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1.  Anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody inhibits the carcinogenicity activity of acquired trastuzumab-resistant SKOV3 
Background
Antibody resistance, not only de novo but also acquired cases, usually exists and is related with lower survival rate and high risk of recurrence. Reversing the resistance often results in better clinical therapeutic effect. Previously, we established a trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer cell line, named as SKOV3-T, with lower HER2 and induced higher IGF-1R expression level to keep cell survival.
Methods
IGF-1R was identified important for SKOV3-T growth. Then, a novel anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody, named as LMAb1, was used to inhibit SKOV3-T in cell growth/proliferation, migration, clone formation and in vivo carcinogenicity.
Results
In both in vitro and in vivo assays, LMAb1 showed effective anti-tumor function, especially when being used in combination with trastuzumab, which was beneficial to longer survival time of mice as well as smaller tumor. It was also confirmed preliminarily that the mechanism of antibody might be to inhibit the activation of IGF-1R and downstream MAPK, AKT pathway transduction.
Conclusion
We achieved satisfactory anti-tumor activity using trastuzumab plus LMAb1 in trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer model. In similar cases, not only acquired but also de novo, good curative effect might be achieved using combined antibody therapy strategies.
doi:10.1186/s13048-014-0103-5
PMCID: PMC4260252  PMID: 25424625
IGF-1R; Monoclonal antibody; Acquired resistant; Trastuzumab; Ovarian cancer
2.  Potent anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity of a novel human anti-VEGF antibody, MIL60 
Cellular and Molecular Immunology  2014;11(3):285-293.
Angiogenesis is crucial for tumor development, growth and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in promoting solid tumor growth and metastasis via stimulating tumor-associated angiogenesis, and blocking the activity of VEGF can starve tumors. Avastin, which is a humanized anti-VEGF antibody, has been successfully applied in clinics since 2004. However, the price of Avastin is extremely high for Chinese people. Here, we report a novel human anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody, MIL60, which shows an affinity comparable to that of Avastin (the KD value of MIL60 was 44.5 pM, while that of Avastin was 42.7 pM). MIL60 displays favorable actions in inhibiting VEGF-triggered endothelial cell proliferation (the IC50 value of MIL60 was 31±6.4 ng/ml and that of Avastin was 47±8.1 ng/ml), migration (8 µg/ml or 0.8 µg/ml MIL60 versus the control: P<0.05) and tube formation (2 µg/ml or 0.2 µg/ml MIL60 versus the control: P<0.05) via the VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Moreover, MIL60 was shown to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo in xenograft models of human colon carcinoma and ovarian cancer using immunotherapy and immunohistochemistry analysis (MIL60 versus N.S.: P=0.0007; Avastin versus N.S.: P=0.00046). These data suggest that MIL60 is a potential therapeutic, anti-angiogenic agent. Our work provides a novel anti-VEGF antibody, which can be considered an anti-tumor antibody candidate and a new option for patients with various cancers.
doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.6
PMCID: PMC4085495  PMID: 24608894
angiogenesis; anti-VEGF antibody; cancer
3.  Structural basis of LaDR5, a novel agonistic anti-death receptor 5 (DR5) monoclonal antibody, to inhibit DR5/TRAIL complex formation 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:40.
Background
As a member of the TNF superfamily, TRAIL could induce human tumor cell apoptosis through its cognate death receptors DR4 or DR5, which can induce formation of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) and activation of the membrane proximal caspases (caspase-8 or caspase-10) and mitochondrial pathway. Some monoclonal antibodies against DR4 or DR5 have been reported to have anti-tumor activity.
Results
In this study, we reported a novel mouse anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody, named as LaDR5, which could compete with TRAIL to bind DR5 and induce the apoptosis of Jurkat cells in the absence of second cross-linking in vitro. Using computer-guided molecular modeling method, the 3-D structure of LaDR5 Fv fragment was constructed. According to the crystal structure of DR5, the 3-D complex structure of DR5 and LaDR5 was modeled using molecular docking method. Based on distance geometry method and intermolecular hydrogen bonding analysis, the key functional domain in DR5 was predicted and the DR5 mutants were designed. And then, three mutants of DR5 was expressed in prokaryotic system and purified by affinity chromatograph to determine the epitope of DR5 identified by LaDR5, which was consistent with the theoretical results of computer-aided analysis.
Conclusions
Our results demonstrated the specific epitope located in DR5 that plays a crucial role in antibody binding and even antineoplastic bioactivity. Meanwhile, revealed structural features of DR5 may be important to design or screen novel drugs agonist DR5.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-40
PMCID: PMC3436762  PMID: 22788777
TRAIL; Death receptor 5; Monoclonal antibody; Apoptosis; Breast cancer
4.  Inhibition of IgE Activity to Bind its High Affinity Receptor (FcεRIα) by Mouse Anti-IgE Cε3∼4 Monoclonal Antibody (QME5) 
Using computer-guided homology modeling method, the 3-D structure of the Fv fragment of a functional anti-IgE antibody (MAE11) was constructed and the spatial structure of E24-MAE11 complex was modeled based on the crystal structure of IgE-Fc (abbr. E24) and molecular docking method. Then the identified epitope of IgE was determined theoretically, which showed the key role of IgE-Cɛ3 in interacting with both FcɛRIα and MAE11. By normal protocols, we immunized mice with purified protein E34 and screened six anti-E34 monoclonal antibodies. Purified antibodies could identify E34 by Western blot; furthermore, all of them could bind IgE by ELISA, in which QME5 seemed to be the best. Flow cytometry analysis displayed that only QME5 could bind membrane IgE and it could compete with membrane FcɛRIα to bind soluble IgE. Meanwhile, QME5 couldn’t bind FcɛRIα-attached IgE, which suggested no hypersensitivity in triggering the target cells (mast cells or basophils) by crosslinking or inducing the release of a variety of chemical mediators.
PMCID: PMC3614804  PMID: 23675156
IgE; MAE11; computer-guided homology modeling; anti-IgE antibody; FcɛRIα
5.  Characterization of a Novel Anti-DR5 Monoclonal Antibody WD1 with the Potential to Induce Tumor Cell Apoptosis 
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member capable of inducing apoptosis. Death receptor 5 (DR 5) is a key receptor of TRAIL and plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DR5, cDNA encoding soluble DR5 (sDR5) was firstly amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific primers, and then inserted into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), and sDR5 was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. As an antigen, sDR5 was used to immunize mice. Hybridomas secreting antibodies against sDR5 were identified. One positive clone was selected to produce antibody, WD1. ELISA and immunofluorescence demonstrated that WD1 could bind recombinant sDR5 and membranebound DR5 (mDR5) on Jurkat and Molt-4 cells. ATPLite assays showed that Jurkat and Molt-4 cells were sensitive to the antibody in a dose dependent manner. The Annexin V/PI assays and Giemsa's staining both showed that WD1 could induce Jurkat cell apoptosis efficiently. Transient transfection of 293T cells and indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that mAb (WD1) couldn't cross-react with DR4. Our findings indicated that the novel antibody, WD1 could act as a direct agonist, bind DR5 characteristically, and initiate efficient apoptotic signaling and tumor regression. Thus, WD1 would be a leading candidate for potential cancer therapeutics.
doi:10.1038/cmi.2008.7
PMCID: PMC4072327  PMID: 18318995
TRAIL; death receptor 5; apoptosis; monoclonal antibody; ATPLite

Results 1-5 (5)