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Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI (2)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1)
BMC Immunology (1)
Hu, Songhua (4)
Cao, Liting (1)
Chen, Jian (1)
Chen, Yu (1)
Fan, Qing (1)
Liu, Diwen (1)
Rajput, Zahid Iqbal (1)
Song, Xiaoming (1)
Su, Fei (1)
Sun, Jianhua (1)
Wu, Junqiang (1)
Xiao, Chenwen (1)
Yuan, Lin (1)
Year of Publication
Adjuvant effect of docetaxel on the immune responses to influenza A H1N1 vaccine in mice
Vaccination remains one of the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Immune responses to vaccination can be enhanced by inclusion of adjuvant in a vaccine. Paclitaxel extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifola was previously demonstrated to have adjuvant property. Compared to paclitaxel, docetaxel is another member of taxane family, and is more soluble in water and easier to manipulate in medication. To investigate the adjuvant effect of this compound, we measured the immune responses induced by co-administration of a split inactivated influenza H1N1 vaccine antigen with docetaxel.
When co-administered with docetaxel, lower dose antigen (equivalent to 10 ng HA) induced similar levels of IgG and IgG isotypes as well as HI titers to those induced by higher dose antigen (equivalent to 100 ng HA). Docetaxel promoted splenocyte responses to H1N1 antigen, ConA and LPS, mRNA expressions of cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10) and T-bet/GATA-3 by splenocytes. The enhanced immunity was associated with up-expressed microRNAs (miR-155, miR-150 and miR-146a) in docetaxel-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Docetaxel promoted similar IgE level to but alum promoted significantly higher IgE level than the control.
Docetaxel has adjuvant effect on the influenza H1N1 vaccine by up-regulation of Th1/Th2 immune responses. Considering its unique vaccine adjuvant property as well as the safe record as an anti-neoplastic agent clinically used in humans during a long period, docetaxel should be further studied for its use in influenza vaccine production.
Docetaxel; Adjuvant; Influenza; H1N1; Th1/Th2
Ginsenoside Rg1 and Aluminum Hydroxide Synergistically Promote Immune Responses to Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice▿
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI
The combined adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) on immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice was investigated. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously (s.c.) inoculated twice with OVA alone or in combination with Rg1, alum, or Rg1 plus alum. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the measurement of anti-OVA immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) produced in singular splenocyte cultures. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured in mice immunized as described above. After 10 days, the mice were injected s.c. with OVA at the footpads. Thereafter, the thickness of the footpads was measured once daily for 5 days. The results indicated that alum enhanced mainly Th2 (IgG1 and IL-5) responses (P < 0.05), while Rg1 enhanced both Th1 (IgG1 and IL-5) and Th2 (IgG2a, IFN-γ, and DTH) responses (P < 0.05). The highest immune responses were found in the mice injected with OVA solution containing both alum and Rg1. In addition, the hemolytic activity of Rg1 was much lower than that of Quil A. Therefore, Rg1 deserves further studies in order to tailor desired immune responses when a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response is needed.
Enhancement of Serological Immune Responses to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine by a Supplement Made of Extract of Cochinchina Momordica Seeds▿
Rajput, Zahid Iqbal
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination against FMD is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. This study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (ECMS) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated FMDV antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ECMS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines for its immunopotentiation in pigs. The results indicated that ECMS and oil emulsion act synergistically as adjuvants to promote the production of FMDV- and VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclasses in guinea pigs. A supplement of ECMS in a commercial FMD vaccine significantly enhanced FMDV-specific indirect hemagglutination assay titers as well as VP1-specific IgG and subclasses in pigs. Therefore, ECMS could be an alternative approach to improving swine FMD vaccination when the vaccine is poor to induce an effective immune response.
Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-treated (n = 46) and control (n = 44) groups. In the nisin-treated group, cows received an intramammary infusion of nisin at a dose of 2,500,000 IU once daily for 3 days while the control cows received no treatment. Milk samples were collected from the affected mammary quarters before treatment and 1 and 2 weeks after treatment for analyses of bacteria, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase). Results indicated that nisin therapy had bacteriological cure rates of 90.1% for Streptococcus agalactiae (10 of 11), 50% for Staphylococcus aureus (7 of 14), 58.8% for coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 of 17), and 65.2% for all cases (30 of 46). Meanwhile, only 15.9% (7 of 44) of untreated cows spontaneously recovered. NAGase activity in milk samples and the number of mammary quarters with a milk somatic cell count of ≥500,000/ml were significantly decreased after nisin treatment while no significant changes took place in the control group. Because of its therapeutic effects on bovine subclinical mastitis, as well as its safety in humans, nisin deserves further study to clarify its effects on mastitis caused by different pathogens.
Results 1-4 (4)
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