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1.  Evaluation of Bronchiolar and Alveolar Cell Injuries Induced by Short- and Long-term Exposure to Sidestream Smoke 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(2):151-161.
Background
We investigated effects of short- and long-term exposure to sidestream smoke on the bronchiolar and alveolar cells in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Methods
Rats were divided into five experimental groups: groups 1, 2, and 3 (1-month exposure to 3, 5, and 7 cigarettes a day, respectively), groups 4 and 5 (3- and 6 month exposure to five cigarettes a day, respectively). We examined the morphologic changes, the expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), tumor growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), interlekin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, Ki-67, and cytokeratin 14 and in situ apoptosis in the bronchiolar and alveolar cells on light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.
Results
LM showed the respiratory bronchiolar dilatation and alveolar wall collapse. In groups 3, 4, and 5, EM showed loss of the cilia and Clara cells with irregular size, more prominent alveolar wall collapse and dilation of alveolar duct than those of groups 1 and 2. Bronchiolar and alveolar cells showed increased expressions of TNF-α and TGF-β in groups 4 and 5. LM and EM TUNEL stains showed increased apoptosis in groups 3, 4, and 5.
Conclusions
Sidestream smoke causes a bronchiolar and alveolar cell injury and the severity correlates strongly the volume and duration of exposure to sidestream smoke.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.2.151
PMCID: PMC3479787  PMID: 23109995
Bronchiolar cells; Alveolar cells; Sidestream smoke; Immunohistochemistry; TUNEL staining
2.  Guideline Recommendations for Testing of ALK Gene Rearrangement in Lung Cancer: A Proposal of the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(1):1-9.
Rearrangement of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is the best predictor of response to crizotinib, an ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, the prevalence of the ALK fusion is low, so accurate patient identification is crucial for successful treatment using ALK inhibitors. Furthermore, most patients with lung cancer present with advanced-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, so it is important for pathologists to detect ALK-rearranged patients while effectively maximizing small biopsy or cytology specimens. In this review, we propose a guideline recommendation for ALK testing approved by the Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.1.1
PMCID: PMC3950228  PMID: 24627688
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase; Gene rearrangement; Lung neoplasms; Guideline
3.  Two Cases of Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia After Long-term Low Dose Adefovir Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B and Literature Review 
Journal of Bone Metabolism  2014;21(1):76-83.
Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is a nucleotide used as long-term therapy of chronic hepatitis B. Many published reports have shown that long-term high-dose therapy with adefovir can be associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction resulting in significant hypophosphatemia, renal insufficiency and osteomalacia. We have encountered two patients who developed evidence of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia while on long-term low-dose adefovir therapy for chronic hepatitis B. We report on its clinical features and its potential resolution with cessation of the drug and supplementation with phosphate. We also reviewed the other published cases associated with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia after low-dose adefovir therapy. The symptoms and the hypophosphatemia improved after cessation of the drug and supplementation with phosphate in most cases. Patients taking adefovir long-term should receive regular investigation of the phosphate level and renal function.
doi:10.11005/jbm.2014.21.1.76
PMCID: PMC3970297
Adefovir dipivoxil; Hypophosphatemia; Kidney diseases; Osteomalacia
4.  No Detection of Simian Virus 40 in Malignant Mesothelioma in Korea 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(2):124-129.
Background
Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus, was discovered as a contaminant of a human polio vaccine in the 1960s. It is known that malignant mesothelioma (MM) is associated with SV40, and that the virus works as a cofactor to the carcinogenetic effects of asbestos. However, the reports about the correlation between SV40 and MM have not been consistent. The purpose of this study is to identify SV40 in MM tissue in Korea through detection of SV40 protein and DNA.
Methods
We analyzed 62 cases of available paraffin-blocks enrolled through the Korean Malignant Mesothelioma Surveillance System and performed immunohistochemistry for SV40 protein and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SV40 DNA.
Results
Of 62 total cases, 40 had disease involving the pleura (64.5%), and 29 (46.8%) were found to be of the epithelioid subtype. Immunostaining demonstrated that all examined tissues were negative for SV40 protein. Sufficient DNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis from 36 cases. Quantitative PCR of these samples showed no increase in SV40 transcript compared to the negative controls.
Conclusions
SV40 is not associated with the development of MM in Korea.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.2.124
PMCID: PMC3647124  PMID: 23667371
Immunohistochemistry; Mesothelioma; Polymerase chain reaction; Simian virus 40
5.  Zotarolimus-eluting stent-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis 
doi:10.3904/kjim.2013.28.1.108
PMCID: PMC3543950  PMID: 23346006
Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic; Zotarolimus; Stents
6.  Immune responses in the lungs of patients with tuberculous pleural effusion without pulmonary tuberculosis 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:45.
Background
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Because most studies of TPE focused on the pleural space, little information regarding lung parenchyma is available. We therefore aimed to investigate immune responses in the lung parenchyma of TPE patients without pulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods
Patients with any evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, either from radiologic or bacteriologic evaluation, were excluded. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from 10 newly diagnosed, untreated, HIV-negative TPE patients and 10 healthy controls. We analyzed T-lymphocyte subpopulations and measured 10 cytokines in BALF. Cytokine levels in BALF were standardised using urea.
Results
The concentrations of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of T-lymphocytes were significantly higher in TPE patients without pulmonary tuberculosis than in the controls. Of the cytokines measured in BALF, VEGF showed the highest concentration. No difference was observed in T-helper type 2 cytokines between the 2 groups.
Conclusion
There were significant immune responses and increases in IFN-γ, TNF-α, and VEGF in the lung parenchyma of TPE patients without pulmonary tuberculosis. This result suggests that TPE may induce a significant immune response in lung parenchyma.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-45
PMCID: PMC3460733  PMID: 22889060
Interferon-γ; Tuberculosis; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Vascular endothelial growth factor
7.  A Case of Synchronous Lung Adenocarcinoma and Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Type 
Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (extranodal MZL) is a distinct subgroup of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pulmonary extranodal MZL is a rare entity and accounts for less than 0.5% of primary pulmonary malignancies. Only a few cases of simultaneous occurrence of lung cancer and pulmonary extranodal MZL have been reported. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a pulmonary nodule. She was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma by percutaneous needle biopsy. The protrusions into the left main bronchus were found by accident while performing bronchoscopy during lung cancer evaluation. The bronchial lesions were diagnosed as extranodal MZL. Although the patient underwent surgical resection for the lung adenocarcinoma, the pulmonary extranodal MZL was left untreated; it was monitored during follow-up visits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of synchronous lung adenocarcinoma and primary extranodal MZL of the main bronchus.
doi:10.4046/trd.2012.73.1.61
PMCID: PMC3475473  PMID: 23101026
Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone; Adenocarcinoma of Lung; Lung Neoplasms
8.  A Soft Tissue Perineurioma and a Hybrid Tumor of Perineurioma and Schwannoma 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(1):75-78.
Perineuriomas are composed of differentiated perineurial cells. Perineuriomas have been recently recognized by the immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Microscopically, perineuriomas show proliferation of spindle cells with wavy nuclei and delicate elongated bipolar cytoplasmic processes. The tumor cells are usually negative for the S-100 protein. Ultrastructurally, perineurial cells reveal slender, nontapered processes containing pinocytic vesicles and discontinuous basal lamina. Interestingly, hybrid tumors of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) have been recently reported by using immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations. Herein, we report a case of soft tissue perineurioma arising in the skin of a 56-year-old female; another case of a hybrid tumor of perineurioma and schwannoma in the posterior mediastinum occurred in a 53-year-old male, which is the first case of the hybrid PNST tumor reported in Korea.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.1.75
PMCID: PMC3479702  PMID: 23109982
Soft tissue; Perineurioma; Nerve sheath neoplasms; Hybrid tumor
9.  JNK activation is responsible for mucus overproduction in smoke inhalation injury 
Respiratory Research  2010;11(1):172.
Background
Increased mucus secretion is one of the important characteristics of the response to smoke inhalation injuries. We hypothesized that gel-forming mucins may contribute to the increased mucus production in a smoke inhalation injury. We investigated the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in modulating smoke-induced mucus secretion.
Methods
We intubated mice and exposed them to smoke from burning cotton for 15 min. Their lungs were then isolated 4 and 24 h after inhalation injury. Three groups of mice were subjected to the smoke inhalation injury: (1) wild-type (WT) mice, (2) mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1-/- mice), and (3) WT mice administered a JNK inhibitor. The JNK inhibitor (SP-600125) was injected into the mice 1 h after injury.
Results
Smoke exposure caused an increase in the production of mucus in the airway epithelium of the mice along with an increase in MUC5AC gene and protein expression, while the expression of MUC5B was not increased compared with control. We found increased MUC5AC protein expression in the airway epithelium of the WT mice groups both 4 and 24 h after smoke inhalation injury. However, overproduction of mucus and increased MUC5AC protein expression induced by smoke inhalation was suppressed in the JNK inhibitor-treated mice and the JNK1 knockout mice. Smoke exposure did not alter the expression of MUC1 and MUC4 proteins in all 3 groups compared with control.
Conclusion
An increase in epithelial MUC5AC protein expression is associated with the overproduction of mucus in smoke inhalation injury, and that its expression is related on JNK1 signaling.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-11-172
PMCID: PMC3014901  PMID: 21134294
10.  Primary Pulmonary Biphasic Synovial Sarcoma Confirmed by Molecular Detection of a SYT-SSX2 Fusion Gene: Report of 1 Case 
We experienced a case of primary pulmonary biphasic synovial sarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular testing of SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts. The patient was a 61-year-old man who presented with a well-defined mass in the left upper lung field on chest radiography. Left upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Histological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with biphasic synovial sarcoma. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, performed using RNA extracted from frozen tumor samples for the detection of SYT-SSX fusion gene, amplified a single 331-bp fragment that was characteristic of the SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts. We report a case of primary pulmonary biphasic synovial sarcoma, which was confirmed by SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts, and present a brief review of the literature on Korean cases.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2010.25.3.331
PMCID: PMC2932948  PMID: 20830232
Sarcoma, synovial; Lung neoplasms; Gene fusion
11.  The role of phosphodiesterase 3 in endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury 
Background
Acute kidney injury frequently accompanies sepsis. Endotoxin is known to reduce tissue levels of cAMP and low levels of cAMP have been associated with renal injury. We, therefore, hypothesized that endotoxin induced renal injury by activating phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) which metabolizes cAMP and that amrinone an inhibitor of PDE3 would prevent the renal injury.
Methods
Animals were divided into three groups (n = 7/group): 1) Control (0.9% NaCl infusion without LPS); 2) LPS (0.9% NaCl infusion with LPS); 3) Amrinone+LPS (Amrinone infusion with LPS). Either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle was injected via the jugular vein and the rats followed for 3 hours. We explored the expression of PDE3 isoenzymes and the concentrations of cAMP in the tissue.
Results
The PDE3B gene but not PDE3A was upregulated in the kidney of LPS group. Immunohistochemistry also showed that PDE3B was expressed in the distal tubule in the controls and LPS caused PDE3B expression in the proximal as well. However, PDE3A was not expressed in the kidney either in the control or LPS treated groups. Tissue level of cAMP was decreased after LPS and was associated with an increase in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, ultrastructural proximal tubular changes, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the endotoxemic kidney. In septic animals the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, amrinone, preserved the tissue cAMP level, renal structural changes, and attenuated the increased blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and iNOS expression in the kidney.
Conclusion
These findings suggest a significant role for PDE3B as an important mediator of LPS-induced acute kidney injury.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-80
PMCID: PMC2694814  PMID: 19486524
12.  Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27Kip1 Controls Growth and Cell Cycle Progression in Human Uterine Leiomyoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(4):667-673.
The molecular mechanism of the cell-cycle machinery in uterine leiomyoma has not yet been fully elucidated. Among the various types of cell-cycle regulators, p27Kip1 (p27) is considered to be a potent tumor suppressor. To provide further molecular basis for understanding the progression of uterine leiomyoma, our objective was to evaluate the expression level of p27 in normal myometrium and uterine leiomyoma tissue and its effect on cytogenic growth. Western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining revealed that p27 protein and messenger RNA were down-regulated in uterine leiomyoma tissue and cultured cells compared to normal myometerium. Full-length human p27 cDNA was transferred using a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad.p27) into uterine leiomyoma cells and evaluated the effect on cell proliferation. Transfection of Ad.p27 into uterine leiomyoma cells resulted in the induction of apoptosis, reduction in viability and proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cells. Our results suggest a new paradigm that down-regulated p27 protein expression is the possible underlying mechanism for the growth of uterine leiomyoma and over-expression of p27 induces cell death. This study provides better understanding of the control exerted by p27 in regulating growth and disease progression of uterine leiomyoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.4.667
PMCID: PMC2526409  PMID: 18756055
Uterus; Leiomyoma; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; Apoptosis
13.  Atelectasis Induced by Thoracotomy Causes Lung Injury during Mechanical Ventilation in Endotoxemic Rats 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(3):406-413.
Atelectasis can impair arterial oxygenation and decrease lung compliance. However, the effects of atelectasis on endotoxemic lungs during ventilation have not been well studied. We hypothesized that ventilation at low volumes below functional residual capacity (FRC) would accentuate lung injury in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-pretreated rats. LPS-pretreated rats were ventilated with room air at 85 breaths/min for 2 hr at a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg with or without thoracotomy. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was applied to restore FRC in the thoracotomy group. While LPS or thoracotomy alone did not cause significant injury, the combination of endotoxemia and thoracotomy caused significant hypoxemia and hypercapnia. The injury was observed along with a marked accumulation of inflammatory cells in the interstitium of the lungs, predominantly comprising neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemistry showed increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in mononuclear cells accumulated in the interstitium in the injury group. Pretreatment with PEEP or an iNOS inhibitor (1400 W) attenuated hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lung. In conclusion, the data suggest that atelectasis induced by thoracotomy causes lung injury during mechanical ventilation in endotoxemic rats through iNOS expression.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.3.406
PMCID: PMC2526521  PMID: 18583875
Atelectasis; Functional Residual Capacity; Lung Injury; Nitric Oxide Synthase; Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor
14.  Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 and Retinoblastoma Gene Protein (pRB) in Curatively Resected Gastric Cancer 
Background
The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of the expression of p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) gene products in cases of curatively resected gastric adenocarcinoma, by immunohistochemical analysis.
Methods
Between January 1996 and December 2001, 736 curatively resected gastric cancer patients underwent immunohistochemical staining for p53 or Rb proteins (pRb), and we retrospectively analyzed the correlation of our results with the clinical outcomes of these cases.
Results
High levels of expression of p53 (>25% p53-positive cells) and Rb (>50% Rb-positive cells) proteins were detected in 40.1% and 43.7% of cases, respectively. Tubular type was found to frequently exhibit higher levels of p53 expression (high expression in 44.2%) than signet ring cell type (high expression in 26.0%) (p=0.042). The incidence of vascular invasion was lower in the high pRb expressors (43.2%) than in the pRb low expressors (56.8%), but this was not a statistically significant discrepancy (p=0.063). Preoperative CEA levels were found to be low in high pRb expressors: initial CEA level in the high pRb expressors was 2.31±3.30 ng/mL, and was 5.18±24.80 ng/mL in the low pRb expressors (p=0.033). Tumor depth and node metastasis were both independent of the levels of expression of p53 and Rb proteins. The seven-year overall survival rate and relapse-free survival rates of patients were 87.2% and 75.7%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that tumor stage, tumor size, patient age and pRb expression were the significant prognostic factors with regard to overall survival, and tumor stage and age were both significant factors with regard to relapse-free survival.
Conclusion
Immunohistochemical staining of retinoblastoma gene products was an independent prognostic factor for the prediction of overall survival in curatively resected gastric cancer patients.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2005.20.1.1
PMCID: PMC3891404  PMID: 15906946
Gastric cancer; Prognosis; p53; Rb gene; Immunohistochemistry
15.  Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Expression of EGFR and C-erbB-2 Oncoprotein in Curatively Resected Gastric Cancer 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the expression of EGFR and C-erbB-2 gene products by immunohistochemical analysis for curatively resected gastric adenocarcinoma.
Materials and Methods
Between January 1996 and December 2001, 739 patients with curatively resected gastric cancer patients underwent immunohistochemical staining for EGFR and C-erbB-2 proteins, and we retrospectively analyzed their correlation with the clinical outcome.
Results
The overexpressions of EGFR and C-erbB-2 were 25.4% and 26.2%, respectively. The overexpressions of EGFR was associated with the more poorly differentiated tumor (p=0.000) and with neuronal invasion (p=0.03). Overexpression of C-erbB-2 was associated with less vascular invasion (p=0.001). Tumor depth or node metastasis was not related to the overexpression of EGFR or C-erbB-2. The seven-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates were 87.2% and 75.8%, respectively. Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, the tumor stage, tumor size and patient age were important prognostic factors for overall survival, and tumor stage was the important factor for relapse-free survival. Overexpressions of EGFR or c-erbB-2 were not significant prognostic factors.
Conclusion
Immunohistochemical staining of EGFR and C-erbB-2 gene products were not independent prognostic factors for predicting the overall survival and the relapse-free survival in curatively resected gastric cancer.
doi:10.4143/crt.2004.36.4.240
PMCID: PMC2843891  PMID: 20368841
Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Immunohistochemistry; EGFR; C-erbB-2
16.  Cadmium induced acute lung injury and TUNEL expression of apoptosis in respiratory cells. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(5):655-662.
We examined the ultrastructural features of the lung parenchyma and the expression of apoptosis of the respiratory cells by TUNEL technique. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were intra-tracheally injected with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg) into both lungs. The light and electron microscopic features of the lung tissues were examined on Days 1, 3, 7 and 10 after the injection of cadmium. Specimen preparations for the light and electron microscopic TUNEL stains were performed. Ultrastructurally, on Days 1 and 3, the alveolar spaces were filled with edematous fluid, and desquamated type I epithelial cells. On Days 7 and 10, the alveolar spaces and interstitium were patchy infiltrated with young fibroblasts and some collagen deposition. The light microscopic TUNEL stain showed that apoptosis of the alveolar cells was most prominent on Day 1, and then the number of apoptosis was markedly decreased on Days 3, 7 and 10. The electron microscopic TUNEL stain showed the electron dense homogenous nuclear expression, and the formation of intra-nuclear blebs which protrude to the outside of nuclei. On Days 7 and 10, there are frequent apoptotic nuclear bodies in the alveolar macrophages. We could examine the identification of the equivocal apoptotic cells and various morphologic expression of apoptotic nuclei on the electron microscopic TUNEL stain.
PMCID: PMC3055119  PMID: 14555816
17.  Isolated Cervical Lymph Node Sarcoidosis Presenting in an Asymptomatic Neck Mass: A Case Report 
Sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in neck nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose. We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with an increasing mass on the right side of neck. The excisional biopsy from the neck mass showed noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes. No evidence of mycobacterial or fungal infection was noted. Thoracic evaluations did not show enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes or parenchymal abnormalities. Immunohistochemistry showed abundant expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the granuloma. However, transforming growth factor-β was not expressed, although interleukin-1β was focally expressed. These immunohistochemical findings supported characterization of the granuloma and the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis can present with cervical lymph node enlargement without mediastinal or lung abnormality. Immunohistochemistry may support the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and characterization of granuloma.
doi:10.4046/trd.2013.75.3.116
PMCID: PMC3790023  PMID: 24101936
Sarcoidosis; Lymphatic Diseases; Neck; Immunohistochemistry
18.  Nrf2 regulates drug resistance in pancreatic cancer cells 
Pancreas  2010;39(4):463-472.
Objective
To investigate the molecular basis of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer.
Methods
The expression of Nrf2 levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines was analyzed. Clinical relevance between Nrf2 activation and drug resistance was demonstrated by measuring cell viability after Nrf2 and ABCG2 regulation by over-expression or knockdown of these genes. Activity of ABCG2 was measured by Hoechst 33342 staining.
Results
Abnormally elevated Nrf2 protein levels were observed in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines relative to normal pancreatic tissues. Increasing Nrf2 protein levels either by over-expression of exogenous Nrf2 or by activating endogenous Nrf2 resulted in increased drug resistance. Conversely, a reduction in endogenous Nrf2 protein levels or inactivation of endogenous Nrf2 resulted in decreased drug resistance. These changes in drug resistance or sensitivity were also positively correlated to the expression levels of Nrf2 downstream genes. Similarly, the expression of ABCG2 was correlated with drug resistance.
Conclusions
Since the intrinsic drug resistance of pancreatic cancers is, in part, due to abnormally elevated Nrf2 protein levels, further research on regulating Nrf2 activity may result in the development of novel pancreatic cancer therapies.
doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3181c31314
PMCID: PMC3506252  PMID: 20118824
Nrf2; drug resistance; pancreatic cancer

Results 1-18 (18)