The purpose is to summarize the experience in full endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma in 28 patients by rhinologist, and introduce the surgical skill of otolaryngologist, especially skills and cautions when operating inside nose. We removed pituitary adenoma in 28 patients via entirely endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with the help of special-designed instruments; we performed the procedure bloodlessly within limited time. The skill emphasized bilateral nostrils and four hands technique which was as delicate as possible not to scratch nasal mucosa or injure nasal frame. The special instruments included curette with suction, monopolar electrotome and bipolar coagulation forceps with suction, powered surgical equipments (Diamond Bur, Irrigation Tubing for Blades and Burs for nasal endoscopic surgery). Among 28 patients, there were 16 total resections, 8 subtotal resections, 3 partial resections, and 1 only biopsy due to excessive bleeding and hard nature. Of 19 patients with preoperative visual impairment, 12 patients had postoperative improvement in visual acuity and visual field. All the procedures were finished within 60 to 90 min. Complications seldom occurred except transient diabetes insipidus, especially no nasal-related signs or complications but 1 had epistaxis. The full endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is a promising approach for pituitary adenoma resection. Multidisciplinary collaboration will lead to optimal cure for the patients. New technique and special-designed instruments can facilitate greatly this procedure.
Nasal endoscopy; Pituitary adenoma; Complication; Surgical skill
We describe herein details of our efforts in developing a highly stereoselective synthesis of de novo chiral γ-amino-ynamides through additions of lithiated ynamides to Ellman–Davis chiral N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines. While additions of ynamides could be highly stereoselective even without Lewis acids, the use of BF3-OEt2 completely reversed the stereoselectivity. On the other hand, additions of oxazolidinone-substituted, oxazinanone-substituted and tetrahydropyrimidinone-substituted ynamides behaved quite differently and functioned better with BF3-OEt2. The chirality of the oxazolidinone ring exerts no impact on the selectivity. This work also features a unique 5-endo-dig cyclization of oxazolidinone-substituted γ-amino-ynamides that could be promoted with acid, leading to isothiazoles and 2,3-dihydro-isothiazole S-oxides.
Antibody resistance, not only de novo but also acquired cases, usually exists and is related with lower survival rate and high risk of recurrence. Reversing the resistance often results in better clinical therapeutic effect. Previously, we established a trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer cell line, named as SKOV3-T, with lower HER2 and induced higher IGF-1R expression level to keep cell survival.
IGF-1R was identified important for SKOV3-T growth. Then, a novel anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody, named as LMAb1, was used to inhibit SKOV3-T in cell growth/proliferation, migration, clone formation and in vivo carcinogenicity.
In both in vitro and in vivo assays, LMAb1 showed effective anti-tumor function, especially when being used in combination with trastuzumab, which was beneficial to longer survival time of mice as well as smaller tumor. It was also confirmed preliminarily that the mechanism of antibody might be to inhibit the activation of IGF-1R and downstream MAPK, AKT pathway transduction.
We achieved satisfactory anti-tumor activity using trastuzumab plus LMAb1 in trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer model. In similar cases, not only acquired but also de novo, good curative effect might be achieved using combined antibody therapy strategies.
IGF-1R; Monoclonal antibody; Acquired resistant; Trastuzumab; Ovarian cancer
To improve the laundering durability of the silver functionalized antibacterial cotton fabrics, a radiation-induced coincident reduction and graft polymerization is reported herein where a pomegranate-shaped silver nanoparticle aggregations up to 500 nm can be formed due to the coordination forces between amino group and silver and the wrapping procedure originated from the coincident growth of the silver nanoparticles and polymer graft chains. This pomegranate-shaped silver NPAs functionalized cotton fabric exhibits outstanding antibacterial activities and also excellent laundering durability, where it can inactivate higher than 90% of both E. coli and S. aureus even after 50 accelerated laundering cycles, which is equivalent to 250 commercial or domestic laundering cycles.
A highly diastereoselective addition of lithiated ynamides to Ellman–Davis chiral imines is described. While additions of N-sulfonyl ynamides are highly stereoselective even without Lewis acids, the use of BF3-OEt2 completely reversed the stereoselectivity. In addition, oxazolidinone-substituted ynamides behaved differently and functioned better with BF3-OEt2, and the chirality of the oxazolidinone ring exerts no impact on the selectivity.
Angiogenesis is crucial for tumor development, growth and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in promoting solid tumor growth and metastasis via stimulating tumor-associated angiogenesis, and blocking the activity of VEGF can starve tumors. Avastin, which is a humanized anti-VEGF antibody, has been successfully applied in clinics since 2004. However, the price of Avastin is extremely high for Chinese people. Here, we report a novel human anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody, MIL60, which shows an affinity comparable to that of Avastin (the KD value of MIL60 was 44.5 pM, while that of Avastin was 42.7 pM). MIL60 displays favorable actions in inhibiting VEGF-triggered endothelial cell proliferation (the IC50 value of MIL60 was 31±6.4 ng/ml and that of Avastin was 47±8.1 ng/ml), migration (8 µg/ml or 0.8 µg/ml MIL60 versus the control: P<0.05) and tube formation (2 µg/ml or 0.2 µg/ml MIL60 versus the control: P<0.05) via the VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Moreover, MIL60 was shown to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo in xenograft models of human colon carcinoma and ovarian cancer using immunotherapy and immunohistochemistry analysis (MIL60 versus N.S.: P=0.0007; Avastin versus N.S.: P=0.00046). These data suggest that MIL60 is a potential therapeutic, anti-angiogenic agent. Our work provides a novel anti-VEGF antibody, which can be considered an anti-tumor antibody candidate and a new option for patients with various cancers.
angiogenesis; anti-VEGF antibody; cancer
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factors. It plays an important role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis and increases permeability across the vessels. Using antibody phage display technology, we obtained a novel anti-VEGFA IgG, named as FD006. In this study, the pharmacological characteristics and efficacy of FD006 in corneal neovascularization (CoNV) were evaluated.
FD006 was predicted to have similar binding mode to bevacizumab. Experimental analysis showed that the binding ability of FD006 seemed a little stronger than bevacizumab, for the EC50 of FD006 to bind VEGF analyzed by ELISA was about 0.037 μg/mL while that of bevacizumab was 0.18 μg/mL. Binding kinetics assays showed similar results that FD006 possessed 2-fold higher affinity to bind VEGF than bevacizumab due to slower dissociation rate of FD006; meanwhile, FD006 inhibited the VEGF-induced proliferation of HUVEC with an IC50 value of 0.031 ± 0.0064 μg/ml, which seemed similar or a litter better than bevacizumab (0.047 ± 0.0081 μg/ml). The subconjunctival administration of FD006, bevacizumab or dexamethasone could significantly inhibit the growth of CoNV contrasting to N.S (p < 0.01). At the early stage, FD006 showed better inhibitory effect on the growth of CoNV compared with bevacizumab (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that FD006 could inhibit the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-9 and ICAM-1, which could explain its favorable anti-angiogenic activity.
The pharmacological characteristics of FD006 were similar or even a little better than bevacizumab in inhibiting corneal neovascularization.
Neovascularization; Cornea; Bevacizumab; Angiogenesis; Anti-angiogenic treatment
Efforts in developing an expeditious and convenient method for synthesizing γ–amino-ynamides via nucleophilic addition of lithiated ynamides to aryl imines are described. This work also features an aza-variant of a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement of γ–amino-ynamides and the synthetic utility of γ–amino-ynamides in an intramolecular ketenimine-[2 + 2] cycloaddition.
Lithiated ynamides; γ–amino-ynamides; aryl imine addition; azetene; aza-Meyer-Schuster rearrangement
Motivation: RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology is effective for analyzing transcriptomes. Like de novo genome assembly, de novo transcriptome assembly does not rely on any reference genome or additional annotation information, but is more difficult. In particular, isoforms can have very uneven expression levels (e.g. 1:100), which make it very difficult to identify low-expressed isoforms. One challenge is to remove erroneous vertices/edges with high multiplicity (produced by high-expressed isoforms) in the de Bruijn graph without removing correct ones with not-so-high multiplicity from low-expressed isoforms. Failing to do so will result in the loss of low-expressed isoforms or having complicated subgraphs with transcripts of different genes mixed together due to erroneous vertices/edges.
Contributions: Unlike existing tools, which remove erroneous vertices/edges with multiplicities lower than a global threshold, we use a probabilistic progressive approach to iteratively remove them with local thresholds. This enables us to decompose the graph into disconnected components, each containing a few genes, if not a single gene, while retaining many correct vertices/edges of low-expressed isoforms. Combined with existing techniques, IDBA-Tran is able to assemble both high-expressed and low-expressed transcripts and outperform existing assemblers in terms of sensitivity and specificity for both simulated and real data.
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
The nucleotide sequences of the ten genomic segments of a Vietnam isolate of southern rice blacked-dwarf virus were determined. This complete genomic sequence will help to further understand the viral etiology (origin of viral pathogen) and phylogenetic relationships among fijiviruses.
As a member of the TNF superfamily, TRAIL could induce human tumor cell apoptosis through its cognate death receptors DR4 or DR5, which can induce formation of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) and activation of the membrane proximal caspases (caspase-8 or caspase-10) and mitochondrial pathway. Some monoclonal antibodies against DR4 or DR5 have been reported to have anti-tumor activity.
In this study, we reported a novel mouse anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody, named as LaDR5, which could compete with TRAIL to bind DR5 and induce the apoptosis of Jurkat cells in the absence of second cross-linking in vitro. Using computer-guided molecular modeling method, the 3-D structure of LaDR5 Fv fragment was constructed. According to the crystal structure of DR5, the 3-D complex structure of DR5 and LaDR5 was modeled using molecular docking method. Based on distance geometry method and intermolecular hydrogen bonding analysis, the key functional domain in DR5 was predicted and the DR5 mutants were designed. And then, three mutants of DR5 was expressed in prokaryotic system and purified by affinity chromatograph to determine the epitope of DR5 identified by LaDR5, which was consistent with the theoretical results of computer-aided analysis.
Our results demonstrated the specific epitope located in DR5 that plays a crucial role in antibody binding and even antineoplastic bioactivity. Meanwhile, revealed structural features of DR5 may be important to design or screen novel drugs agonist DR5.
TRAIL; Death receptor 5; Monoclonal antibody; Apoptosis; Breast cancer
HER2 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many cancers and is linked to poor prognosis or cancer metastases. Monoclonal antibodies, such as Herceptin against HER2-overexpressing cancers, have showed satisfactory clinical therapeutic effect. However, they have difficulty to surmount obstacles to enter cells or blood–brain barrier.
In this study, a cell-penetrating peptide Arg9 was linked to the C-terminus of anti-HER2 single chain antibody (MIL5scFv). Flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and electron microscopy analysis all revealed that Arg9 peptide facilitated the penetration of MIL5scFv into HER2-negative cell line NIH3T3 and orientate in mitochondria. More interestingly, Western blot assay showed the potential enhanced bioactivity of MIL5scFv-Arg9 in HER2+ cell line SKOV3, indicating that Arg9 could help large molecules (e.g. antibody) to penetrate into cells and therefore enhance its anti-neoplastic function.
Our work represented an attractive by preliminary strategy to enhance the therapeutic effect of existing antibodies by entering cells easier, or more desirable, surmounting the physical barriers, especially in hard-to-reach cancers such as brain metastases cases.
HER2; Single chain antibody; Translocation
The purpose of the study was to determine the sites and types of mutations associated with type I neurofibromatosis (NF1) in the NF1 gene in a family with NF1 patients.
The blood samples obtained from this family (four patients and one normal healthy individual) were analyzed by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing for mutation screening.
We found synonymous mutations in exons 7, 38, 50, and 56 of the NF1 gene. This implied that the third codon had a new SNP that did not lead to a change in the amino acid coding. The exon 19 mutation was CAG homozygous, while it was C/TAG heterozygous in normal individuals. The stop codon led to nonsense-codon-mediated decay of the mRNA (NMD), thus resulting in only one copy of the NF1 gene that encodes the normal protein in individuals.
The synonymous mutations in the NF1 gene occur in exons 7, 38, 50, and 56. The CAG homozygous mutations may occur in exon 19, and the C/TAG heterozygous mutations may occur in the others. This mutation may be responsible for NF1 in patients in this family and may warrant extensive research on the NF1 gene.
Gene; Neurofibromatosis; Hereditary diseases; Cafe au lait spots; Mutation; Exon
► Cytogenetic analysis performed on peripheral blood showed a similar abnormal chromosomal complement in tumor tissue. ► Thus, mutation of an X chromosome appears to be confined to the neoplasm. ► This anomaly has not been previously described in aggressive angiomyxoma.
Aggressive angiomyxoma; Chromosome; Cytogenetic analysis
MKK7 works as a cytoplasmic anchoring protein for JNK1 in various cell lines but exhibits aberrant nuclear entry in Jurkat cells, which leads to resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays a context-dependent role in tumorigenesis. Stress-induced redistribution of JNK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus has been demonstrated as essential for stress-induced cell death. However, accumulation of basal JNK activity in the nucleus has frequently been seen in tumor cells. Our previous report revealed aberrant nuclear entry of JNK protein in Jurkat human leukemic T-cells even without JNK hyperactivation. Because inhibition of JNK activity, especially JNK1 activity, in Jurkat cells results in augmented Fas-mediated apoptosis, it is possible that aberrant subcellular localization of JNK, especially the JNK1 isoform, contributes to the resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here we report that MKK7 works as a cytoplasmic anchoring protein for JNK1 in various types of cells, including human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) T-cells, but exhibits aberrant nuclear entry in Jurkat cells. Ectopic expression of a JNK1 mutant defective of nuclear entry or a nuclear JNK inhibitor leads to impaired UV-induced apoptosis in both PBMC T- and Jurkat cells. The same treatment shows no effect on Fas-mediated apoptosis of PBMC T-cells but sensitizes Jurkat cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our work suggests that aberrant subcellular organization of the JNK pathway might render certain tumor cells resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
The cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway has been reported to either promote or suppress cell death, in a cell context-dependent manner. Our previous study has shown that the induction of dynein light chain (DLC) by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is required for cAMP-mediated inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 activation in fibroblasts, which leads to suppression of NF-κB activity and promotion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cell death. However, it remains unknown whether this regulation is also applicable to fibroblastoma cells.
Intracellular cAMP was determined in L929 fibroblastoma cells after treatment of the cells with various cAMP elevation agents. Effects of cAMP in the presence or absence of the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against CREB on TNF-α-induced cell death in L929 cells were measured by propidium iodide (PI) staining and subsequent flow cytomety. The activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), another member of MAPK superfamily, was analyzed by immunoblotting. JNK selective inhibitor D-JNKi1 and p38 selective inhibitor SB203580 were included to examine the roles of JNK and p38 in this process. The expression of DLC or other mediators of cAMP was analyzed by immunoblotting. After ectopic expression of DLC with a transfection marker GFP, effects of cAMP on TNF-α-induced cell death in GFP+ cells were measured by PI staining and subsequent flow cytomety.
Elevation of cAMP suppressed TNF-α-induced necrotic cell death in L929 fibroblastoma cells via CREB-mediated transcription. The pro-survival role of cAMP was associated with selective unresponsiveness of L929 cells to the inhibition of p38 activation by cAMP, even though cAMP significantly inhibited the activation of JNK under the same conditions. Further exploration revealed that the induction of DLC, the major mediator of p38 inhibition by cAMP, was impaired in L929 cells. Enforced inhibition of p38 activation by using p38 specific inhibitor or ectopic expression of DLC reversed the protection of L929 cells by cAMP from TNF-α-induced cell death.
These data suggest that the lack of a pro-apoptotic pathway in tumor cells leads to a net survival effect of cAMP.
The study assessed the effectiveness and safety of endovascular covered stents in the management of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas.
Fourteen endovascular covered stents were used to repair three pseudoaneurysms, six fu-siform aneurysms and six direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Aneurysms were in the carotid artery in seven cases, in the vertebral artery two cases. It was not possible to treat two additional cases transcutaneously for technical reasons
Percutaneous closure of the lesions with an endovascular covered stent was successful in 13 of 15 cases. Initial follow-up showed good stent patency. No complications were observed after stent implantation. During follow-up, stent thromboses were detected in two of nine patients with follow-up digital subtracted angiography. One carotid-cavernous fistula of Barrow Type A transformed into Barrow Type D at nine month follow-up study was cured with a procudure of Onyx-18 injection.
Endovascular covered stents may be an option for percutaneous closure of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endoluminal vascular repair with covered stents offers an alternative therapeutic approach to conventional modalities.
covered stent, endovascular treatment, aneurysm, carotid-cavernous fistula
Using computer-guided homology modeling method, the 3-D structure of the Fv fragment of a functional anti-IgE antibody (MAE11) was constructed and the spatial structure of E24-MAE11 complex was modeled based on the crystal structure of IgE-Fc (abbr. E24) and molecular docking method. Then the identified epitope of IgE was determined theoretically, which showed the key role of IgE-Cɛ3 in interacting with both FcɛRIα and MAE11. By normal protocols, we immunized mice with purified protein E34 and screened six anti-E34 monoclonal antibodies. Purified antibodies could identify E34 by Western blot; furthermore, all of them could bind IgE by ELISA, in which QME5 seemed to be the best. Flow cytometry analysis displayed that only QME5 could bind membrane IgE and it could compete with membrane FcɛRIα to bind soluble IgE. Meanwhile, QME5 couldn’t bind FcɛRIα-attached IgE, which suggested no hypersensitivity in triggering the target cells (mast cells or basophils) by crosslinking or inducing the release of a variety of chemical mediators.
IgE; MAE11; computer-guided homology modeling; anti-IgE antibody; FcɛRIα
AIM: To study the effect of 5-lipoxygenase/cyclooxy-genase-2 (5-LOX/COX-2) dual inhibitor 7-tert-butyl-2, 3-dihydro-3, 3-dimethyl substituted dihydrofuran 30 (DHDMBF30) on proliferation and apoptosis of the pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-2 and the effect of DHDMBF30 on human pancreatic cancer in a nude mouse model.
METHODS: Investigate the effect of 5-LOX/COX-2 dual inhibitor DHDMBF30 on proliferation and apoptosis of the pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-2 by RT-PCR, MTT assay, FCM and electron microscope. Cell line Capan-2 was inoculated percutaneously on the outer thigh of 12 nude mice. The VEGF mRNA of transplantation tumor was detected by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: DHDMBF30 inhibits the proliferation of cell line Capan2, reduces the expression of 5-LOX, COX-2 and VEGF. After Capan2 was treated with DHDMBF30, we found that the apoptosis peak of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the contrast group (3.08 ± 1.89 vs 27.67 ± 0.52, P < 0.001). The tumor weight of the DHDMBF30 group was significantly lower than PBS control groups (1.35 ± 0.47 vs 2.92 ± 0.73, P < 0.01). Expression of VEGF in the DHDMBF30 group was significantly decreased.
CONCLUSION: DHDMBF30 inhibits the proliferation of the pancreatic cell line Capan2, and induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer in nude mice.
5-lipoxygenase pancreatic tumor Cycloo-xygenase2; DHDMBF30; Carcinoma in nude mice
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member capable of inducing apoptosis. Death receptor 5 (DR 5) is a key receptor of TRAIL and plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DR5, cDNA encoding soluble DR5 (sDR5) was firstly amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific primers, and then inserted into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), and sDR5 was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. As an antigen, sDR5 was used to immunize mice. Hybridomas secreting antibodies against sDR5 were identified. One positive clone was selected to produce antibody, WD1. ELISA and immunofluorescence demonstrated that WD1 could bind recombinant sDR5 and membranebound DR5 (mDR5) on Jurkat and Molt-4 cells. ATPLite assays showed that Jurkat and Molt-4 cells were sensitive to the antibody in a dose dependent manner. The Annexin V/PI assays and Giemsa's staining both showed that WD1 could induce Jurkat cell apoptosis efficiently. Transient transfection of 293T cells and indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that mAb (WD1) couldn't cross-react with DR4. Our findings indicated that the novel antibody, WD1 could act as a direct agonist, bind DR5 characteristically, and initiate efficient apoptotic signaling and tumor regression. Thus, WD1 would be a leading candidate for potential cancer therapeutics.
TRAIL; death receptor 5; apoptosis; monoclonal antibody; ATPLite