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author:("pelz, Gerhard")
1.  IL-23 plasma level is strongly associated with CMV status and reactivation of CMV in renal transplant recipients 
BMC Immunology  2016;17:35.
Background
Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with ESRD. Donor CMV seropositivity is associated with higher graft loss. Dendritic cells, macrophages and Th17 lymphocytes are defined as producers of IL-23. IL-23 is thought to be involved in the promotion of Th17 cell polarization. Latent CMV-induced Th17 might be involved in the pathogenesis of CMV infection in patients with ESRD. We aimed to evaluate associations of Th17-dependent cytokines with ESRD, CMV status and post-transplant outcome in kidney transplantation.
Results
IL-21 plasma levels were similar in patients and healthy controls (p = 0.47), whereas IL-9 (p = 0.02) and IL-23 (p < 0.0001) levels were significantly higher in ESRD patients. CMV-seronegative (p = 0.002) and –seropositive (p < 0.001) patients had significantly higher IL-23 plasma levels than controls. CMV-seropositive patients showed excessively higher IL-23 (p < 0.001) plasma levels than CMV-seronegative patients. Patients with post-transplant CMV reactivation had higher IL-23 plasma levels than patients without CMV reactivation (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
Our results indicate that latent CMV induces IL-23. IL-23 might be an inflammatory mediator of latent CMV infection in patients with ESRD and predisposes patients for post-transplant CMV reactivation.
doi:10.1186/s12865-016-0175-7
PMCID: PMC5048605  PMID: 27716059
Kidney transplantation; CMV; IL-23; Th17; CMV-IgG
2.  Low-dose oral cholecalciferol is associated with higher numbers of Helios+ and total Tregs than oral calcitriol in renal allograft recipients: an observational study 
Background
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a cornerstone of graft acceptance. High numbers of Tregs are associated with better long-term graft survival. Recently, Vitamin D was suggested as an immunomodulator, in addition to its classical role in calcium metabolism. Vitamin D modulates Tregs and might, thereby, promote graft acceptance and long-term graft survival.
Methods
One hundred twenty-three renal allograft recipients attending either Heidelberg nephrology or Giessen internal medicine clinic were enrolled in this cross- sectional study. Sixteen healthy controls were studied in addition. Sixty-nine patients were receiving no vitamin D, 38 calcitriol, and 16 cholecalciferol supplementations. We evaluated whether there was a difference in the absolute numbers of Helios+, Helios−, CTLA-4+, IFNg+, and total Tregs among the patient groups.
Results
Cholecalciferol supplementation was associated with higher absolute numbers of Helios+, CTLA-4+, and total Tregs than calcitriol (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.001 respectively). Helios+ Tregs were also higher in cholecalciferol than no vitamin D supplementation patients (p = 0.001), whereas CTLA-4+ and total Tregs were similar in both groups (p = NS). Helios+, Helios−, CTLA-4+, IFNg+, and total Tregs were similar in the cholecalciferol and healthy control groups (p = NS).
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that cholecalciferol, even when administered at low dosages, has a stabilizing effect on Tregs (particularly the Helios + subset), in contrast to calcitriol which showed neither a stabilizing nor a proliferation-inducing effect on the same cell population.
doi:10.1186/s40360-016-0066-9
PMCID: PMC4906900  PMID: 27296673
Treg; Cholecalciferol; Calcitriol; Renal transplantation
3.  Donor-specific antibodies require preactivated immune system to harm renal transplant 
EBioMedicine  2016;9:366-371.
Highlights
•Pretransplant DSA have a deleterious impact on graft survival only in the presence of high pretransplant serum levels of sCD30.•The majority of patients with pretransplant DSA might be transplanted safely without special pretreatment measures.
Kidney transplantation in the presence of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) is associated with a high failure rate due to antibody-mediated rejection. Many centers avoid transplantations if DSA are present. Others perform such transplantations after removal of DSA by apheresis under potent immunosuppression.
We provide strong evidence that DSA positive recipients reject their grafts at a high rate only if the immune activation marker sCD30 is also high, suggesting that T-cell help from an activated immune system is necessary for pretransplant DSA to exert a deleterious effect on the graft.
High-risk patients with DSA and sCD30 may benefit from special treatment measures. The presence of DSA alone may not be deleterious.
Background
It is an unresolved issue why some kidney transplant recipients with pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) show a high transplant failure rate, whereas in other patients DSA do not harm the graft. We investigated whether help from preactivated T-cells might be necessary for DSA to exert a deleterious effect.
Methods
The impact of pretransplant DSA and immune activation marker soluble CD30 (sCD30) on 3-year graft survival was analyzed in 385 presensitized kidney transplant recipients.
Findings
A deleterious influence of pretransplant DSA on graft survival was evident only in patients who were positive for the immune activation marker sCD30. In the absence of sCD30 positivity, 3-year graft survival was virtually identical in patients with or without DSA (83.1 ± 3.9% and 84.3 ± 2.8%, P = 0.81). A strikingly lower 3-year graft survival rate of 62.1 ± 6.4% was observed in patients who were both sCD30 and DSA positive (HR 2.92, P < 0.001). Even in the presence of strong DSA with ≥ 5000 MFI, the 3-year graft survival rate was high if the recipients were sCD30 negative.
Interpretation
Pretransplant DSA have a significantly deleterious impact on graft survival only in the presence of high pretransplant levels of the activation marker sCD30.
doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.06.006
PMCID: PMC4972543  PMID: 27333031
Single antigen bead; HLA antibodies; Donor-specific antibodies; sCD30; Kidney transplantation; Graft outcome
4.  Autoantigen-specific immunosuppression with tolerogenic peripheral blood cells prevents relapses in a mouse model of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 
Background
Dendritic cells (DCs) rendered suppressive by treatment with mitomycin C and loaded with the autoantigen myelin basic protein demonstrated earlier their ability to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). This provides an approach for prophylactic vaccination against autoimmune diseases. For clinical application such DCs are difficult to generate and autoantigens hold the risk of exacerbating the disease.
Methods
We replaced DCs by peripheral mononuclear cells and myelin autoantigens by glatiramer acetate (Copaxone®), a drug approved for the treatment of MS. Spleen cells were loaded with Copaxone®, incubated with mitomycin C (MICCop) and injected into mice after the first bout of relapsing-remitting EAE. Immunosuppression mediated by MICCop was investigated in vivo by daily assessment of clinical signs of paralysis and in in vitro restimulation assays of peripheral immune cells. Cytokine profiling was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Migration of MICCop cells after injection was examined by biodistribution analysis of 111Indium-labelled MICCop. The number and inhibitory activity of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were analysed by histology, flow cytometry and in vitro mixed lymphocyte cultures. In order to assess the specificity of MICCop-induced suppression, treated EAE mice were challenged with the control protein ovalbumin. Humoral and cellular immune responses were then determined by ELISA and in vitro antigen restimulation assay.
Results
MICCop cells were able to inhibit the harmful autoreactive T-cell response and prevented mice from further relapses without affecting general immune responses. Administered MICCop migrated to various organs leading to an increased infiltration of the spleen and the central nervous system with CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells displaying a suppressive cytokine profile and inhibiting T-cell responses.
Conclusion
We describe a clinically applicable cell therapeutic approach for controlling relapses in autoimmune encephalomyelitis by specifically silencing the deleterious autoimmune response.
doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0860-6
PMCID: PMC4852098  PMID: 27131971
Autoimmunity; Cell therapy; Copaxone®; Immune tolerance; Mitomycin C; Relapsing-remitting MS; Regulatory T cells
5.  IFNγ+ Treg in-vivo and in-vitro represent both activated nTreg and peripherally induced aTreg and remain phenotypically stable in-vitro after removal of the stimulus 
BMC Immunology  2015;16:45.
Background
IFNγ-producing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127- Treg represent the first line of Treg during an immune response. In the present study we determined whether IFNγ+ Treg in-vivo and in-vitro are Helios-positive representing activated natural (nTreg) or Helios-negative representing adaptive Treg (aTreg) and whether they originate from CD4+CD25+ and/or CD4+CD25- PBL. Furtheron, we investigated whether they are inducible by recombinant IFNγ (rIFNγ) as a single stimulus, decrease in-vitro after elimination of the stimulus, and have a demethylated Foxp3 Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) which is associated with stable Foxp3 expression.
Method
Subsets of IFNγ+ Treg were determined in peripheral blood of healthy controls using eight-color flow cytometry and were further investigated in-vitro. Foxp3 TSDR methylation status was determined using bisulphite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) analysis.
Results
Nearly all Treg in the peripheral blood were Helios+IFNγ- (1.9 ± 1.1/μl) and only few were Helios+IFNγ+ or Helios-IFNγ+ Treg (both 0.1 ± 0.1/μl). Enriched IFNγ+ Treg subsets showed in part strong Foxp3 TSDR demethylation. In-vitro, rIFNγ was unable to induce Treg. CD4+CD25+ enriched PBL stimulated with PMA/Ionomycin in the presence of rIFNγ were rather resistant to the effect of rIFNγ, in contrast to CD4+CD25- enriched PBL which showed increasing total Treg with Helios+ Treg switching from IFNγ- to IFNγ+ and increasing Helios-IFNγ+ Treg. The data indicate that rIFNγ, in combination with a polyclonal stimulus, activates nTreg and induces aTreg. When phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin was washed out from the cell culture after 6 h stimulation, Treg induction continued for at least 96 h of cell culture, contradicting the hypothesis that removal of the stimulus results in significant decrease of IFNγ- and IFNγ+ CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127- Treg due to loss of Foxp3 expression.
Conclusions
IFNγ+Helios- aTreg as well as IFNγ+Helios+ nTreg are detectable in the blood of healthy individuals, show in part strong Foxp3 TSDR demethylation and are inducible in-vitro. The present data provide further insight concerning the in-vivo and in-vitro characteristics of IFNγ+ Treg and help to understand their role in immunoregulation. Alloantigen-specific demethylated IFNγ+Helios+ nTreg might represent a suitable marker for monitoring graft-specific immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients.
doi:10.1186/s12865-015-0111-2
PMCID: PMC4535851  PMID: 26268522
IFNγ+ nTreg; IFNγ+ aTreg; Foxp3 TSDR demethylation; IFNγ; Th1; Healthy individuals
6.  Association of low serum TGF-β level in hantavirus infected patients with severe disease 
BMC Immunology  2015;16:19.
Background
Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, an immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TGF-β expression in acute hantavirus infection.
Results
We retrospectively studied 77 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala infection during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany in 2012. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-Puumala hantavirus IgG and IgM. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2 were analysed. Based on glomerular filtration rate on admission, patients were divided in mild and severe course of disease. Puumala virus RNA was detected by PCR amplification of the viral L segment gene. Out of 77 Puumala virus infected patients, 52 (68%) were male. A seasonal distribution was detected in our cohort with a peak in summer 2012, the highest incidence was observed in the age group of 30–39 years. Puumala virus RNA was detectable in 4/77 cases. Patients with severe disease had a significant longer hospital stay than patients with mild disease (6.2 vs 3.6 days). Thrombocyte count (186 vs 225 per nl), serum TGF-β1 (74 vs 118 ng/l) and TGF-β2 (479 vs 586 pg/l) were significantly lower in severe compared to mild disease. However, C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly higher in patients with severe disease (62 vs 40 mg/l). TGF-β1/Cr was the most sensitive and specific marker associated with renal dysfunction.
Conclusion
High serum CRP and low serum TGF-β in the early phase of hantavirus infection is associated with a severe course of disease. Our results support the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis in hantavirus infection.
doi:10.1186/s12865-015-0085-0
PMCID: PMC4399110  PMID: 25888018
Hantavirus; Puumala; Transforming growth factor; TGF; Severe disease
7.  Clinical Relevance of HLA Antibody Monitoring after Kidney Transplantation 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:845040.
In kidney transplantation, antibody-mediated allograft injury caused by donor HLA-specific antibodies (DSA) has recently been identified as one of the major causes of late graft loss. This paper gives a brief overview on the impact of DSA development on graft outcome in organ transplantation with a focus on risk factors for de novo alloantibody induction and recently published guidelines for monitoring of DSA during the posttransplant phase.
doi:10.1155/2014/845040
PMCID: PMC4211317  PMID: 25374891
8.  Defunctioning Polymorphism in the Immunoglobulin G Inhibitory Receptor (FcγRIIB-T/T232) Does not Impact on Kidney Transplant or Recipient Survival 
Transplantation  2014;98(3):285-291.
Background
There is an increasing appreciation of the deleterious effects of antibody and B cells on acute and chronic transplant outcomes. Many effector functions of antibody are mediated by a family of receptors (FcγRs) that are expressed on most immune cells, including neutrophils, natural killer cells, and B cells. Most FcγRs are activating and controlled by a single inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIB (CD32B), which also regulates some aspects of B-cell activation and antibody production. FcγRIIB-deficient mice develop severe chronic arteriopathy in a murine cardiac allograft model. A single nucleotide polymorphism in human FcγRIIB (rs1050501) results in profound receptor dysfunction and is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. The frequency of this FcγRIIB-I/T232 polymorphism also shows significant racial variation.
Methods
In the present study, we sought to determine whether the FcγRIIB-I/T232 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1050501 affected susceptibility to renal allograft rejection or loss and transplant recipient survival. FcγRIIB-I/T232 genotype was determined in 2,851 Caucasian and 570 Afro-Caribbean renal transplant recipients, and in 236 transplant recipients with a primary diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, all of whom were enrolled into the Collaborative Transplant Study.
Results
We found no significant difference in pretransplant panel reactive antibodies, acute rejection at 1-year nor in 10-year transplant or patient survival in individuals with differing FcγRIIB-I/T232 genotype.
Conclusion
This negative result is surprising, given the importance of this receptor in modulating antibody effector function.
doi:10.1097/TP.0000000000000287
PMCID: PMC4148707  PMID: 25022320
Antibodies; IgG; Fcγ receptors; FcγRIIB; CD32B; Renal transplantation; Chronic antibody-mediated rejection
9.  HIV-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Blood of Long-Term HIV-Infected Hemophilia Patients 
BioResearch Open Access  2013;2(6):399-411.
Abstract
Hemophilia patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 30 years ago show increased proportions of activated CD8+DR+ blood lymphocytes. We hypothesized that this might indicate a cellular immune response directed against HIV and might be the reason for long-term clinical stability of these patients. CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) reactive with six HIV and two cytomegalovirus (CMV) pentamers were determined in heparinized whole blood. Additional lymphocyte subsets as well as plasma cytokines and HIV-1 load were studied. Long-term HIV-infected hemophilia patients with (n=15) or without (n=33) currently detectable HIV-1 load in the plasma showed higher proportions of CD8+ lymphocytes reactive with HIV (p<0.001) and CMV pentamers (p=0.010) than healthy individuals. The cellular anti-HIV response tended to be stronger and more polyclonal in patients during periods of viral replication than in patients with retroviral quiescence (p=0.077). Anti-HIV CD8+ lymphocyte responses were strongest in patients with high counts of activated CD8+DR+ T (r=0.353; p=0.014) and low CD19+ B lymphocyte counts (r=−0.472; p=0.001). Patients with or without HIV-1 viral load showed normal Th1 and Th2 plasma cytokine levels and high plasma interleukin-6 (versus healthy controls, p=0.001) and tumor necrosis factor-α (p=0.020). Hemophilia patients who have been living with HIV for more than 30 years showed a polyclonal CD8+ T-cell response against HIV and CMV. This cellular antiviral immune response was strongest during periods of HIV-1 replication and remained detectable during periods of HIV-1 quiescence. We hypothesize that the consistent cellular anti-HIV-1 response in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy ensures stability and survival of these chronically HIV-1–infected hemophilia patients.
doi:10.1089/biores.2013.0034
PMCID: PMC3869412  PMID: 24380050
CMV; HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in blood; long-term HIV-infected hemophilia patients; stable disease
10.  Role and Value of Luminex®-Detected HLA Antibodies before and after Kidney Transplantation 
Summary
The complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity (CDC) method has been the classical technique to detect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in sera of patients who are listed for kidney transplantation. Because of the drawbacks of CDC, such as low sensitivity and low resolution in characterizing antibody specificities, the more specific ELISA technology was introduced in the 1990s which utilizes solubilized HLA molecules instead of lymphocytes. During the last 10 years, the introduction of the Luminex-based single antigen bead (L-SAB) technology, which uses recombinant single HLA molecules, allows detection and characterization of HLA antibodies at greater sensitivity than CDC and ELISA. A drawback associated with this technique is that the interpretation of results is demanding and requires comprehensive experience in HLA antibody diagnostics. Herein we discuss the current role and value of L-SAB technology in the clinical management of sensitized kidney transplant recipients.
doi:10.1159/000351314
PMCID: PMC3725013  PMID: 23922544
Luminex; Antibody; HLA; Kidney; Transplantation
11.  In-vitro inhibition of IFNγ+ iTreg mediated by monoclonal antibodies against cell surface determinants essential for iTreg function 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:47.
Background
IFNγ-producing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ PBL represent a subtype of iTreg that are associated with good long-term graft outcome in renal transplant recipients and suppress alloresponses in-vitro. To study the mechanism of immunosuppression, we attempted to block cell surface receptors and thereby inhibited the function of this iTreg subset in-vitro using monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins.
Methods
PBL of healthy control individuals were stimulated polyclonally in-vitro in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or recombinant proteins against/of CD178, CD152, CD279, CD28, CD95, and HLA-DR. Induction of IFNγ+ iTreg and proliferation of effector cells was determined using four-color fluorescence flow cytometry. Blockade of iTreg function was analyzed using polyclonally stimulated co-cultures with separated CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL.
Results
High monoclonal antibody concentrations inhibited the induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+IFNγ+ PBL (anti-CD152, anti-CD279, anti-CD95: p < 0.05) and CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL (anti-CD178, anti-CD152, anti-CD279, anti-CD95: p < 0.05). Effector cell proliferation increased with increasing antibody concentrations in culture medium (anti-CD178 and anti-CD279: p < 0.05). Conversely, high concentrations of recombinant proteins induced formation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+IFNγ+ PBL (rCD152 and rCD95: p < 0.05) and decreased cell proliferation dose-dependently (rCD178 and rCD95: p < 0.05). Our data suggest an inverse association of iTreg induction with effector cell proliferation in cell culture which is dependent on the concentration of monoclonal antibodies against iTreg surface determinants. 3-day co-cultures of polyclonally stimulated PBL with separated CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL showed lower cell proliferation than co-cultures with CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ- PBL (p < 0.05). Cell proliferation increased strongly in CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ- PBL-containing co-cultures in the presence of monoclonal antibody (anti-CD28, anti-CD152, anti-CD279: p < 0.05) but remained low in co-cultures with CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL (with the exception anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody: p < 0.05). Monoclonal antibodies prevent iTreg induction in co-cultures with CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ- PBL but do not efficiently block suppressive iTreg function in co-cultures with CD4+CD25+CD127-IFNγ+ PBL.
Conclusions
CD178, CD152, CD279, CD28, CD95, and HLA-DR determinants are important for induction and suppressive function of IFNγ+ iTreg.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-47
PMCID: PMC3482559  PMID: 22905732
IFNγ+ iTreg; IFNγ+Foxp3+; IFNγ+CD127-; CD178; CD152; CD279; CD28; CD95; HLA-DR; Inhibition; Cell proliferation
12.  Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection 
BMC Immunology  2011;12:65.
Background
Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection.
Results
We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa .
Conclusion
High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-12-65
PMCID: PMC3259039  PMID: 22085404
13.  Inhibition of Allogeneic T Cell Proliferation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase–expressing Dendritic Cells 
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, is expressed in certain cells and tissues, particularly in antigen-presenting cells of lymphoid organs and in the placenta. It was shown that IDO prevents rejection of the fetus during pregnancy, probably by inhibiting alloreactive T cells, and it was suggested that IDO-expression in antigen-presenting cells may control autoreactive immune responses. Degradation of tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for cell proliferation, was reported to be the mechanism of IDO-induced T cell suppression. Because we wanted to study the action of IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) on allogeneic T cells, the human IDO gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector and expressed in DCs. Transgenic DCs decreased the concentration of tryptophan, increased the concentration of kynurenine, the main tryptophan metabolite, and suppressed allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, but no other IDO-induced tryptophan metabolites, suppressed the T cell response, the suppressive effects being additive. T cells, once stopped in their proliferation, could not be restimulated. Inhibition of proliferation was likely due to T cell death because suppressive tryptophan catabolites exerted a cytotoxic action on CD3+ cells. This action preferentially affected activated T cells and increased gradually with exposure time. In addition to T cells, B and natural killer (NK) cells were also killed, whereas DCs were not affected. Our findings shed light on suppressive mechanisms mediated by DCs and provide an explanation for important biological processes in which IDO activity apparently is increased, such as protection of the fetus from rejection during pregnancy and possibly T cell death in HIV-infected patients.
doi:10.1084/jem.20020052
PMCID: PMC2196057  PMID: 12186837
immunosuppression; immunoregulation; immunological tolerance; tryptophan; kynurenine
14.  HLA matching and cadaver kidney transplantation — status 1984 
The Ulster Medical Journal  1985;54(Suppl):S70-S75.
The effect of HLA matching on cadaver kidney graft survival was analysed in over 9000 transplants. Matching for HLA-A and -B accounted for an improvement of 8% in the one-year survival rate, matching for HLA-DR for 10%, and matching for HLA-B + DR for 19%. The matching effect of the HLA-B and HLA-DR loci was additive. Patients without pre-transplant transfusions had lower graft survival rates than transfused patients, even if their grafts were HLA matched. The highest success rate was obtained in transfused recipients who received HLA matched kidneys.
PMCID: PMC2447977  PMID: 3909585

Results 1-14 (14)