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1.  Anthrax Lethal and Edema Toxins Fail to Directly Impair Human Platelet Function 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;205(3):453-457.
Hemorrhage is a prominent clinical manifestation of systemic anthrax. Therefore, we have examined the effects of anthrax lethal and edema toxins on human platelets. We find that anthrax lethal toxin fails to cleave its target, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, and anthrax edema toxin fails to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Surface expression of toxin receptors tumor endothelial marker 8 and capillary morphogenesis gene 2, as well as coreceptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), are markedly reduced, preventing toxin binding to platelets. Our studies suggest that the hemorrhagic clinical manifestations of systemic anthrax are unlikely to be caused by the direct binding and entry of anthrax toxins into human platelets.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jir763
PMCID: PMC3256950  PMID: 22158563
2.  Bacillus anthracis’ lethal toxin induces broad transcriptional responses in human peripheral monocytes 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:33.
Background
Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a highly effective zinc dependent metalloprotease that cleaves the N-terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK or MEKs) and is known to play a role in impairing the host immune system during an inhalation anthrax infection. Here, we present the transcriptional responses of LT treated human monocytes in order to further elucidate the mechanisms of LT inhibition on the host immune system.
Results
Western Blot analysis demonstrated cleavage of endogenous MEK1 and MEK3 when human monocytes were treated with 500 ng/mL LT for four hours, proving their susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin. Furthermore, staining with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that LT treatment did not induce human peripheral monocyte apoptosis or necrosis. Using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays, we identified over 820 probe sets differentially regulated after LT treatment at the p <0.001 significance level, interrupting the normal transduction of over 60 known pathways. As expected, the MAPKK signaling pathway was most drastically affected by LT, but numerous genes outside the well-recognized pathways were also influenced by LT including the IL-18 signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor pathway and the IFN alpha signaling pathway. Multiple genes involved in actin regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and cytokine signaling were identified after treatment with anthrax LT.
Conclusion
We conclude LT directly targets human peripheral monocytes and causes multiple aberrant gene responses that would be expected to be associated with defects in human monocyte’s normal signaling transduction pathways and function. This study provides further insights into the mechanisms associated with the host immune system collapse during an anthrax infection, and suggests that anthrax LT may have additional downstream targets outside the well-known MAPK pathway.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-33
PMCID: PMC3475123  PMID: 22747600
3.  The Potential Influence of Common Viral Infections Diagnosed during Hospitalization among Critically Ill Patients in the United States 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e18890.
Viruses are the most common source of infection among immunocompetent individuals, yet they are not considered a clinically meaningful risk factor among the critically ill. This work examines the association of viral infections diagnosed during the hospital stay or not documented as present on admission to the outcomes of ICU patients with no evidence of immunosuppression on admission. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) academic centers in the U.S. from the years 2006 to 2009. The UHC is an alliance of over 90% of the non-profit academic medical centers in the U.S. A total of 209,695 critically ill patients were used in this analysis. Eight hospital complications were examined. Patients were grouped into four cohorts: absence of infection, bacterial infection only, viral infection only, and bacterial and viral infection during same hospital admission. Viral infections diagnosed during hospitalization significantly increased the risk of all complications. There was also a seasonal pattern for viral infections. Specific viruses associated with poor outcomes included influenza, RSV, CMV, and HSV. Patients who had both viral and bacterial infections during the same hospitalization had the greatest risk of mortality RR 6.58, 95% CI (5.47, 7.91); multi-organ failure RR 8.25, 95% CI (7.50, 9.07); and septic shock RR 271.2, 95% CI (188.0, 391.3). Viral infections may play a significant yet unrecognized role in the outcomes of ICU patients. They may serve as biological markers or play an active role in the development of certain adverse complications by interacting with coincident bacterial infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018890
PMCID: PMC3091021  PMID: 21573031
4.  Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Impairs Neutrophil Actin-Based Motility▿  
Infection and Immunity  2009;77(6):2455-2464.
Inhalation anthrax results in high-grade bacteremia and is accompanied by a delay in the rise of the peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count and a paucity of PMNs in the infected pleural fluid and mediastinum. Edema toxin (ET) is one of the major Bacillus anthracis virulence factors and consists of the adenylate cyclase edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Relatively low concentrations of ET (100 to 500 ng/ml of PA and EF) significantly impair human PMN chemokinesis, chemotaxis, and ability to polarize. These changes are accompanied by a reduction in chemoattractant-stimulated PMN actin assembly. ET also causes a significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes intracellular actin-based motility within HeLa cells. These defects in actin assembly are accompanied by a >50-fold increase in intracellular cyclic AMP and a >4-fold increase in the phosphorylation of protein kinase A. We have previously shown that anthrax lethal toxin (LT) also impairs neutrophil actin-based motility (R. L. During, W. Li, B. Hao, J. M. Koenig, D. S. Stephens, C. P. Quinn, and F. S. Southwick, J. Infect. Dis. 192:837-845, 2005), and we now find that LT combined with ET causes an additive inhibition of PMN chemokinesis, polarization, chemotaxis, and FMLP (N-formyl-met-leu-phe)-induced actin assembly. We conclude that ET alone or combined with LT impairs PMN actin assembly, resulting in paralysis of PMN chemotaxis.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00839-08
PMCID: PMC2687340  PMID: 19349425
5.  CapG−/− Mice Have Specific Host Defense Defects That Render Them More Susceptible than CapG+/+ Mice to Listeria monocytogenes Infection but Not to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(11):6582-6590.
Loss of the actin filament capping protein CapG has no apparent effect on the phenotype of mice maintained under sterile conditions; however, bone marrow-derived macrophages from CapG−/− mice exhibited distinct motility defects. We examined the ability of CapG−/− mice to clear two intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The 50% lethal dose of Listeria was 10-fold lower for CapG−/− mice than for CapG+/+ mice (6 × 103 CFU for CapG−/− mice and 6 × 104 CFU for CapG+/+ mice), while no difference was observed for Salmonella. The numbers of Listeria cells in the spleens and livers were significantly higher in CapG−/− mice than in CapG+/+ mice at days 5 to 9, while the bacterial counts were identical on day 5 for Salmonella-infected mice. Microscopic analysis revealed qualitatively similar inflammatory responses in the spleens and livers of the two types of mice. Specific immunofluorescence staining analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed similar numbers of macrophages and dendritic cells in infected CapG−/− and CapG+/+ spleens. However, analysis of bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed a 50% reduction in the rate of phagocytosis of Listeria in CapG−/− cells but a normal rate of phagocytosis of Salmonella. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in a reduction in the ruffling response of CapG−/− cells compared to the response of CapG+/+ cells, and CapG−/− bone-marrowed derived neutrophils migrated at a mean speed that was nearly 50% lower than the mean speed of CapG+/+ neutrophils. Our findings suggest that specific motility deficits in macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils render CapG−/− mice more susceptible than CapG+/+ mice to Listeria infection.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.11.6582-6590.2003
PMCID: PMC219612  PMID: 14573680
6.  Comparisons of CapG and gelsolin-null macrophages 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;154(4):775-784.
Capping the barbed ends of actin filaments is a critical step for regulating actin-based motility in nonmuscle cells. The in vivo function of CapG, a calcium-sensitive barbed end capping protein and member of the gelsolin/villin family, has been assessed using a null Capg allele engineered into mice. Both CapG-null mice and CapG/gelsolin double-null mice appear normal and have no gross functional abnormalities. However, the loss of CapG in bone marrow macrophages profoundly inhibits macrophage colony stimulating factor–stimulated ruffling; reintroduction of CapG protein by microinjection fully restores this function. CapG-null macrophages also demonstrate ∼50% impairment of immunoglobulin G, and complement-opsonized phagocytosis and lanthanum-induced vesicle rocketing. These motile functions are not impaired in gelsolin-null macrophages and no additive effects are observed in CapG/gelsolin double-null macrophages, establishing that CapG function is distinct from, and does not overlap with, gelsolin in macrophages. Our observations indicate that CapG is required for receptor-mediated ruffling, and that it is a major functional component of macrophage phagocytosis. These primary effects on macrophage motile function suggest that CapG may be a useful target for the regulation of macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200101113
PMCID: PMC2196452  PMID: 11514591
CapG; gelsolin; macrophages; ruffling; phagocytosis
7.  The Chediak-Higashi protein interacts with SNARE complex and signal transduction proteins. 
Molecular Medicine  2002;8(1):56-64.
BACKGROUND:Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an inherited immunodeficiency disease characterized by giant lysosomes and impaired leukocyte degranulation. CHS results from mutations in the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) gene, which encodes a 425-kD cytoplasmic protein of unknown function. The goal of this study was to identify proteins that interact with LYST as a first step in understanding how LYST modulates lysosomal exocytosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen cDNA fragments, covering the entire coding domain of LYST, were used as baits to screen five human cDNA libraries by a yeast two-hybrid method, modified to allow screening in the activation and the binding domain, three selectable markers, and more stringent confirmation procedures. Five of the interactions were confirmed by an in vitro binding assay. RESULTS: Twenty-one proteins that interact with LYST were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens. Four interactions, confirmed directly, were with proteins important in vesicular transport and signal transduction (the SNARE-complex protein HRS, 14-3-3, and casein kinase II). CONCLUSIONS:On the basis of protein interactions, LYST appears to function as an adapter protein that may juxtapose proteins that mediate intracellular membrane fusion reactions. The pathologic manifestations observed in CHS patients and in mice with the homologous mutation beige suggest that understanding the role of LYST may be relevant to the treatment of not only CHS but also of diseases such as asthma, urticaria, and lupus, as well as to the molecular dissection of the CHS-associated cancer predisposition.
PMCID: PMC2039936  PMID: 11984006
8.  Gelsolin, a Protein That Caps the Barbed Ends and Severs Actin Filaments, Enhances the Actin-Based Motility of Listeria monocytogenes in Host Cells 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(8):3775-3782.
The actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes requires the addition of actin monomers to the barbed or plus ends of actin filaments. Immunofluorescence micrographs have demonstrated that gelsolin, a protein that both caps barbed ends and severs actin filaments, is concentrated directly behind motile bacteria at the junction between the actin filament rocket tail and the bacterium. In contrast, CapG, a protein that strictly caps actin filaments, fails to localize near intracellular Listeria. To explore the effect of increasing concentrations of gelsolin on bacterial motility, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts stably transfected with gelsolin cDNA were infected with Listeria. The C5 cell line containing 2.25 times control levels of gelsolin supported significantly higher velocities of bacterial movement than did control fibroblasts (mean ± standard error of the mean, 0.09 ± 0.003 μm/s [n = 176] versus 0.05 ± 0.003 μm/s [n = 65]). The rate of disassembly of the Listeria-induced actin filament rocket tail was found to be independent of gelsolin content. Therefore, if increases in gelsolin content result in increases in Listeria-induced rocket tail assembly rates, a positive correlation between gelsolin content and tail length would be expected. BODIPY-phalloidin staining of four different stably transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines confirmed this expectation (r = 0.92). Rocket tails were significantly longer in cells with a high gelsolin content. Microinjection of gelsolin 1/2 (consisting of the amino-terminal half of native gelsolin) also increased bacterial velocity by more than 2.2 times. Microinjection of CapG had no effect on bacterial movement. Cultured skin fibroblasts derived from gelsolin-null mice were capable of supporting intracellular Listeria motility at velocities comparable to those supported by wild-type skin fibroblasts. These experiments demonstrated that the surface of Listeria contains a polymerization zone that can block the barbed-end-capping activity of both gelsolin and CapG. The ability of Listeria to uncap actin filaments combined with the severing activity of gelsolin can accelerate actin-based motility. However, gelsolin is not absolutely required for the actin-based intracellular movement of Listeria because its function can be replaced by other actin regulatory proteins in gelsolin-null cells, demonstrating the functional redundancy of the actin system.
PMCID: PMC108414  PMID: 9673261
9.  Vinculin Proteolysis Unmasks an ActA Homolog for Actin-based Shigella Motility  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;138(6):1255-1264.
To generate the forces needed for motility, the plasma membranes of nonmuscle cells adopt an activated state that dynamically reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton. By usurping components from focal contacts and the actin cytoskeleton, the intracellular pathogens Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes use molecular mimicry to create their own actin-based motors. We raised an antibody (designated FS-1) against the FEFPPPPTDE sequence of Listeria ActA, and this antibody: (a) localized at the trailing end of motile intracellular Shigella, (b) inhibited intracellular locomotion upon microinjection of Shigella-infected cells, and (c) cross-reacted with the proteolytically derived 90-kD human vinculin head fragment that contains the Vinc-1 oligoproline sequence, PDFPPPPPDL. Antibody FS-1 reacted only weakly with full-length vinculin, suggesting that the Vinc-1 sequence in full-length vinculin may be masked by its tail region and that this sequence is unmasked by proteolysis. Immunofluoresence staining with a monoclonal antibody against the head region of vinculin (Vin 11-5) localized to the back of motile bacteria (an identical staining pattern observed with the anti-ActA FS-1 antibody), indicating that motile bacteria attract a form of vinculin containing an unmasked Vinc-1 oligoproline sequence. Microinjection of submicromolar concentrations of a synthetic Vinc-1 peptide arrested Shigella intracellular motility, underscoring the functional importance of this sequence. Western blots revealed that Shigella infection induces vinculin proteolysis in PtK2 cells and generates p90 head fragment over the same 1–3 h time frame when intracellular bacteria move within the host cell cytoplasm. We also discovered that microinjected p90, but not full-length vinculin, accelerates rates of pathogen motility by a factor of 3 ± 0.4 in Shigella-infected PtK2 cells. These experiments suggest that vinculin p90 is a rate-limiting component in actin-based Shigella motility, and that supplementing cells with p90 stimulates rocket tail growth. Earlier findings demonstrated that vinculin p90 binds to IcsA (Suzuki, T.A., S. Saga, and C. Sasakawa. 1996. J. Biol. Chem. 271:21878– 21885) and to vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) (Brindle, N.P.J., M.R. Hold, J.E. Davies, C.J. Price, and D.R. Critchley. 1996. Biochem. J. 318:753– 757). We now offer a working model in which proteolysis unmasks vinculin's ActA-like oligoproline sequence. Unmasking of this site serves as a molecular switch that initiates assembly of an actin-based motility complex containing VASP and profilin.
PMCID: PMC2132544  PMID: 9298981
10.  Chemotherapy of experimental streptococcal endocarditis 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1974;27(4):261-264.
Bacteriostatic agents are frequently recommended as alternatives to penicillin for prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis. To test the efficacy of this group of antimicrobials, prophylaxis of experimental streptococcal endocarditis was attempted with tetracycline. The number of streptococci colonizing the aortic valves of rabbits was not affected by inhibitory levels of tetracycline, but multiplication was checked. Streptococcis urvived in vegetations for seven days despite the continuous presence of tetracycline, and multiplied when the drug was withdrawn. It is therefore suggested that bacteriostatic agents may be valueless for prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC478098  PMID: 4604215
11.  Effects of Acridine Orange on the Growth of Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  1972;110(1):439-441.
Exposure of Escherichia coli to critical acridine orange (AO) concentrations did not result in loss of viability. However, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells exposed to such agents was rapidly degraded and repolymerized. On the other hand, a bacterium deficient in DNA repair (pol A1−, lacking DNA polymerase) was sensitive to the action of AO. The DNA of such cells was also degraded but it was not repaired.
PMCID: PMC247425  PMID: 4553001

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