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1.  Functional requirements for inhibitory signal transmission by the immunomodulatory receptor CD300a 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:23.
Background
Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes.
Results
We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5’ phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity.
Conclusion
These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-23
PMCID: PMC3418551  PMID: 22537350
2.  Differential expression of CD300a/c on human TH1 and TH17 cells 
BMC Immunology  2011;12:62.
Background
Human memory CD4+ T cells can be either CD300a/c+ or CD300a/c- and subsequent analyses showed that CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells are mostly CD300a/c+, whereas CD4+ central memory T (TCM) cells have similar frequencies of CD300a/c+ and CD300a/c- cells.
Results
Extensive phenotypical and functional characterization showed that in both TCM and TEM cells, the CD300a/c+ subset contained a higher number of TH1 (IFN-γ producing) cells. Alternatively, TH17 (IL-17a producing) cells tend to be CD300a/c-, especially in the TEM subset. Further characterization of the IL-17a+ cells showed that cells that produce only this cytokine are mostly CD300a/c-, while cells that produce IL-17a in combination with other cytokines, especially IFN-γ, are mostly CD300a/c+, indicating that the expression of this receptor is associated with cells that produce IFN-γ. Co-ligation of the TCR and CD300a/c in CD4+ T cells inhibited Ca2+ mobilization evoked by TCR ligation alone and modulated IFN-γ production on TH1 polarized cells.
Conclusion
We conclude that the CD300a/c receptors are differentially expressed on human TH1 and TH17 cells and that their ligation is capable of modulating TCR mediated signals.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-12-62
PMCID: PMC3219710  PMID: 22046970
3.  Phospholipase C–mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 releases ERM proteins from lymphocyte membrane 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;184(3):451-462.
Mechanisms controlling the disassembly of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, which link the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, are incompletely understood. In lymphocytes, chemokine (e.g., SDF-1) stimulation inactivates ERM proteins, causing their release from the plasma membrane and dephosphorylation. SDF-1–mediated inactivation of ERM proteins is blocked by phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors. Conversely, reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) levels by activation of PLC, expression of active PLC mutants, or acute targeting of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase to the plasma membrane promotes release and dephosphorylation of moesin and ezrin. Although expression of phosphomimetic moesin (T558D) or ezrin (T567D) mutants enhances membrane association, activation of PLC still relocalizes them to the cytosol. Similarly, in vitro binding of ERM proteins to the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 is also dependent on PIP2. These results demonstrate a new role of PLCs in rapid cytoskeletal remodeling and an additional key role of PIP2 in ERM protein biology, namely hydrolysis-mediated ERM inactivation.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200807047
PMCID: PMC2646552  PMID: 19204146
4.  Membrane Raft-Dependent Regulation of Phospholipase Cγ-1 Activation in T Lymphocytes 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2001;21(20):6939-6950.
Numerous signaling molecules associate with lipid rafts, either constitutively or after engagement of surface receptors. One such molecule, phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLCγ1), translocates from the cytosol to lipid rafts during T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. To investigate the role played by lipid rafts in the activation of this molecule in T cells, an influenza virus hemagglutinin A (HA)-tagged PLCγ1 was ectopically expressed in Jurkat T cells and targeted to these microdomains by the addition of a dual-acylation signal. Raft-targeted PLCγ1 was constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and induced constitutive NF-AT-dependent transcription and interleukin-2 secretion in Jurkat cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of raft-targeted PLCγ1 did not require Zap-70 or the interaction with the adapters Lat and Slp-76, molecules that are necessary for TCR signaling. In contrast, the Src family kinase Lck was required. Coexpression in HEK 293T cells of PLCγ1-HA with Lck or the Tec family kinase Rlk resulted in preferential phosphorylation of raft-targeted PLCγ1 over wild-type PLCγ1. These data show that localization of PLCγ1 in lipid rafts is sufficient for its activation and demonstrate a role for lipid rafts as microdomains that dynamically segregate and integrate PLCγ1 with other signaling components.
doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6939-6950.2001
PMCID: PMC99870  PMID: 11564877
5.  Functional Independence and Interdependence of the Src Homology Domains of Phospholipase C-γ1 in B-Cell Receptor Signal Transduction 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1999;19(11):7388-7398.
B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) and PLCγ2 is crucial for B-cell function. While several signaling molecules have been implicated in PLCγ activation, the mechanism coupling PLCγ to the BCR remains undefined. The role of PLCγ1 SH2 and SH3 domains at different steps of BCR-induced PLCγ1 activation was examined by reconstitution in a PLCγ-negative B-cell line. PLCγ1 membrane translocation required a functional SH2 N-terminal [SH2(N)] domain, was decreased by mutation of the SH3 domain, but was unaffected by mutation of the SH2(C) domain. Tyrosine phosphorylation did not require the SH2(C) or SH3 domains but depended exclusively on a functional SH2(N) domain, which mediated the association of PLCγ1 with the adapter protein, BLNK. Forcing PLCγ1 to the membrane via a myristoylation signal did not bypass the SH2(N) domain requirement for phosphorylation, indicating that the phosphorylation mediated by this domain is not due to membrane anchoring alone. Mutation of the SH2(N) or the SH2(C) domain abrogated BCR-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and signaling events, while mutation of the SH3 domain partially decreased signaling. PLCγ1 SH domains, therefore, have interrelated but distinct roles in BCR-induced PLCγ1 activation.
PMCID: PMC84732  PMID: 10523627

Results 1-5 (5)