Better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor initiating events. Herein, transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA editing of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) displays a high modification rate in HCC specimens. A-to-I editing of AZIN1 transcripts is specifically regulated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1). The serine (S) → glycine (G) substitution at residue 367, located in β-strand 15 (β15), predicted a conformational change, induced a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation, and conferred “gain-of-function” phenotypes manifested by augmented tumor initiating potential and more aggressive behavior. Compared with wild-type AZIN1 protein, the edited form possesses stronger affinity to antizyme, and the resultant higher protein stability promotes cell proliferation via the neutralization of antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). Collectively, A-to-I RNA editing of AZIN1 may be a potential driver in the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly HCC.
A-to-I; RNA editing; AZIN1; ADAR1; antizyme; ODC; CCND1; HCC
The expending and invasive features of tumor nests could reflect the malignant biological behaviors of breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Useful information on cancer invasiveness hidden within tumor nests could be extracted and analyzed by computer image processing and big data analysis.
Tissue microarrays from invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 202) were first stained with cytokeratin by immunohistochemical method to clearly demarcate the tumor nests. Then an expert-aided computer analysis system was developed to study the mathematical and geometrical features of the tumor nests. Computer recognition system and imaging analysis software extracted tumor nests information, and mathematical features of tumor nests were calculated. The relationship between tumor nests mathematical parameters and patients' 5-year disease free survival was studied.
There were 8 mathematical parameters extracted by expert-aided computer analysis system. Three mathematical parameters (number, circularity and total perimeter) with area under curve >0.5 and 4 mathematical parameters (average area, average perimeter, total area/total perimeter, average (area/perimeter)) with area under curve <0.5 in ROC analysis were combined into integrated parameter 1 and integrated parameter 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that integrated parameter 1 (P = 0.040) was independent prognostic factor of patients' 5-year disease free survival. The hazard risk ratio of integrated parameter 1 was 1.454 (HR 95% CI [1.017–2.078]), higher than that of N stage (HR 1.396, 95% CI [1.125–1.733]) and hormone receptor status (HR 0.575, 95% CI [0.353–0.936]), but lower than that of histological grading (HR 3.370, 95% CI [1.125–5.364]) and T stage (HR 1.610, 95% CI [1.026 –2.527]).
This study indicated integrated parameter 1 of mathematical features (number, circularity and total perimeter) of tumor nests could be a useful parameter to predict the prognosis of early stage breast invasive ductal carcinoma.
We aimed to evaluate the controversial association between human urotensin II and essential hypertension in untreated hypertensive cases and normotensive controls.
197 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 197 age- and sex-matched normotensive controls were studied. Plasma urotensin II, nitric oxide metabolites, and other traditional biomarkers were examined.
Hypertensive patients had higher urotensin II [median (interquartile rang): 9.32 (7.86–11.52) ng/mL vs 8.52 (7.07–10.41) ng/mL] and lower nitric oxide metabolites [19.19 (2.55–38.48) µmol/L vs 23.83 (11.97–43.40) µmol/L] than normotensive controls. Urotensin II was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.169, P<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.113, P = 0.024) while negatively correlated with nitric oxide metabolites (r = −0.112, P = 0.027). In multivariate regression analysis, subjects in the highest quartile of urotensin II were more likely to have hypertension than those in the lowest quartile (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.21–5.49). Sub-group analyses in 106 pairs of cases and controls with either both normal or both abnormal nitric oxide metabolites levels showed that the association between urotensin II levels and hypertension persisted (P value for trend = 0.039).
Human urotensin II is markedly associated with essential hypertension, and the association is independent of nitric oxide metabolites. Our results indicated that urotensin II might be an independent risk factor for essential hypertension.
To simultaneously determine the localization of histones and protamines within human sperm nuclei.
Immunofluorescence of the core histones and protamines and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the telomere region of chromosome 16 was assessed in decondensed human sperm nuclei.
Immunofluorescent localization of histones, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) along with fluorescence in situ hybridization localization of chromosome 16 telomeric sequences revealed a discrete distribution in sperm nuclei. Histones localized to the posterior ring region (i.e. the sperm nuclear annulus), whereas PRM1 and PRM2 appeared to be dispersed throughout the entire nucleus.
The co-localization of the human core sperm histones with the telomeric regions of chromosome 16 is consistent with the reorganization of specific non-protamine regions into a less compacted state.
human sperm nucleus; histone; protamine; telomere
Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with mucous cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. Functional genomic analysis indicates that mucous cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion depend on members of the calcium-activated chloride channel (CLCA) gene family. It has been reported that the inhibition of CLCAs could relieve the symptoms of asthma. Thus, the mCLCA3 antibody may be a promising strategy to treat allergic diseases such as asthma.
We constructed asthmatic mouse models of OVA-induced chronic airway inflammatory disorder to study the function of the mCLCA3 antibody. Airway inflammation was measured by HE staining; goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion were detected by PAS staining; muc5ac, IL-13, IFN-γ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined by ELISA; Goblet cell apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay and alcian blue staining; mCLCA3, Bcl-2 and Bax expression were detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis.
In our study, mice treated with mCLCA3 antibody developed fewer pathological changes compared with control mice and asthmatic mice, including a remarkable reduction in airway inflammation, the number of goblet cells and mCLCA3 expression in lung tissue. The levels of muc5ac and IL-13 were significantly reduced in BALF. We also found that the rate of goblet cell apoptosis was increased after treatment with mCLCA3 antibody, which was accompanied by an increase in Bax levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 expression in goblet cells.
Taken together, our results indicate that mCLCA3 antibody may have the potential as an effective pharmacotherapy for asthma.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. The present treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, which have only 40% long-term cure rates, and usually cause tumor recurrence. Thus, looking for new effective and less toxic therapies has important significance. XAV939 is a small molecule inhibitor of tankyrase 1(TNKS1). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of XAV939 on the proliferation and apoptosis of NB cell lines, and the related mechanism.
In the present study, we used both XAV939 treatment and RNAi method to demonstrate that TNKS1 inhibition may be a potential mechanism to cure NB. MTT method was used for determining the cell viability and the appropriate concerntration for follow-up assays. The colony formation assay, Annexin V staining and cell cycle analysis were used for detecting colony forming ability, cell apoptosis and the percentage of different cell cycle. The Western blot was used for detecting the expression of key proteins of Wnt/ beta-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin) signaling pathway.
The results showed that TNKS1 inhibition decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH and IMR-32 cells, induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y as well as SK-N-SH cells, and led to the accumulation of NB cells in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, we demonstrated TNKS1 inhibition may in part blocked Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduced the expression of anti-apoptosis protein. Finally, we also demonstrated that TNKS1 inhibition decreased colony formation in vitro.
These findings suggested that TNKS1 may be a potential molecule target for the treatment of NB.
Neuroblastoma; Tankyrase 1; Wnt signaling; XAV939
From November 2011 to January 2012, a number of clustering cases of HCV infection were reported in Zijin County, Heyuan City, Guangdong, China. Most patients in the clustering cases suspected that they could be infected due to inappropriate medical care in the clinic located at the Xiangshui road. However, the molecular epidemiology of the clustering cases remains unknown.
The residents, living at Xiangshui Road, with HCV antibody positive reported from 2011 and 2012 were recruited. A survey of the HCV infected individuals from the clustering cases was conducted. Each participant underwent a questionnaire defining demographic characteristics and health care history. HCV serological test and viral load test were performed to confirm the infection status. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian coalescence analysis were conducted to further confirm the HCV subtype distribution and to reconstruct the associated demographic history and time-scaled phylogeny among the clustering cases.
The molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that only two HCV subtypes, 2a and 6a, were found among the clustering cases. There was no close HCV subtype evolutionary relation was observed among patients from the same family. The 6a cluster showed higher viral loads than the 2a cluster. In addition, the Bayesian skyline plot analysis showed that both the HCV 2a and 6a subtype infections among the Heyuan cases experienced an “expansion-diminishment-expansion” featured dissemination. The 2a clustering infection occurred in 2004, and the 6a clustering cases originated in 2006.
The molecular epidemiological characters imply that the inappropriate medical practices were possibly associated with the clustering HCV cases in Heyuan City during 2011, 2012. Latent HCV subtypes 2a and 6a infection may cause the prevalence and become a new public health issue in Guangdong, China.
We have designed a novel hybrid nanostructure by coating Fe2O3 nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to enhance the lithium storage capability of Fe2O3. The strategy to prepare Fe2O3@MWCNTs involves the synthesis of Fe nanoparticles wrapped in MWCNTs, followed by the oxidation of Fe nanoparticles under carbon dioxide. When used as the anode in a Li-ion battery, this hybrid material (70.32 wt% carbon nanotubes, 29.68 wt% Fe2O3) showed a reversible discharge capacity of 515 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a density of 100 mAg−1 and the capacity based on Fe2O3 nanoparticles was calculated as 1147 mAhg−1, Three factors are responsibile for the superior performance: (1) The hollow interiors of MWCNTs provide enough spaces for the accommodation of large volume expansion of inner Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which can improving the stability of electrode; (2) The MWCNTs increase the overall conductivity of the anode; (3) A stable solid electrolyte interface film formed on the surface of MWCNTs may reduce capacity fading.
A short half-life and low levels of growth factors in an injured microenvironment necessitates the sustainable delivery of growth factors and stem cells to augment the regeneration of injured tissues. Our aim was to investigate the ability of VEGF165 expressing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) to differentiate into hepatocytes when cultured with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vitro. We isolated, cultured and identified rabbit BMMSCs, then electroporated the BMMSCs with VEGF165-pCMV6-AC-GFP plasmid. G418 was used to select transfected cells and the efficiency was up to 70%. The groups were then divided as follows: Group A was electroporated with pCMV6-AC-GFP plasmid + HGF + EGF and Group B was electroporated with VEGF165-pCMV6-AC-GFP plasmid +HGF + EGF. After 14 days, BMMSCs were induced into short spindle and polygonal cells. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was positive and albumin (ALB) was negative in Group A, while both AFP and ALB were positive in group B on day 10. AFP and ALB in both groups were positive on day 20, but the quantity of AFP in group B decreased with prolonged time and was about 43.5% less than group A. The quantity of the ALB gene was increased with prolonged time in both groups. However, there was no significant difference between group A and B on day 10 and 20. Our results demonstrated that VEGF165-pCMV6-AC-GFP plasmid modified BMMSCs still had the ability to differentiate into hepatocytes. The VEGF165 gene promoted BMMSCs to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under the induction of HGF and EGF, and reduced the differentiation time. These results have implications for cell therapies.
Stem cells; Differentiation; VEGF165; Hepatocyte growth factor; Epidermal growth factor
Notch signaling plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. However, little is known about its role in atherosclerosis. We sought to investigate the potential involvement of the Notch signaling in atherosclerosis.
Expression of Notch pathway components in mouse and human aorta with or without atherosclerosis plaque was examined by immuno-histochemistry. Expression of Notch target genes in young versus aged human endothelial cells (EC) was examined by PCRArray and immunoblot. In vitro loss- and gain-of-function approaches were utilized to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in inducing EC senescence and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by ProteinArray. Notch gene profile was studied in 1054 blood samples of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Genotyping was performed using the Genome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Array.
Notch pathway components were upregulated in luminal EC at atherosclerotic lesions from mouse and human aortas. In addition, the Notch pathway was activated in aged but not young human EC. Enforced Notch activation resulted in EC senescence and significantly upregulated expression of several molecules implicated in the inflammatory response (IL-6/IL-8/IL-1α/RANTES/ICAM-1). The upregulated IL-6 was partially responsible for mediating leukocyte transendothelial migration. Genetic association analysis detected, of 82 SNPs across 6 Notch pathway genes analyzed, 4 SNPs with nominal association with CAD burden.
Notch pathway is activated in luminal EC at atherosclerotic plaques and results in pro-inflammatory response and senescence of EC. Notch signaling may be linked to human CAD risk. These findings implicate a potential involvement of Notch signaling in atherosclerosis.
Notch; Endothelial cells (EC); Atherosclerosis; EC Senescence; Vascular inflammation
Multiple cells contribute to the function of lungs. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are important for the regulation of breathing and carcinogenesis, although they represent only a small population of the airway lining. Achaete–Scute homologue–1 (Ascl1), a proneural basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor, is critical for the development of PNECs. We postulated that Ascl1-defined cells (ASDCs) may be progenitors, and traced their fate during development and injury repair. R26R-stop-lacZ (Rosa) reporter mice were crossed with Ascl1-Cre or Ascl1-CreERTM mice, in which the Ascl1 promoter drives the expression of Cre or inducible Cre recombinase, respectively. ASDCs and their descendants will be permanently labeled. The labeled cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, using highly specific differentiation markers. Lineage studies revealed a population that proliferates before the pseudoglandular stage, and widely contributes to different compartments. When ASDCs were labeled on Embryonic Day 9.5, they gave rise to both airway and alveolar cells, but when labeled on Embryonic Day 11.5, they only gave rise to airway cells. In postnatal naphthalene injury, ASDCs contributed to regenerating Clara cells. In conclusion, Ascl1-defined cells in the lung represent a novel multipotent lineage, indicating a close relationship of neuroendocrine cells with other cell types.
Ascl1; lung; neuroendocrine; mouse; progenitor
To map the corneal epithelial thickness with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and develop epithelial thickness-based variables for keratoconus detection.
Cross-sectional observational study.
One hundred forty-five eyes from 76 normal subjects and 35 keratoconic eyes from 22 patients.
A 26,000 Hz Fourier-domain OCT system with 5-μm axial resolution was used. The cornea was imaged with a “Pachymetry+Cpwr” scan pattern (6-mm scan diameter, 8 radials, 1024 axial-scans each, repeated 5 times) centered on the pupil. Three scans were obtained at a single visit in a prospective study. A computer algorithm was developed to automatically map the corneal epithelial thickness. Zonal epithelial thicknesses and 5 diagnostic variables, including minimum, superior–inferior (S-I), minimum–maximum (MIN-MAX), root-mean-square variation (RMSV), and root-mean-square pattern deviation (RMSPD), were calculated. Repeatability of the measurements was assessed by the pooled standard deviation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy.
Main Outcome Measures
Descriptive statistics, repeatability, and AROC of the zonal epithelial thickness and diagnostic variables.
The central, superior, and inferior epithelial thickness averages were 52.3±3.6, 49.6±3.5, and 51.2±3.4 μm in normal eyes and 51.9±5.3, 51.2±4.2 and 49.1±4.3 μm in keratoconic eyes. Compared to normal eyes, keratoconic eyes had significantly lower inferior (p = 0.03) and minimum corneal epithelial thickness (p < 0.0001), greater S-I (p = 0.013), more negative MIN-MAX (p < 0.0001), greater RMSV (p < 0.0001), and larger RMSPD (p < 0.0001). The repeatability of the zonal average, minimum, S-I, MIN-MAX epithelial thickness variables were between 0.7 to 1.9 μm. The repeatability of RMSV was better than 0.4 μm. The repeatability of RMSPD was 0.02 or better. Among all epithelial thickness based variables investigated, RMSPD provided the best diagnostic power (AROC = 1.00). Using a RMSPD cutoff value of 0.057 alone gave 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity.
High-resolution Fourier-domain OCT mapped corneal epithelial thickness with good repeatability in both normal and keratoconic eyes. Keratoconus was characterized by apical epithelial thinning. The resulting deviation from the normal epithelial pattern could be detected with very high accuracy using the RMSPD variable.
Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography; corneal epithelial thickness map; keratoconus diagnosis
Polymethoxyflavones (PMF) isolated from citrus peel have potent anti-cancer activity, however their utilization as functional ingredients in foods is currently limited because of their high melting point and poor water-solubility. The influence of oil type and concentration, hydrophilic polymer addition, and simulated intestinal conditions on PMF (5-hydroxytangeretin) solubility in solutions and nanoemulsions was examined. The saturation concentration of PMF in water was relatively low (0.93 µM), but could be increased appreciably by adding certain hydrophilic polymers: polyethylene glycol (PEG) and β-cyclodextrin (CD) were ineffective at increasing solubility, but poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) greatly enhanced solubility (e.g., > 6 µM for 0.5 % polymer). PMF was more soluble in medium chain triglycerides (MCT, 6.1 mM) than long chain triglycerides (LCT, 4.2 mM). The encapsulation efficiency of PMF in oil-in-water nanoemulsions was higher when MCT was used as the oil phase rather than LCT, and could be increased by increasing the oil droplet content. The solubility of PMF in simulated small intestinal fluids was increased by solubilization in bile micelles and mixed micelles formed during lipid digestion. These results have important implications for the development of functional foods fortified with bioactive hydrophobic components aimed at improving human health and wellness.
Nutraceuticals; Pharmaceuticals; Flavonoids; Bioavailability; Nanoemulsions; Nanoparticles
Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a copper-dependent amine oxidase known to function both intracellularly and extracellularly, is implicated in promoting tumor progression and hypoxic metastasis in certain malignancies. Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a highly aggressive cancer with poor prognosis worldwide. However, the role and molecular mechanism by which LOX involving in hypoxic NSCLC invasion and migration are poorly understood. This study explores the effect of LOX on invasion and migration of NSCLC cells under hypoxic conditions. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting LOX was used to silence LOX expression of hypoxic NSCLC cells, SPCA1 and A549. Cellular invasive and migratory potentials were determined by matrigel invasion and migration assays. Expression of LOX, Src, Src activation (Tyr418 phosphorylation of Src), and Snail were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. The results showed that LOX mRNA and protein expression were upregulated under hypoxic conditions in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of LOX led to inhibition of hypoxia-induced invasion and migration. Phosphorylated Src (Tyr418) and Snail proteins were decreased along with LOX downregulation. Our data provide molecular evidences that LOX is mechanistically linked to increased invasion and migration of hypoxic NSCLC cells, and may serve as an antimetastasis target of human NSCLC.
hypoxia; invasion; lysyl oxidase; migration; nonsmall cell lung cancer; Snail; Src signaling pathway
Ceftriaxone, an FDA-approved third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, has antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Generally, ceftriaxone is used for a variety of infections such as community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis and gonorrhea. Its primary molecular targets are the penicillin-binding proteins. However, other activities of ceftriaxone remain unknown. Herein, we report for the first time that ceftriaxone has antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Kinase profiling results predicted that Aurora B might be a potential ‘off’ target of ceftriaxone. Pull-down assay data confirmed that ceftriaxone could bind with Aurora B in vitro and in A549 cells. Furthermore, ceftriaxone (500 µM) suppressed anchorage-independent cell growth by targeting Aurora B in A549, H520 and H1650 lung cancer cells. Importantly, in vivo xenograft animal model results showed that ceftriaxone effectively suppressed A549 and H520 lung tumor growth by inhibiting Aurora B. These data suggest the anticancer efficacy of ceftriaxone for the treatment of lung cancers through its inhibition of Aurora B.
Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m-2 yr-1 and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m-2 yr-1 and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m-2 yr-1respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile.
Pressure can tune material's electronic properties and control its quantum state, making some systems present disconnected superconducting region as observed in iron chalcogenides and heavy fermion CeCu2Si2. For CaC6 superconductor (Tc of 11.5 K), applying pressure first Tc increases and then suppresses and the superconductivity of this compound is eventually disappeared at about 18 GPa. Here, we report a theoretical finding of the re-emergence of superconductivity in heavily compressed CaC6. The predicted phase III (space group Pmmn) with formation of carbon nanofoam is found to be stable at wide pressure range with a Tc up to 14.7 K at 78 GPa. Diamond-like carbon structure is adhered to the phase IV (Cmcm) for compressed CaC6 after 126 GPa, which has bad metallic behavior, indicating again departure from superconductivity. Re-emerged superconductivity in compressed CaC6 paves a new way to design new-type superconductor by inserting metal into nanoporous host lattice.
Letrozole is being used as an alternative to clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) requiring ovulation induction. Berberine, a major active component of Chinese herbal medicine rhizoma coptidis, has been used to improve insulin resistance to facilitate ovulation induction in women with PCOS but there is no study reporting the live birth or its potential as a complementary treatment to letrozole. We aim to determine the efficacy of letrozole with or without berberine in achieving live births among 660 infertile women with PCOS in Mainland China.
Methods and analysis
This study is a multicentre randomised, double-blind trial. The randomisation scheme is coordinated through the central mechanism and stratified by the participating site. Participants are randomised into one of the three treatment arms: (1) letrozole and berberine, (2) letrozole and berberine placebo, or (3) letrozole placebo and berberine. Berberine is administered three times a day (1.5 g/day) for up to 24 weeks, starting on day 1 after a spontaneous period or a withdrawal bleeding. Either letrozole or letrozole placebo 2.5 mg is given daily from day 3 to day 7 of the first three cycles and the dose is increased to 5 mg/day in the last three cycles, if not pregnant. The primary hypothesis is that the combination of berberine and letrozole results in a significantly higher live birth rate than letrozole or berberine alone.
Ethics and dissemination
The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01116167.
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China.
A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs).
67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337–2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384–2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries.
The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.
Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.
Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb.
In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied.
Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B) and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration of scutellarin positively correlated with that of erigoster B and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, respectively. We inferred that the synthesis of these two pairs of compounds may share similar triggering mechanism as they synthesized in a common pathway.
Previously only one species of the genus Ocydromia Meigen was recorded from China. Here a second species of the genus from China, Ocydromia shanxiensis
sp. n., is reported. A key to the species of the genus from the Palaearctic and Oriental regions is presented.
Diptera; Empidoidea; Ocydromia; new species; China
Ganglionated plexi (GP) ablation has been become an adjunct to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). This study describes the long-term results of minimally invasive surgical PVI, ablation of GPs, and exclusion of the left atrial appendage for atrial fibrillation (AF).
Long-term follow-up of 55 months was performed in 139 consecutive patients (age 58.3±20.8 years) with symptomatic, drug-refractory lone AF who underwent minimally invasive surgical PVI, GPs ablation, and exclusion of the left atrial appendage. Success was defined as freedom from AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia off antiarrhythmic drugs.
AF was paroxysmal in 77.7%, persistent in 12.2% and long-standing persistent in 10.1%. Single-procedure success rate was 71.7%, 59.4% and 46.6% at 12, 24 and 60 months respectively. Single-procedure success rate was 72.9%, 62.6% and 51.8% for paroxysmal AF, 64.7%, 35.3%, and 28.2% for persistent AF, 71.4%, 64.3% and 28.6% for long-standing persistent AF at 12, 24 and 60 months respectively. Duration of AF>24 months (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51 to 6.32; p = 0.002), left atrial diameter≥40 mm (HR: 4.03, 95% CI: 1.88 to 8.65; p<0.001), early recurrence of AF (HR: 4.66, 95% CI: 2.25 to 9.63; p<0.001) independently predicted long-term recurrence of AF. There was no procedure-related death. One patient converted to median sternotomy because of uncontrolled bleeding. Two patients underwent perioperative cerebrovascular events.
At nearly 5-year of clinical follow-up, single-procedure success rate of minimally invasive surgical PVI with GP ablation was 51.8% for paroxysmal AF, 28.2% for persistent AF, 28.6% for long-standing persistent AF after initial procedure. Patients with AF duration≤24 months, left atrial diameter<40 mm and no early recurrence of AF, had favorable outcomes.
Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. However, the management of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures is debatable. There was no consensus between observation and early exploration.
Methods and Findings
The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, CINAHL, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched. Two authors independently searched for relevant studies in any language from 1966 to Jan 2013. Thirty studies with 2952 humeral fractures participants were identified. Thirteen studies favored conservative strategy. No significant difference between early exploration and no exploration groups (OR, 1.03, 95% CI 0.61, 1.72; I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.918 n.s.). Three studies recommend early radial nerve exploration in patients with open fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. Five studies proposed early exploration was performed in high-energy humeral shaft fractures with radial nerve injury.
The conservative strategy was a good choice for patients with low-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. We recommend early radial nerve exploration (within the first 2 weeks) in patients with open fractures or high-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury.