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1.  A Meta-Analysis of IL-13 Polymorphisms and Pediatric Asthma Risk 
Background
IL13–1112C/T and +2044A/G polymorphisms have been reported to be correlated with pediatric asthma susceptibility, but study results were still debatable. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted.
Material/Methods
PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association in the random-effects model or fixed-effects model.
Results
Fourteen case-control studies with 4710 asthma cases and 6086 controls were included in this meta-analysis. IL13–1112C/T and +2044A/G polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of pediatric asthma (OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28, P=0.04, I2=0%; OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.09–1.32, P<0.01, I2=0%), respectively. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, IL13–1112C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with pediatric asthma risk in whites (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.63, P=0.03, I2=16%). IL13 +2044A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with pediatric asthma risk in Asians (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P<0.01, I2=24%).
Conclusions
The results of this meta-analysis suggest that IL13–1112C/T and +2044A/G polymorphisms contribute to the development of pediatric asthma.
doi:10.12659/MSM.891017
PMCID: PMC4271802  PMID: 25502839
Asthma; Interleukin-13; Meta-Analysis; Pediatrics; Polymorphism, Genetic
2.  Substitution of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry Glycoproteins with Those of Saimiriine Herpesvirus 1 Reveals a gD-gH/gL Functional Interaction and a Region within the gD Profusion Domain That Is Critical for Fusion 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(11):6470-6482.
ABSTRACT
To gain insight into the mechanism of herpesvirus entry into cells, the four glycoproteins that are necessary for herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion were cloned from the saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (SaHV-1) genome, a primate member of the alphaherpesvirus family. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that SaHV-1 entry glycoproteins function with the previously identified alphaherpesvirus entry receptors nectin-1 and CD155 but not with herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) or paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα). Replacement of HSV-1 gD with the SaHV-1 gD homolog resulted in a complete loss of fusion function when coexpressed with HSV-1 gB and gH/gL. HSV-1 gD was also unable to substitute for SaHV-1 gD when coexpressed with SaHV-1 gB and gH/gL. Similarly, the gH/gL heterodimers from HSV-1 and SaHV-1 were not interchangeable. In contrast, both the HSV-1 and SaHV-1 gB homologs retained function in a heterotypic context. These results suggest that an essential interaction between homotypic gD and gH/gL occurs during both HSV-1 and SaHV-1 entry. To map the site of this homotypic interaction, we created a series of gD chimeras, focusing on the “profusion domain” (PFD) that consists of HSV-1 gD residues 261 to 305 or SaHV-1 gD residues 264 to 307. We identified a seven-amino-acid stretch (264 RTLPPPK 270) at the N terminus of the SaHV-1 gD PFD that contributes to homotypic fusion. Finally, we found that the gD receptor-binding region and PFD cannot function independently but that both can inhibit the function of wild-type gD.
IMPORTANCE The herpesvirus entry machinery requires the concerted action of at least four glycoproteins; however, details of the interactions among these glycoproteins are not well understood. Like HSV-1, SaHV-1 belongs to the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Using cell-cell fusion experiments, we found that SaHV-1 uses the entry receptors nectin-1 and CD155 but not HVEM or PILRα. By swapping the entry glycoproteins between HSV-1 and SaHV-1, we revealed a functional interaction between gD and gH/gL. To examine the homotypic interaction site on gD, we evaluated the function of a panel of HSV-1/SaHV-1 gD chimeras and identified a small region in the SaHV-1 gD profusion domain that is critical for SaHV-1 fusion. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of herpesvirus entry and membrane fusion.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00465-14
PMCID: PMC4093879  PMID: 24672037
3.  Hepatic arterial administration of sorafenib and iodized oil effectively attenuates tumor growth and intrahepatic metastasis in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model 
Aim: To investigate the therapeutic effect of the hepatic arterial administration of sorafenib in rabbit VX-2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. Methods: Rabbit VX-2 HCC models were established via implanting VX-2 tumors into the livers, and randomly divided into four groups, respectively treated with (1) The hepatic arterial administration of iodized oil alone (TACE-i), (2) The hepatic arterial administration of iodized oil and pharmorubicin (TACE-ip), (3) The hepatic arterial administration of iodized and cis-DDP (TACE-ic), (4) The hepatic arterial administration of iodized and sorafenib (TACE-is). The growth rate and intrahepatic metastasis of implanted VX-2 tumor in each rabbit were measured. Microvessel density (MVD) in the adjacent tissues of implanted VX-2 tumor were estimated by detecting the expression of CD34 and VEGF level in tumor adjacent tissues were also examined by Immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with other groups, TACE-is treatment group presented a better effect on inhibiting tumor growth rate and intrahepatic metastasis in rabbit VX-2 HCC model. The angiogenesis (assessed by MVD) in the adjacent tissues were suppressed more dramatically in TACE-is treated group. Moreover, TACE-is treatment did not significantly increase the levels of alanine transaminase and creatinine compared to the group with TACE-i treatment. Conclusion: The hepatic arterial administration of sorafenib and iodized oil (TACE-is) effectively attenuates tumor growth and intrahepatic metastasis in rabbit VX-2 HCC model without obvious hepatic and renal toxicity. One of the related mechanisms may be due to the inhibition of angiogenesis in the adjacent tissues. Our data indicated that TACE-is may be a secure and effective treatment for HCC.
PMCID: PMC4270620  PMID: 25550815
Hepatocellular carcinoma; TACE; sorafenib; MVD; VEGF
4.  Proliferative ductular reactions correlate with hepatic progenitor cell and predict recurrence in HCC patients after curative resection 
Cell & Bioscience  2014;4(1):50.
Background
Ductular reactions (DRs) are well documented in many acute and chronic liver disease.The DRs are thought to be the transit amplifying cells deriving from activation of the stem/progenitor cell compartments of the liver. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of proliferative index of DR (PI-DR) and HPC markers’ expression in HCCs after curative hepatectomy, as well as their relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis.
Results
Tissue microarray with peritumoral and intratumoral tissue samples of 120 HCCs after hepatectomy was analysed for peritumoral expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen for PI-DR. Peritumoral and intratumoral expression status of HPC markers including EpCAM, OV6, CD133 and c-kit were also examined by immunohistochemistry. TMA analysis of HCCs revealed that peritumoral PI-DR strongly correlated with the degree of inflammation and fibrosis. The peritumoral PI-DR positively correlated with peritumoral HPC markers EpCAM, OV6, CD133 and c-kit expression. Moreover, there were highly significant correlations between peritumoral PI-DR and intratumoral HPC markers EpCAM, OV6, CD133 and c-kit expression. Further, multivariate analysis showed that peritumoral PI-DR was the independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR; 3.316, P < 0.001), and peritumoral PI-DR had a better power to predict disease-free survival (HR; 2.618, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Peritumoral PI-DR, as a valid surrogate for peritumoral and intratumoral expression of HPC markers, could be served as a potential prognostic marker for recurrence and survival in HCC after hepatectomy.
doi:10.1186/2045-3701-4-50
PMCID: PMC4156622  PMID: 25197550
Proliferative index of ductular reaction; Hepatic progenitor cell; Recurrence; Hepatocellular carcinoma
5.  Clinicopathological features of pulmonary cryptococcosis with cryptococcal titan cells: a comparative analysis of 27 cases 
In addition to the typical size, Cryptococcus neoformans can enlarge its size to form titan cells during infection, and its diameter can reach up to 100 μm. Clinical reports about cryptococcal titan cells are rare. Most studies focus on aspects of animal models of infection with titan cells. Herein, we report the clinical and imaging characteristics and histopathologic features of 3 patients with titan cells and 27 patients with pathogens of typical size, and describe the morphological characteristics of titan cells in details. Histologically, 3 patients with titan cells show necrosis, fibrosis and macrophage accumulation. The titan cells appear in necrotic tissue and between macrophages, and have thick wall with unstained halo around them and diameters range from 20 to 80 μm with characteristic of narrow-necked single budding. There are also organisms with typical size. All 27 patients with normal pathogens show epithelioid granulomatous lesions. There is no significantly difference in clinical and imaging feature between the two groups. Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits a striking morphological change for the formation of titan cells during pulmonary infection, which will result in misdiagnosis and under diagnosis. The histopathological changes may be new manifestation, which need to be further confirmed by the study with animal models of infection and the observation of more clinical cases. Careful observation of the tissue sections is necessary.
PMCID: PMC4152044  PMID: 25197354
Cryptococcus neoformans; titan cells; cryptococcosis; pulmonary infection; histopathology
6.  Genome Analysis of a Tembusu Virus, GX2013H, Isolated from a Cheery Valley Duck in Guangxi, China 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(4):e00466-14.
We report here the complete genome sequence of a duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) strain, GX2013H, isolated from a duck from Cheery Valley in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2013. We obtained the strain GX2013H from a Cheery Valley duck with severely decreased egg production and neurological signs. The genome of GX2013H is 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids (aa). A comparison of the complete sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of GX2013H with published sequences of 15 other chicken anemia viruses from China showed that the homologies of the nucleotides are approximately 96.5% to 97.5% and the homologies of the deduced amino acid sequences are approximately 98.9% to 99.3%. This report will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of TMUV in Guangxi.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00466-14
PMCID: PMC4110756  PMID: 25013132
7.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in Southern China 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(3):e00512-14.
We report here the full-length RNA genomic sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain GX4, isolated from a cow in southern China. Studies indicate that BVDV GX4 belongs to the BVDV-1b subtype. This report will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of BVDV in southern China cattle.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00512-14
PMCID: PMC4064797  PMID: 24948756
8.  Diagnostic problems related to acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia: misdiagnosis in 2 cases of lung consolidation and occupying lesions 
Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a histological pattern characterized by intra-alveolus fibrinous deposition accompanied with a spectrum of clinical condition. It also presents in other types of lung lesions, thus renders risks to its diagnosis with small biopsies. Here we present 2 cases of lung consolidation and occupying lesions with typical histological presentation of AFOP. One case is tuberculosis presented as massive lung consolidation, initially treated as AFOP, and eventually progressed to bilateral military tuberculosis. The other case presented an occupying mass in the lung which was initially suspected to be an inflammatory mass with AFOP. Lobectomy revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma, with AFOP pattern present in the peripheral tissues of the neoplastic mass. In conclusion, we suggest that it is not preferable to diagnose idiopathic AFOP in lung consolidation and occupying lesions before excluding other types of lesions. The diagnostic significance of AFOP should be deliberated.
PMCID: PMC4129075  PMID: 25120840
AFOP; tuberculosis; lung cancer; misdiagnosis
9.  Structural mechanism of ligand activation in human GABAB receptor 
Nature  2013;504(7479):10.1038/nature12725.
Human GABAB receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor central to inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. It functions as an obligatory heterodimer of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits. Here we present the first crystal structures of a heterodimeric complex between the extracellular domains of GBR1 and GBR2 in the apo, agonist-bound, and antagonist-bound forms. The apo and antagonist-bound structures represent the resting state of the receptor; the agonist-bound complex corresponds to the active state. Both subunits adopt an open conformation at rest, and only GBR1 closes upon agonist-induced receptor activation. The agonists and antagonists are anchored in the interdomain crevice of GBR1 by an overlapping set of residues. An antagonist confines GBR1 to the open conformation of the inactive state, while an agonist induces its domain closure for activation. Our data reveals a unique activation mechanism for GABAB receptor that involves the formation of a novel heterodimer interface between subunits.
doi:10.1038/nature12725
PMCID: PMC3865065  PMID: 24305054
10.  Dynamics of Posttranslational Modifications of p53 
The latest experimental evidence indicates that acetylation of p53 at K164 (lysine 164) and K120 may induce directly cell apoptosis under severe DNA damage. However, previous cell apoptosis models only studied the effects of active and/or inactive p53, that is, phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of p53. In the present paper, based partly on Geva-Zatorsky et al. (2006) and Batchelor et al. (2008), we propose a new cell apoptosis network, in which p53 has three statuses, that is, unphosphorylated p53, phosphorylated p53, and acetylated p53. The time delay differential equations (DDEs) are formulated based on our network to investigate the dynamical insights of p53-induced cell apoptosis. In agreement with experiments (Loewer et al. (2010)), our simulations indicate that acetylated p53 accumulates gradually and then induces the proapoptotic protein Bax under enough DNA damage. Moreover, phosphorylated p53 oscillates and initiates cell repair during DNA damage.
doi:10.1155/2014/245610
PMCID: PMC4037116  PMID: 24899917
11.  Homologous mesenchymal stem cells promote the emergence and growth of pulmonary metastases of the rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR-106 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(1):127-132.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone sarcoma and tends to develop pulmonary metastasis. Studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in OS growth and metastasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify whether homologous MSCs could promote the growth and metastasis of OS in rats with a normal immune system. The OS cell line, UMR-106, which originally derives from a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat-transplantable osteogenic sarcoma with an osteoblastic phenotype, has a strong carcinogenic capability and a high lung metastasis. Xenotransplanted models of UMR-106 with or without MSCs injected through the tibia (IT) or caudal vein (IV) were established. SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: Control, UMR-106 (IT), MSCs (IV), UMR-106 (IT) + MSCs (IV), UMR-106 (IV) and UMR-106 (IV) + MSCs (IV). Following injection, all rats were sacrificed at week 5, and the volume and quantity of metastatic sarcoma and the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were measured. There was no metastatic sarcoma in the liver, spleen and kidney in all groups. The rats in the MSCs (IV) + UMR-106 (IV) group showed a significantly higher volume and number of pulmonary metastatic tumors than those of the UMR-106 (IV) group. In pulmonary metastatic tissues, MSCs were found in the MSCs (IV) + UMR-106 (IV) group, but not in the UMR-106 (IT) + MSCs (IV) group. Notably, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in the MSCs + UMR-106 cells co-culture system. The present study indicated that MSCs can significantly promote the pulmonary metastasis of the rat OS cell line, UMR-106, with a normal immune system, and VEGF was involved in MSC-promoted UMR-106 emergence and growth of pulmonary metastasis.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2127
PMCID: PMC4063563  PMID: 24959232
osteosarcoma; mesenchymal stem cells; vascular endothelial growth factor; metastasis; rat
12.  A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the visual detection of duck circovirus 
Virology Journal  2014;11:76.
Background
Duck circovirus (DuCV) infection in farmed ducks is associated with growth problems or retardation syndromes. Rapid identification of DuCV infected ducks is essential to control DuCV effectively. Therefore, this study aims to develop of an assay for DuCV to be highly specific, sensitive, and simple without any specialized equipment.
Methods
A set of six specific primers was designed to target the sequences of the Rep gene of DuCV, and A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed and the reaction conditions were optimized for rapid detection of DuCV.
Results
The LAMP assay reaction was conducted in a 62°C water bath condition for 50 min. Then the amplification products were visualized directly for color changes. This LAMP assay is highly sensitive and able to detect twenty copies of DuCV DNA. The specificity of this LAMP assay was supported by no cross-reaction with other duck pathogens.
Conclusion
This LAMP method for DuCV is highly specific and sensitive and can be used as a rapid and direct diagnostic assay for testing clinical samples.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-76
PMCID: PMC4013541  PMID: 24775810
Duck circovirus; Loop-mediated isothermal amplification; Visual detection
13.  Biological Evaluation of 131I- and CF750-Labeled Dmab(scFv)-Fc Antibodies for Xenograft Imaging of CD25-Positive Tumors 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:459676.
A Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody containing the single chain variable fragment of a humanized daclizumab antibody and the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 antibody was produced via recombinant expression in Pichia pastoris. The Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody forms a dimer in solution, and it specifically binds CD25-positive tumor cells and tumor tissues. For tumor imaging, the Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody was labeled with the 131I isotope and CF750 fluorescent dye, respectively. After intravenous injection of mice bearing CD25-positive tumor xenografts, tumor uptake of the 131I-Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody was visible at 1 h, and clear images were obtained at 5 h using SPECT/CT. After systemic administration of the CF750-Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody, tumor uptake was present as early as 1 h, and tumor xenografts could be kinetically imaged within 9 h after injection. These results indicate that the Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody rapidly and specifically targets CD25-positive tumor cells, suggesting the potential of this antibody as an imaging agent for the diagnosis of lymphomatous-type ATLL.
doi:10.1155/2014/459676
PMCID: PMC4017786  PMID: 24864244
14.  Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Immunoassay for Avian Influenza Subtype H5 Using Nanocomposite 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94685.
We report a novel electrochemical immunosensor that can sensitively detect avian influenza virus H5 subtype (AIV H5) captured by graphene oxide-H5-polychonal antibodies-bovine serum albumin (GO-PAb-BSA) nanocomposite. The graphene oxide (GO) carried H5-polychonal antibody (PAb) were used as signal amplification materials. Upon signal amplification, the immunosensor showed a 256-fold increase in detection sensitivity compared to the immunosensor without GO-PAb-BSA. We designed a PAb labeling GO strategy and signal amplification procedure that allow ultrasensitive and selective detection of AIV H5. The established method responded to 2−15 HA unit/50 µL H5, with a linear calibration range from 2−15 to 2−8 HA unit/50 µL. In summary, we demonstrated that the immunosenser has a high specificity and sensitivity for AIV H5, and the established assay could be potentially applied in the rapid detection of other pathogenic microorganisms.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094685
PMCID: PMC3986103  PMID: 24733043
15.  Epigenetic Upregulation of Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone Mediates Postnatal Maternal Separation-Induced Memory Deficiency 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94394.
Accumulating evidences demonstrated that early postnatal maternal separation induced remarkable social and memory defects in the adult rodents. Early-life stress induced long-lasting functional adaptation of neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain. In the present study, a significantly increased hippocampal CRH was observed in the adult rats with postnatal maternal separation, and blockade of CRHR1 signaling significantly attenuated the hippocampal synaptic dysfunction and memory defects in the modeled rats. Postnatal maternal separation enduringly increased histone H3 acetylation and decreased cytosine methylation in Crh promoter region, resulting from the functional adaptation of several transcriptional factors, in the hippocampal CA1 of the modeled rats. Enriched environment reversed the epigenetic upregulation of CRH, and ameliorated the hippocampal synaptic dysfunction and memory defects in the adult rats with postnatal maternal separation. This study provided novel insights into the epigenetic mechanism underlying postnatal maternal separation-induced memory deficiency, and suggested environment enrichment as a potential approach for the treatment of this disorder.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094394
PMCID: PMC3981802  PMID: 24718660
16.  Identification of a Triple-Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in a Southern China Pig 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(2):e00229-14.
We report here the complete genome sequence of a triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus strain, A/swine/Guangxi/BB1/2013 (H1N1) (GXBB1), isolated from a swine in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2013. We obtained the complete genome sequence of the GXBB1 virus. Sequence analysis demonstrated that this H1N1 virus was a triple-reassortant swine influenza virus (SIV) whose genes originated from avian, human, and swine, respectively. Knowledge regarding the complete genome sequence of the GXBB1 virus will be useful for epidemiological surveillance.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00229-14
PMCID: PMC3968342  PMID: 24675864
17.  Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells: A novel tool for studying HSV-induced membrane fusion 
Virology  2013;437(2):100-109.
Drosophila S2 cells and mammalian CHO-K1 cells were used to investigate the requirements for HSV-1 cell fusion. Infection assays indicated S2 cells were not permissive for HSV-1. HVEM and nectin-1 mediated cell fusion between CHO-K1 cells and S2 cells when either CHO-K1 or S2 cells were used as target cells. Interestingly, PILRα did not mediate fusion between CHO-K1 or S2 cells due to a glycosylation defect of PILRα and gB in S2 cells. Fusion activity was not detected for any receptor tested when S2 cells were used both as target cells and effector cells indicating S2 cells may lack a key cellular factor present in mammalian cells that is required for cell fusion. Thus, insect cells may provide a novel tool to study the interaction of HSV-1 glycoproteins and cellular factors required for fusion, as well as a means to identify unknown cellular factors required for HSV replication.
doi:10.1016/j.virol.2013.01.004
PMCID: PMC3578051  PMID: 23399037
HSV-1; Drosophila S2 cells; CHO-K1 cells; fusion activity
18.  Full-Genome Sequence of Chicken Anemia Virus Strain GXC060821, Isolated from a Guangxi Sanhuang Chicken 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00040-14.
We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel chicken anemia virus strain GXC060821, isolated from a Sanhuang chicken in Guangxi Province of southern China. The complete genome of GXC060821 was sequenced. The full-length of GXC060821 is 2,292 bp and contains three overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). A comparison of the complete sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of GXC060821 with 31 other published chicken anemia virus sequences showed that the homologies of the nucleotides are 96.1% to 98.5% and the homologies of the deduced amino acid sequences are 89.8% to 94.2%. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that GXC060821 is closely related to the two Chinese strains, TJBD40 (accession no. AY843527) and LF4 (accession no. AY839944), and it has a distant relationship with the American isolate 98D06073 (accession no. AF311900). This report will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of chicken anemia virus in a Guangxi Sanhuang chicken.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00040-14
PMCID: PMC3931355  PMID: 24558234
19.  Epidemiological Surveillance of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (LPAIV) from Poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77132.
Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world “influenza epicenter”, due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8%) were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7%) in chicken and 282 (9.1%) in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11) and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8). The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%). The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077132
PMCID: PMC3813733  PMID: 24204754
20.  Identification of a Genotype IX Newcastle Disease Virus in a Guangxi White Duck 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(5):e00836-13.
We report the complete genomic sequence of a novel Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, duck/China/Guangxi19/2011, isolated from a white duck in Guangxi Province, southern China. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fusion gene comparison with different NDV strains revealed that duck/China/Guangxi19/2011 is phylogenetically close to genotype IX NDV, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion protein cleavage site was 112R-R-Q-R-R-F117. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology (99.7%) to the sequence of strain F48E8 (GenBank accession number FJ436302). This study will help us understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of genotype IX Newcastle disease virus in ducks.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00836-13
PMCID: PMC3795221  PMID: 24115551
21.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant Avian Influenza H1N2 Virus Isolated from a Domestic Sparrow in 2012 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(4):e00431-13.
We report here the complete genome sequence of a novel H1N2 avian influenza virus strain, A/Sparrow /Guangxi/GXs-1/2012 (H1N2), isolated from a sparrow in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2012. All of the 8 gene segments (hemagglutinin [HA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], neuraminidase [NA], polymerase acidic [PA], polymerase basic 1 [PB1], and nonstructural [NS] genes) of this natural recombinant virus are attributed to the Eurasian lineage, and phylogenetic analysis showed that those genes are derived from H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, H4N6, H6N2, H10N8, H5N1, and H4N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The amino acid motif of the cleavage site of HA is PSIQSR↓GLF. The sequence analysis will help in understanding the molecular characteristics and epidemiology of the H1N2 influenza virus in sparrows.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00431-13
PMCID: PMC3715663  PMID: 23868121
22.  Complete Genome Sequences of an Avian Orthoreovirus Isolated from Guangxi, China 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(4):e00495-13.
We report the complete genomic sequences of an avian orthoreovirus, strain GuangxiR1, isolated from a chicken flock in Guangxi Province, southern China, in 2000. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the strain is closely related to the S1133 strain, which is associated with tenosynovitis, but is far different from strain AVS-B, which is associated with runting-stunting syndrome in broilers.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00495-13
PMCID: PMC3709157  PMID: 23846280
23.  Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with budd-chiari syndrome: imaging features and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:105.
Background
Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS) often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been increasingly used to treat BCS patients with HCC. The purposes of this study were to illustrate imaging features in BCS patients with HCC, and to analyze the effects of TACE on BCS patients with HCC.
Methods
246 consecutive patients with primary BCS were retrospectively studied. 14 BCS patients with HCC were included in this study. BCS were treated with angioplasty and/or stenting, and HCC were managed with TACE. Imaging features on ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and angiography and the serum AFP level were analyzed.
Results
Inferior vena cava block and stricture of hepatic venous outflow tract more frequently occurred. Portal vein invasion was found in only 2 patients (14.2%). Imaging studies showed that most nodules of HCC were near the edge of liver, irregular, more than 3 cm in diameter, heterogeneous mass and solitary (≤3 nodules). HCC in patients associated with BCS was isointense or hypointense in nonenhanced CT images, and exhibited heterogeneous enhancement during the arterial phase and washout during the portal venous phase on enhanced CT and MRI. The serum AFP level significantly declined after TACE treatment.
Conclusions
BCS patients with inferior vena cava block and stricture of hepatic venous outflow tract seems to be associated with HCC. A single, large, irregular nodule with a peripheral location appears to be HCC. TACE can effectively treat HCC in BCS patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-105
PMCID: PMC3693971  PMID: 23800233
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Budd–Chiari syndrome; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization
24.  Differences in HER2 over-expression between proximal and distal gastric cancers in the Chinese population 
AIM: To investigate HER2 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological variables between proximal and distal gastric cancers (GC) in the Chinese population.
METHODS: Immunostaining of HER2 was performed and scored on a scale of 0-3 in 957 consecutive GC cases, according to the revised scoring criteria of HercepTestTM as used in the ToGA trial. Correlations between HER2 expression and clinicopathologic variables of proximal (n = 513) and distal (n = 444) GC were investigated.
RESULTS: Our results showed that HER2 expression was significantly higher in the proximal than in distal GC (P < 0.05). Overall, HER2 expression was significantly higher in male patients (P < 0.01), the Lauren intestinal type (P < 0.001), low-grade (P < 0.001) and pM1 (P < 0.01) diseases, respectively. There was a significant difference in HER2 expression among some pTNM stages (P < 0.05). In contrast, HER2 expression in the distal GC was significantly higher in male patients (P < 0.001), low-grade histology (P < 0.001), the Lauren intestinal type(P < 0.001), and pM1 (P < 0.001). In the proximal GC, however, higher HER2 expression scores were observed only in tumors with low-grade histology (P < 0.001) and the Lauren intestinal type (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: HER2 over-expression in GC of Chinese patients was significantly more common in proximal than in distal GC, and significantly correlated with the Lauren intestinal type and low-grade histology in both proximal and distal GC, and with pM1 disease and male gender in distal GC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i21.3316
PMCID: PMC3671084  PMID: 23745034
HER2; Gastric cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Clinicopathology
25.  Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Duck Circovirus from Guangxi Pockmark Ducks 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(23):13136.
We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck circovirus (DuCV) strain, GX1104, isolated from Guangxi pockmark ducks in Guangxi, China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology (97.2%) with the sequence of strain TC/2002 (GenBank accession number AY394721.1) and had a low homology (76.8% to 78.6%) with the sequences of other strains isolated from China, Germany, and the United States. This report will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of Guangxi pockmark duck circovirus in southern China.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02494-12
PMCID: PMC3497624  PMID: 23118461

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