Some filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produce cells, termed heterocysts, specialized in nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts bear a thick envelope containing an inner layer of glycolipids and an outer layer of polysaccharide that restrict the diffusion of air (including O2) into the heterocyst. Anabaena sp. mutants impaired in production of either of those layers show a Fox− phenotype (requiring fixed nitrogen for growth under oxic conditions). We have characterized a set of transposon-induced Fox− mutants in which transposon Tn5-1063 was inserted into the Anabaena sp. chromosome open reading frame all1711 which encodes a predicted membrane protein that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). These mutants showed higher nitrogenase activities under anoxic than under oxic conditions and altered sucrose uptake. Electron microscopy and alcian blue staining showed a lack of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide (Hep) layer. Northern blot and primer extension analyses showed that, in a manner dependent on the nitrogen-control transcription factor NtcA, all1711 was strongly induced after nitrogen step-down. Confocal microscopy of an Anabaena sp. strain producing an All1711-green fluorescent protein (All1711-GFP) fusion protein showed induction in all cells of the filament but at higher levels in differentiating heterocysts. All1711-GFP was located in the periphery of the cells, consistent with All1711 being a cytoplasmic membrane protein. Expression of all1711 from the PglnA promoter in a multicopy plasmid led to production of a presumptive exopolysaccharide by vegetative cells. These results suggest that All1711, which we denote HepP, is involved in transport of glycoside(s), with a specific physiological role in production of Hep.
Background and the purpose of this study
Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Morchella conica (M. conica) is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. Thus, the objective of this study is to isolate and characterize of exopolysaccharide from submerged mycelial culture of M. conica, and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activity.
A water-soluble Morchella conica Polysaccharides (MCP) were extracted and isolated from the fermentation broth of M. conica through a combination of DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 HR chromatograph. NMR and IR spectroscopy has played a developing role in identification of polysaccharide with different structure and composition from fungal and plant sources, as well as complex glycosaminoglycans of animal origin. Thus, NMR and IR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the isolated polysaccharide. Moreover, the polysaccharide was tested for its immunomodulatory activity at different concentrations using in vitro model.
The results showed that MCP may significantly modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages, and promote splenocytes proliferation. Analysis from HPLC, infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that MCP was a homogeneous mannan with an average molecular weight of approximately 81.2 kDa. The glycosidic bond links is →6)-α-D-Man p-(1→.
The results suggested that the extracted MCP may modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages and promote splenocytes proliferation, and it may act as a potent immunomodulatory agent.
Morchella conica; Exopolysaccharides; Submerged liquid culture; Immunomodulatory activity
Inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by GABA. Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein coupled receptor central to mammalian brain function. Malfunction of GABAB receptor has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. GABAB receptor functions as a heterodimeric assembly of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits, where GBR1 is responsible for ligand-binding and GBR2 is responsible for G protein coupling. Here we demonstrate that the GBR2 ectodomain directly interacts with the GBR1 ectodomain to increase agonist affinity by selectively stabilizing the agonist-bound conformation of GBR1. We present the crystal structure of the GBR2 ectodomain, which reveals a polar heterodimeric interface. We also identify specific heterodimer contacts from both subunits, and GBR1 residues involved in ligand recognition. Lastly, our structural and functional data indicate that the GBR2 ectodomain adopts a constitutively open conformation, suggesting a structural asymmetry in the active state of GABAB receptor that is unique to the GABAergic system.
Background. The B2-bradykinin receptor (BDKRB2) has been reported to associate with onset and development of Osteoarthritis (OA); however, the role of BDKRB2 genetic polymorphisms in OA remains unknown. Method. A total of 245 patients with primary knee OA and 264 healthy volunteer were recruited. BDKRB2 gene polymorphisms, −58T/C and +9/−9 bp polymorphisms, were genotyped. Results. The genotype distributions and allele frequencies of +9/−9 bp polymorphisms significantly differed between OA and control subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed carriers with −9/−9 genotype had a significantly increased risk for knee OA compared with the +9/+9 genotype (adjusted OR = 2.356, P < 0.001). The OR for −9 allele carriage was significantly higher than +9 allele carriage (adjusted OR = 1.52, P < 0.001). The +9/−9 bp polymorphisms also determined the OA radiographic severity. The presence of −9 bp was associated with severer OA. The −58T/C polymorphisms did not affect OA risk and severity. Conclusion. The +9/−9 bp polymorphisms of BDKRB2 gene may be used as a genetic marker for the susceptibility and severity of OA.
To investigate the requirements of herpesvirus entry and fusion, the four homologous glycoproteins necessary for herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion were cloned from herpes B virus (BV) (or macacine herpesvirus 1, previously known as cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) and cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2), both related simian simplexviruses belonging to the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Western blots and cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH/gL were expressed in whole-cell lysates and on the cell surface. Cell-cell fusion assays indicated that nectin-1, an HSV-1 gD receptor, mediated fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from both BV and CeHV-2. However, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), another HSV-1 gD receptor, did not facilitate BV- and CeHV-2-induced cell-cell fusion. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα), an HSV-1 gB fusion receptor, did not mediate fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from either simian virus. Productive infection with BV was possible only with nectin-1-expressing cells, indicating that nectin-1 mediated entry while HVEM and PILRα did not function as entry receptors. These results indicate that these alphaherpesviruses have differing preferences for entry receptors. The usage of the HSV-1 gD receptor nectin-1 may explain interspecies transfer of the viruses, and altered receptor usage may result in altered virulence, tropism, or pathogenesis in the new host. A heterotypic cell fusion assay resulting in productive fusion may provide insight into interactions that occur to trigger fusion. These findings may be of therapeutic significance for control of deadly BV infections.
Bovine rotavirus (BRV) infection is common in young calves. This viral infection causes acute diarrhea leading to death. Rapid identification of infected calves is essential to control BRV successfully. Therefore development of simple, highly specific, and sensitive detection method for BRV is needed.
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and optimized for rapid detection of BRV. Specific primer sets were designed to target the sequences of the VP6 gene of the neonatal calf diarrhea virus (NCDV) strain of BRV. The RT-LAMP assay was performed in a water bath for 60 minutes at 63°C, and the amplification products were visualized either directly or under ultraviolet light. This BRV specific RT-LAMP assay could detect 3.32 copies of subtype A BRV. No cross-reactions were detected with other bovine pathogens. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect bovine rotavirus was further evaluated with 88 bovine rectal swab samples. Twenty-nine of these samples were found to be positive for BRV using RT-LAMP. The BRV-specific-RT-LAMP results were also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay.
The bovine rotavirus-specific RT-LAMP assay was highly sensitive and holds promise as a prompt and simple diagnostic method for the detection of group A bovine rotavirus infection in young calves.
BRV; VP6 gene; Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP)
Vaccination remains one of the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Immune responses to vaccination can be enhanced by inclusion of adjuvant in a vaccine. Paclitaxel extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifola was previously demonstrated to have adjuvant property. Compared to paclitaxel, docetaxel is another member of taxane family, and is more soluble in water and easier to manipulate in medication. To investigate the adjuvant effect of this compound, we measured the immune responses induced by co-administration of a split inactivated influenza H1N1 vaccine antigen with docetaxel.
When co-administered with docetaxel, lower dose antigen (equivalent to 10 ng HA) induced similar levels of IgG and IgG isotypes as well as HI titers to those induced by higher dose antigen (equivalent to 100 ng HA). Docetaxel promoted splenocyte responses to H1N1 antigen, ConA and LPS, mRNA expressions of cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10) and T-bet/GATA-3 by splenocytes. The enhanced immunity was associated with up-expressed microRNAs (miR-155, miR-150 and miR-146a) in docetaxel-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Docetaxel promoted similar IgE level to but alum promoted significantly higher IgE level than the control.
Docetaxel has adjuvant effect on the influenza H1N1 vaccine by up-regulation of Th1/Th2 immune responses. Considering its unique vaccine adjuvant property as well as the safe record as an anti-neoplastic agent clinically used in humans during a long period, docetaxel should be further studied for its use in influenza vaccine production.
Docetaxel; Adjuvant; Influenza; H1N1; Th1/Th2
HSV-1; herpes B virus; CeHV-2; fusion activity; entry receptor
Insects detect environmental chemicals via a large and rapidly evolving family of chemosensory receptor proteins. Although our understanding of the molecular genetic basis for Drosophila chemoreception has increased enormously in the last decade, similar understanding in other insects remains limited. The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has long been an important model for insect chemosensation, particularly from ecological, behavioral, and physiological standpoints. It is also a major agricultural pest on solanaceous crops. However, little sequence information and lack of genetic tools has prevented molecular genetic analysis in this species. The ability to connect molecular genetic mechanisms, including potential lineage-specific changes in chemosensory genes, to ecologically relevant behaviors and specializations in M. sexta would be greatly beneficial.
Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from adult and larval chemosensory tissues and identified chemosensory genes based on sequence homology. We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues.
We report identification of new chemosensory receptor genes including 17 novel odorant receptors and one novel gustatory receptor. Further, we demonstrate that systemic RNA interference can be used in larval olfactory neurons to reduce expression of chemosensory receptor transcripts. Together, our results further the development of M. sexta as a model for functional analysis of insect chemosensation.
Abnormalities of myelin integrity have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using multi-parameter maps of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, it was still unknown to what degree these abnormalities might be affected by pharmacological treatment.
To investigate whether the abnormalities of white matter microstructure including myelin integrity exist in OCD and whether they are affected by medication.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Parameter maps of DTI, including fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD), were acquired from 27 unmedicated OCD patients (including 13 drug-naïve individuals) and 23 healthy controls. Voxel-based analysis was then performed to detect regions with significant group difference. We compared the DTI-derived parameters of 15 patients before and after 12-week Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) therapies. Significant differences of DTI-derived parameters were observed between OCD and healthy groups in multiple structures, mainly within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical loop. An increased RD in combination with no change in AD among OCD patients was found in the left medial superior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal lobe, occipital lobe, striatum, insula and right midbrain. There was no statistical difference in DTI-derived parameters between drug-naive and previously medicated OCD patients. After being medicated, OCD patients showed a reduction in RD of the left striatum and right midbrain, and in MD of the right midbrain.
Our preliminary findings suggest that abnormalities of white matter microstructure, particularly in terms of myelin integrity, are primari ly located within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of individuals with OCD. Some abnormalities may be partly reversed by SSRI treatment.
AIM: To explore the expression pattern of OCT4 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its significance in diagnosis and prognosis.
METHODS: Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of OCT4 in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450, was characterized. OCT4 expression was investigated in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemically, OCT4 positive immunostaining was observed in cancer cell nuclei. OCT4 was variably expressed in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines. Among 153 specimens, 105 (68.7%) were negative or weakly positive for OCT4 staining; 21 (13.7%) were moderately positive and 27 (17.6%) were strongly positive. Higher expression level of OCT4 was significantly associated with higher histological grade (P < 0.001) and poor clinic outcome (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The expression of OCT4 enables the tumor to have a higher degree of stemness, which in turn results in a poorer clinical outcome for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; OCT4; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Western blotting
Heterocysts are specialized cells required for aerobic fixation of dinitrogen by certain filamentous cyanobacteria. Numerous genes involved in the differentiation and function of heterocysts in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 have been identified by mutagenizing and screening for mutants that require fixed nitrogen for growth in the presence of oxygen. We have verified that 10 Anabaena sp. genes, all1338, all1591, alr1728, all3278, all3520, all3582, all3850, all4019, alr4311, and all4388, identified initially by transposon mutagenesis, are such genes by complementing or reconstructing the original mutation and by determining whether the mutant phenotype might be due to a polar effect of the transposon. Elucidation of the roles of these genes should enhance understanding of heterocyst biology.
Rationale: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), occurring sporadically (S-LAM) or in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), results from abnormal proliferation of LAM cells exhibiting mutations or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the TSC genes, TSC1 or TSC2.
Objectives: To identify molecular markers useful for isolating LAM cells from body fluids and determine the frequency of TSC1 or TSC2 LOH.
Methods: Candidate cell surface markers were identified using gene microarray analysis of human TSC2−/− cells. Cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), urine, chylous effusions, and blood were sorted based on reactivity with antibodies against these proteins (e.g., CD9, CD44v6) and analyzed for LOH using TSC1- and TSC2-related microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TSC2 gene.
Measurements and Main Results: CD44v6+CD9+ cells from BALF, urine, and chyle showed TSC2 LOH in 80%, 69%, and 50% of patient samples, respectively. LAM cells with TSC2 LOH were detected in more than 90% of blood samples. LAM cells from different body fluids of the same patients showed, in most cases, identical LOH patterns, that is, loss of alleles at the same microsatellite loci. In a few patients with S-LAM, LAM cells from different body fluids differed in LOH patterns. No patients with S-LAM with TSC1 LOH were identified, suggesting that TSC2 abnormalities are responsible for the vast majority of S-LAM cases and that TSC1-disease may be subclinical.
Conclusions: Our data support a common genetic origin of LAM cells in most patients with S-LAM, consistent with a metastatic model. In some cases, however, there was evidence for genetic heterogeneity between LAM cells in different sites or within a site.
lymphangioleiomyomatosis; metastasis; loss of heterozygosity; CD9; CD44v6
Recent epidemiological investigation of different HA subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) shows that the H3 subtype is the most predominant among low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs), and the seasonal variations in isolation of H3 subtype AIVs are consistent with that of human H3 subtype influenza viruses. Consequently, the development of a rapid, simple, sensitive detection method for H3 subtype AIVs is required. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method that does not require any specialized equipment.
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect the H3 subtype AIVs visually. Specific primer sets target the sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H3 subtype AIVs were designed, and assay reaction conditions were optimized. The established assay was performed in a water bath for 50 minutes, and the amplification result was visualized directly as well as under ultraviolet (UV) light reflections. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 0.1pg total RNA of virus, which was one hundred-fold higher than that of RT-PCR. The results on specificity indicated that the assay had no cross-reactions with other subtype AIVs or avian respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, a total of 176 clinical samples collected from birds at the various live-bird markets (LBMs) were subjected to the H3-subtype-specific RT-LAMP (H3-RT-LAMP). Thirty-eight H3 subtype AIVs were identified from the 176 clinical samples that were consistent with that of virus isolation.
The newly developed H3-RT-LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, rapid and can identify H3 subtype AIVs visually. Consequently, it will be a very useful screening assay for the surveillance of H3 subtype AIVs in underequipped laboratories as well as in field conditions.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification; H3 subtype; avian influenza
The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study consisted of 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Disorders, Version 3 (CCMD-3). All participants completed a self-report measure of dissociation, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and none had a prior diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Ninety-six randomly selected participants were interviewed with a structured interview, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and a clinical interview. These 96 patients did not differ significantly from the 473 patients who were not interviewed on any demographic measures or on the self-report measure dissociation. A total of 28 (15.3%, after weighting of the data) patients received a clinical diagnosis of a dissociative disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 (0.53%, after weighting) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder, patients with dissociative disorders were significantly more likely to report childhood abuse (57.1% versus 22.1%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measures. Dissociative disorders were readily identified in an inpatient psychiatric population in China.
Abuse; Dissociation; Schizophrenia; Trauma
Proteins with leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) specialize in mediating protein-protein interactions. The hormone binding portion of the receptor for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an LRR protein by sequence, and the crystal structure of this domain from human FSH receptor in a complex with FSH shows that it does indeed have an LRR structure. It differs from other LRR domains, however, in being an all-β protein composed of highly irregular repeats and having only slight overall curvature. Despite these distinctions and a superficial resemblance to β-helical proteins, the binding domain of FSH receptor clearly is an LRR protein. The structure does consist of two parts with distinctively different curvatures. Comparison with the structures of other LRR-containing proteins shows a correlation between curvature and main-chain hydrogen bonding pattern of the parallel β-sheet. The hormone-binding site is located at the concave surface of the receptor structure, a feature common to proteins with LRR motifs. Analysis of the ligand-binding site of LRR-containing proteins reveals that they generally utilize extensive interface area and a large number of charged residues to facilitate high-affinity protein-protein interactions.
glycoprotein hormone receptors; leucine-rich repeats; β-helical proteins; β-sheet curvature; protein-protein interactions; interface area and electrostatic attractions
Paired immunoglobulin (Ig)-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα) and PILRβ are paired receptors that are highly homologous to each other. When engaged by ligand, PILRα is inhibitory whereas PILRβ is activating. PILRα is a newly identified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) receptor and is associated with membrane fusion and entry activity of HSV-1. PILRα is a 303-amino-acid protein with an Ig-like V (variable)-type domain from amino acid 31 to 150, whereas PILRβ is a 217-amino-acid protein with an Ig-like V-type domain from amino acid 21 to 143. We report that PILRβ is not a receptor for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Domain swaps between PILRα and PILRβ reveal that the Ig-like V-type domain of PILRα, but not PILRβ, plays a critical role in cell membrane fusion activity and the binding of PILRα to gB. Individual replacement of 13 amino acids in PILRα showed that most of these mutations had no effect on cell fusion activity. However, mutation of the tryptophan residue at amino acid 139 significantly impaired cell fusion activity for HSV-1 and eliminated binding to gB.
During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 ± 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.
To develop an investigative tool for the study of human osteosarcoma (OSA), we established a human OSA cell line, namely, SOSP-9607, which exhibits a potential for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis. Subsequently, we screened two related sublines (F5M2 and F4) that have different pulmonary metastatic potentials. An in vivo orthotopic transplantation assay confirmed spontaneous pulmonary metastasis in all mice (100%) transplanted with the more aggressive OSA cells (F5M2) and a lesser degree of metastases with smaller nodules in 33.3% mice transplanted with the less aggressive OSA cell subline (F4). In mice transplanted with F5M2 cells, death from metastasis occurred at a median of 71 days; however, in mice transplanted with F4, no death occurred even after 120 days. Therefore, the F5M2 and F4 sublines, which originated from the same parent cell line, differed with respect to metastasis-related properties such as proliferating ability and invasiveness. Hence, these well-characterized human OSA sublines can be used as valuable models for comparative studies of genetic determinants of OSA in the future.
Osteosarcoma; Pulmonary metastasis; Cell line; Biology properties
Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA), which is one of the most important active ingredients of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L, is widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. However, the potential protective effect of HSYA in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is still unknown.
Thirty-nine rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, I/R group and HSYA group. All animals were sacrificed after neurological evaluation with modified Tarlov criteria at the 48th hour after reperfusion, and the spinal cord segments (L4-6) were harvested for histopathological examination, biochemical analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.
Neurological outcomes in HSYA group were slightly improved compared with those in I/R group. Histopathological analysis revealed that HSYA treatment attenuated I/R induced necrosis in spinal cords. Similarly, alleviated oxidative stress was indicated by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after HSYA treatment. Moreover, as seen from TUNEL results, HSYA also protected neurons from I/R-induced apoptosis in rabbits.
These findings suggest that HSYA may protect spinal cords from I/R injury by alleviating oxidative stress and reducing neuronal apoptosis in rabbits.
AIM: To present a series of cases with life-threatening hemorrhage from ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) treated with placement of stent-grafts.
METHODS: Massive hemorrhage from ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after PD in 9 patients (6 men, 3 women) at the age of 23-75 years (mean 48 years), were treated with placement of percutaneous endovascular balloon-expandable coronary stent-grafts. All patients were not suitable for embolization because of a non-patent portal vein. One or more stent-grafts, ranging 3-6 mm in diameter and 16-55 mm in length, were placed to exclude ruptured pseudoaneurysm. Follow-up data, including clinical condition, liver function tests, and Doppler ultrasound examination, were recorded at the outpatient clinic.
RESULTS: Immediate technical success was achieved in all the 9 patients. All stent-grafts were deployed in the intended position for immediate cessation of bleeding and preservation of satisfactory hepatic arterial blood flow. No significant procedure-related complications occurred. Recurrent bleeding occurred in 2 patients at 16 and 24 h, respectively, after placement of stent-grafts and treated with surgical revision. One patient died of sepsis 12 d after the interventional procedure. The remaining 6 patients were survived when they were discharged. The mean follow-up time was 10.5 mo (range 4-16 mo). No patient had recurrent bleeding after discharge. Doppler ultrasound examination verified the patency of hepatic artery and stent-grafts during the follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Placement of stent-grafts is an effective and safe procedure for acute life-threatening hemorrhage from ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm.
Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Hemorrhage; Hepatic artery; Pseudoaneurysm; Stent-graft
Objective: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic route aspiration thrombectomy and catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. Materials and methods: During a period of 8 years, 12 patients with acute thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) were treated by transjugular intrahepatic approach. The mean age was 41.2 years. After access to the portal system via the transjugular approach, the pigtail catheter fragmentation of the thrombus, local urokinase injection, and manual aspiration thrombectomy were used for treatment of the SMV thrombosis initially, followed by continuous thrombolytic therapy via an indwelling infusion catheter in the SMV, which was performed for 2 to 6 days (4.2 ± 1.8 days). The adequacy of anticoagulation was performed during treatment, throughout hospitalization, and after discharge. Results: Technical success was achieved in all 12 patients. Substantial clinical improvement was seen in these patients after the procedure. Minor complications at the jugular puncture site were observed in 4 patients, but the thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan before discharge demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of SMV thrombosis in all patients. The 12 patients were discharged 5–10 days (7.6 ± 2.0) after admission. Mean duration of follow-up after hospital discharge was 37.7 months, and no recurrent episodes of SMV thrombosis developed during that time period. Conclusion: Catheter-directed thrombus aspiration, mechanical fragmentation, and local thrombolytic infusion via the transjugular intrahepatic route is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with acute symptomatic SMV thrombosis.
Superior mesenteric vein; Thrombosis; Thrombolysis; Mechanical thrombectomy; Interventional radiology
Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Its binding to a cellular ligand, CD99, depends on the presence of sialylated O-linked glycans on CD99. Glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to PILRα, and this association is involved in HSV-1 infection. Here, we found that the presence of sialylated O-glycans on gB is required for gB to associate with PILRα. Furthermore, we identified two threonine residues on gB that are essential for the addition of the principal O-glycans acquired by gB and that are also essential for the binding of PILRα to gB.
Glycoprotein L (gL) is one of four glycoproteins required for the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into cells and for virus-induced cell fusion. This glycoprotein oligomerizes with gH to form a membrane-bound heterodimer but can be secreted when expressed without gH. Twelve unique gL linker-insertion mutants were generated to identify regions critical for gH binding and gH/gL processing and regions essential for cell fusion and viral entry. All gL mutants were detected on the cell surface in the absence of gH, suggesting incomplete cleavage of the signal peptide or the presence of a cell surface receptor for secreted gL. Coexpression with gH enhanced the levels of cell surface gL detected by antibodies for all gL mutants except those that were defective in their interactions with gH. Two insertions into a conserved region of gL abrogated the binding of gL to gH and prevented gH expression on the cell surface. Three other insertions reduced the cell surface expression of gH and/or altered the properties of gH/gL heterodimers. Altered or absent interaction of gL with gH was correlated with reduced or absent cell fusion activity and impaired complementation of virion infectivity. These results identify a conserved domain of gL that is critical for its binding to gH and two noncontiguous regions of gL, one of which contains the conserved domain, that are critical for the gH/gL complex to perform its role in membrane fusion.
Glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of four glycoproteins essential for viral entry and cell fusion. Recently, paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILRα) was identified as a receptor for HSV type 1 (HSV-1) gB. Both PILRα and a gD receptor were shown to participate in HSV-1 entry into certain cell types. The purpose of this study was to determine whether insertional mutations in gB had differential effects on its function with PILRα and the gD receptor, nectin-1. Previously described gB mutants and additional newly characterized mutants were used in this study. We found that insertional mutations near the N terminus and C terminus of gB and especially in the central region of the ectodomain reduced cell fusion activity when PILRα was overexpressed much more than when nectin-1 was overexpressed. Most of the insertions reduced the binding of gB to PILRα, for at least some forms of gB, but this reduction did not necessarily correlate with the selective reduction in cell fusion activity with PILRα. These results suggest that the regions targeted by the relevant mutations are critical for functional activity with PILRα. They also suggest that, although both the binding of gB to a gB receptor and the binding of gD to a gD receptor may be required for HSV-induced cell fusion, the two receptor-binding activities may have unequal weights in triggering fusogenic activity, depending on the ratios of gB and gD receptors or other factors.