genome sequence of B6-2, which could provide further insights into the biodegradative mechanisms of a diverse range of chemical compounds.
Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain.
Rhodococcus erythropolis strains have shown excellent characteristics in petroleum oil biodesulfurization. Here we present the first announcement of the draft genome sequence of an efficient biodesulfurizing bacterium named R. erythropolis XP (7,229,582 bp). The biodesulfurizing genes dszABC are located on a plasmid, while the flavin reductase gene dszD is located on the chromosome.
Bacillus coagulans XZL4 is an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of important platform compounds, such as l-lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and acetoin. Here we present a 2.8-Mb assembly of its genome. Simple and efficient carbohydrate metabolism systems, especially the transketolase/transaldolase pathway, make it possible to convert pentose sugars to products at high levels.
Sporolactobacillus inulinus CASD is an efficient d-lactic acid producer with high optical purity. Here we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of S. inulinus (2,930,096 bp). The large number of annotated two-component system genes makes it possible to explore the mechanism of extraordinary lactate tolerance of S. inulinus CASD.
AIM: To identify the relationship between the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism sites (tagSNPs) of the Interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene and genetic susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese patients.
METHODS: Five hundred and one cases of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 301 HBV natural clearance controls were studied. Two tagSNPs in the IL-18 gene (rs1946518A/C and rs574424C/G) were genotyped by the Multiplex Snapshot technique. The genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and analyzed.
RESULTS: In the genotypes of rs1946518, the AA type was present at a higher frequency in the patients compared to those in the controls. Odds ratio (OR) of the AA genotype for the comparison with that of the AC and the CC genotype was 1.537 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.116-2.218, P = 0.009 < 0.025). In phenotypes, the allele C at rs1946518 was of a significantly lower frequency in the patients with chronic hepatitis B than that in the controls (P = 0.017 < 0.025). OR of the allele A for the comparison with that of the allele C was 1.279 (95% CI: 1.045-1.567). As for the rs574424 genotypes, no significant difference in this genotype distribution or in this allele frequency between the patients and the control subjects was observed. No significant difference in the haplotype frequencies between the patients with chronic hepatitis B and HBV natural clearance individuals was displayed.
CONCLUSION: The data suggest that genotype AA and the allele A of the IL-18 at position rs1946518 are closely associated with the resistance to chronic hepatitis B and may be the dangerous gene. However, no statistical association was found between polymorphisms of rs574424 for IL-18 and hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B virus; Interleukin 18; tagSNP; Genetic susceptibility
Bacillus coagulans2-6 is an efficient producer of lactic acid. The genome of B. coagulans2-6 has the smallest genome among the members of the genus Bacillusknown to date. The frameshift mutation at the start of the d-lactate dehydrogenase sequence might be responsible for the production of high-optical-purity l-lactic acid.
B-RAF is the most frequently mutated protein kinase in human cancers.1 The finding that oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma2 followed by the demonstration that these tumors are dependent on the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway3 offered hope that inhibition of B-RAF kinase activity could benefit melanoma patients. Herein, we describe the structure-guided discovery of PLX4032 (RG7204), a potent inhibitor of oncogenic B-RAF kinase activity. Preclinical experiments demonstrated that PLX4032 selectively blocked the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in BRAF mutant cells and caused regression of BRAF mutant xenografts.4 Toxicology studies confirmed a wide safety margin consistent with the high degree of selectivity, enabling Phase 1 clinical trials using a crystalline formulation of PLX4032.5 In a subset of melanoma patients, pathway inhibition was monitored in paired biopsy specimens collected before treatment initiation and following two weeks of treatment. This analysis revealed substantial inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, yet clinical evaluation did not show tumor regressions. At higher drug exposures afforded by a new amorphous drug formulation,4,5 greater than 80% inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in the tumors of patients correlated with clinical response. Indeed, the Phase 1 clinical data revealed a remarkably high 81% response rate in metastatic melanoma patients treated at an oral dose of 960 mg twice daily.5 These data demonstrate that BRAF-mutant melanomas are highly dependent on B-RAF kinase activity.
BRAF; melanoma; PLX4032; biomarker; oncogene; targeted therapy
Inactivation of U19/EAF2 has been shown previously to lead to tumorigenesis in multiple organs; however the mechanism of U19/EAF2 tumor suppression remains unclear. In this paper we report that the expression of an anti-angiogenic protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is down-regulated in the prostate and liver of U19/EAF2 knockout mouse. The U19/EAF2 knockout liver displayed increased CD31-positive blood vessels, suggesting that the TSP-1 down-regulation can contribute to increased angiogenesis. TSP-1 is reported to be a p53-target gene and p53 is a known binding partner of ELL, which binds to U19/EAF2. Here we show that U19/EAF2 can co-localize and co-immunoprecipitate with p53 in transfected cells. In a TSP-1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay, p53 transfection suppressed the TSP-1 promoter activity and U19/EAF2 co-transfection blocked the p53 suppression of TSP-1 promoter. However, U19/EAF2 transfection alone had little or no effect on the TSP-1 promoter. The above observations together suggest that U19/EAF2 regulates the expression of TSP-1 via blocking p53 repression of the TSP-1 promoter.
U19/EAF2; prostate cancer; tumor suppressor; TSP-1; p53
To examine common antimicrobial regimens used in eradicating certain nosocomial Gram-negative pathogens and determine which ones are likely to be the most suitable as empirical choices in Shenyang, China.
A 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to determine the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) for meropenem, imipenem, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam and levofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected in 2006 and 2007 from Shenyang.
Meropenem and imipenem had the highest CFRs against the Enterobacteriaceae (97%-100%), followed by cefepime. No antibiotic simulated regimen achieved optimal CFR against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Piperacillin/tazobactam dosed at 4.5 g q8h achieved the lowest CFR against all bacteria.
This study suggests that the carbapenems provide the greatest likelihood of clinical success for the Enterobacteriaceae, and combination therapy might be needed when choosing empirical therapy, especially when A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa are suspected.
Functional modules are basic units of cell function, and exploring them is important for understanding the organization, regulation and execution of cell processes. Functional modules in single biological networks (e.g., the protein-protein interaction network), have been the focus of recent studies. Functional modules in the integrated network are composite functional modules, which imply the complex relationships involving multiple biological interaction types, and detect them will help us understand the complexity of cell processes.
We aimed to detect composite functional modules containing co-transcriptional regulation interaction, and protein-protein interaction, in our pre-constructed integrated network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We computationally extracted 15 composite functional modules, and found structural consistency between co-transcriptional regulation interaction sub-network and protein-protein interaction sub-network that was well correlated with their functional hierarchy. This type of composite functional modules was compact in structure, and was found to participate in essential cell processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and RNA splicing.
The structure of composite functional modules containing co-transcriptional regulation interaction, and protein-protein interaction reflected the cooperation of transcriptional regulation and protein function implementation, and was indicative of their important roles in essential cell functions. In addition, their structural and functional characteristics were closely related, and suggesting the complexity of the cell regulatory system.