Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic that is isolated mostly from fermented foods. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of L. plantarum strain AY01, isolated from the raw material of fermented goat milk cheese. This bacterium, with optimum growth at 30°C, has a G+C content of 43.68%.
AIM: To compare efficacy of combined lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) therapy with that of entecavir (ETV) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated liver cirrhosis.
METHODS: A total of 120 naïve patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis participated in this study. Sixty patients were treated with combined LAM and ADV therapy (LAM + ADV group), while the other 60 were treated with ETV monotherapy (ETV group) for two years. Tests for liver and kidney function, alpha-fetoprotein, HBV serum markers, HBV DNA load, prothrombin time (PT), and ultrasonography or computed tomography scan of the liver were performed every 1 to 3 mo. Repeated measure ANOVA and the χ2 test were performed to compare the efficacy, side effects, and the cumulative survival rates at 48 and 96 wk.
RESULTS: Forty-five patients in each group were observed for 96 wk. No significant differences in HBV DNA negative rates and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization rates at weeks 48 (χ2 = 2.12 and 2.88) and 96 (χ2 = 3.21 and 3.24) between the two groups were observed. Hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion rate in the LAM + ADV group at week 96 was significantly higher in the ETV group (43.5% vs 36.4%, χ2 = 4.09, P < 0.05). Viral breakthrough occurred in 2 cases (4.4%) by week 48 and in 3 cases (6.7%) by week 96 in the LAM + ADV group, and no viral mutation was detected. In the ETV group, viral breakthrough occurred in 1 case (2.2%) at the end of week 96. An increase in albumin (F = 18.9 and 17.3), decrease in total bilirubin and in ALT (F = 16.5, 17.1 and 23.7, 24.8), reduced PT (F = 22.7 and 24.5), and improved Child-Turcotte-Pugh and the model for end-stage liver disease scores (F = 18.5, 17.8, and 24.2, 23.8) were observed in both groups. The cumulative rates of mortality and liver transplantation were 16.7% (10/60) and 18.3% (11/60) in the LAM + ADV and ETV groups, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Both LAM + ADV combination therapy and ETV monotherapy can effectively inhibit HBV replication, improve liver function, and decrease mortality.
Chronic hepatitis B; Decompensated liver cirrhosis; Lamivudine; Adefovir dipivoxil; Combination therapy; Entecavir
Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (pim-1) is a proto-oncogene that is linked to the development and progression of several cancers. In this study, we evaluated pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa together as an independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. The study included 343 colon cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect pim-1. Multivariate cox regression for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to calculate the weight of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa in order to obtain a Pim-1 total score (PTS) for recurrence and survival. Kaplan–Meier DFS curves and OS curves for patients with different pim-1 expression levels were compared using the log-rank test. In this study, four independent prognostic factors were identified for colon cancer patients: pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma, tumor-adjacent mucosa, as well as tumor stage. It has been established that clinical stage is an important prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. However, PTS can identify the patients who are likely to recur not only in the whole radical excision group but also within each stage of this group. Based on the results of this study we can conclude that the PTS combined with clinical staging system may be a better predictor of colon cancer patients’ prognosis than using the clinical stage system alone.
Clinical Trials Gov. Number: ChiCTR-PRCH-12002842
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is providing an opportunity to study neuropsychiatric disorders through the capacity to grow patient-specific neurons in vitro. Skin fibroblasts obtained by biopsy have been the most reliable source of cells for reprogramming. However, using other somatic cells obtained by less invasive means would be ideal, especially in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to fibroblasts, iPSCs have been developed from cord blood, lymphocytes, hair keratinocytes, and dental pulp from deciduous teeth. Of these, dental pulp would be a good source for neurodevelopmental disorders in children because obtaining material is non-invasive. We investigated its suitability for disease modeling by carrying out gene expression profiling, using RNA-seq, on differentiated neurons derived from iPSCs made from dental pulp extracted from deciduous teeth (T-iPSCs) and fibroblasts (F-iPSCs). This is the first RNA-seq analysis comparing gene expression profiles in neurons derived from iPSCs made from different somatic cells. For the most part, gene expression profiles were quite similar with only 329 genes showing differential expression at a nominally significant p-value (p<0.05), of which 63 remained significant after correcting for genome-wide analysis (FDR <0.05). The most striking difference was the lower level of expression detected for numerous members of the all four HOX gene families in neurons derived from T-iPSCs. In addition, an increased level of expression was seen for several transcription factors expressed in the developing forebrain (FOXP2, OTX1, and LHX2, for example). Overall, pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes that showed higher levels of expression in neurons derived from T-iPSCs were enriched for genes implicated in schizophrenia (SZ). The findings suggest that neurons derived from T-iPSCs are suitable for disease-modeling neuropsychiatric disorder and may have some advantages over those derived from F-iPSCs.
As a destructive fungus-like plant pathogen, the oomycete Phytophthoracapsici is unable to synthesize its own ergosterol as the potential target of fungicide cinnamaldehyde (CA). In this study, CA exerted efficient inhibitory effects on both mycelial growth (EC50=0.75 mM) and zoospore germination (MIC=0.4 mM) of P. capsici. CA-induced immediate Ca2+ efflux from zoospores could be confirmed by the rapid decrease in intracellular Ca2+ content determined by using Fluo-3 AM and the increase in extracellular Ca2+ concentration determined by using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). Blocking Ca2+ influx with ruthenium red and verapamil led to a higher level of CA-induced Ca2+ efflux, suggesting the simultaneous occurrence of Ca2+ influx along with the Ca2+ efflux under CA exposure. Further results showed that EGTA-induced decrease in intracellular Ca2+ gave rise to the impaired vitality of P. capsici while the addition of exogenous Ca2+ could suppress the growth inhibitory effect of CA. These results suggested that Ca2+ efflux played an important role in CA-induced growth inhibition of P. capsici. The application of 3-phenyl-1-propanal, a CA analog without α,β- unsaturated bond, resulted in a marked Ca2+ influx in zoospores but did not show any growth inhibitory effects. In addition, exogenous cysteine, an antagonist against the Michael addition (the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile) between CA and its targets, could attenuate CA-induced growth inhibition of P. capsici by suppressing Ca2+ efflux. Our results suggest that CA inhibits the growth of P. capsici by stimulating a transient Ca2+ efflux via Michael addition, which provides important new insights into the antimicrobial action of CA.
To correlate motor deficit with involvement of corticofugal fibres in patients with subcortical stroke. The descending motor corticofugal fibres originate from the primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal and ventral premotor area (PMdv) and supplementary motor area (SMA).
Single tertiary teaching hospital.
57 patients (57% men) with subcortical infarcts on MRI (2009–2011) were included. The mean age was 64.3±14.4 years.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
National Institute of Health Stroke Scale subscores for arm and leg motor deficit at 90 days.
An area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the volume of overlap with infarct (and M1/PMdv/SMA fibres) and motor outcome was calculated. The AUC for the association with arm motor deficit from M1 fibres involvement was 0.80 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.94), PMdv was 0.76 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.91) and SMA was 0.73 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.88). The AUC for leg motor deficit from M1 fibres involvement was 0.69 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), PMdv was 0.67 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.85), SMA was 0.66 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.84).
Following subcortical stroke, the correlations between involvement of the corticofugal fibres for upper and lower limbs motor deficit were variable. A poor motor outcome was not universal following subcortical stroke.
Rehabilitation Medicine; Stroke Medicine
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel-nedaplatin combination as a front-line regimen in Chinese patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: A two-center, open-label, single-arm phase II study was designed. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled and included in the intention-to-treat analysis of efficacy and adverse events. Patients received 175 mg/m2 of paclitaxel over a 3 h infusion on 1 d, followed by nedaplatin 80 mg/m2 in a 1 h infusion on 2 d every 3 wk until the documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or patient’s refusal.
RESULTS: Of the 36 patients assessable for efficacy, there were 2 patients (5.1%) with complete response and 16 patients (41.0%) with partial response, giving an overall response rate of 46.1%. The median progression-free survival and median overall survival for all patients were 7.1 mo (95%CI: 4.6-9.7) and 12.4 mo (95%CI: 9.5-15.3), respectively. Toxicities were moderate and manageable. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (15.4%), nausea (10.3%), anemia (7.7%), thrombocytopenia (5.1%), vomiting (5.1%) and neutropenia fever (2.6%).
CONCLUSION: The combination of paclitaxel and nedaplatin is active and well tolerated as a first-line therapy for patients with metastatic ESCC.
Esophageal squamous cell cancer; Front-line chemotherapy; Paclitaxel; Nedaplatin
Inherited thrombocytopenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a reduced number of blood platelets. Despite the identification of nearly 20 causative genes in the past decade, approximately half of all subjects with inherited thrombocytopenia still remain unexplained in terms of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we report a six-generation French pedigree with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the identification of its genetic basis. Of the 55 subjects available for analysis, 26 were diagnosed with isolated macrothrombocytopenia. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped a 10.9 Mb locus to chromosome 14 (14q22) with a LOD score of 7.6. Candidate gene analysis complemented by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a missense mutation (c.137GA; p.Arg46Gln) in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1) that segregated with macrothrombocytopenia in this large pedigree. The missense mutation occurred within actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin 1, a functionally critical domain that crosslinks actin filaments into bundles. The evaluation of cultured mutation-harboring megakaryocytes by electron microscopy and the immunofluorescence examination of transfected COS-7 cells suggested that the mutation causes disorganization of the cellular cytoplasm. Our study concurred with a recently published whole-exome sequence analysis of six small Japanese families with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, adding ACTN1 to the growing list of thrombocytopenia genes.
To understand the mechanisms of liver regeneration better to promote research examining liver diseases and marine biology, normal and regenerative liver tissues of Chiloscyllium plagiosum were harvested 0 h and 24 h after partial hepatectomy (PH) and used to isolate small RNAs for miRNA sequencing. In total, 91 known miRNAs and 166 putative candidate (PC) miRNAs were identified for the first time in Chiloscyllium plagiosum. Through target prediction and GO analysis, 46 of 91 known miRNAs were screened specially for cellular proliferation and growth. Differential expression levels of three miRNAs (xtr-miR-125b, fru-miR-204, and hsa-miR-142-3p_R-1) related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured in normal and regenerating liver tissues at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h using real-time PCR. The expression of these miRNAs showed a rising trend in regenerative liver tissues at 6 h and 12 h but exhibited a downward trend compared to normal levels at 24 h. Differentially expressed genes were screened in normal and regenerating liver tissues at 24 h by DDRT-PCR, and ten sequences were identified. This study provided information regarding the function of genes related to liver regeneration, deepened the understanding of mechanisms of liver regeneration, and resulted in the addition of a significant number of novel miRNAs sequences to GenBank.
Our previous study shows that treatment with apelin increases bone marrow cells (BMCs) recruitment and promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of apelin in BMCs improved cell therapy and accelerated cardiac repair and functional recovery in post-MI mice. Mouse myocardial infarction was achieved by coronary artery ligation and BMCs overexpressing apelin (apelin-BMCs) or GFP (GFP-BMCs) were injected into ischemic area immediately after surgery. In vitro, exposure of cultured BMCs to apelin led to a gradual increase in SDF-1á and CXCR4 expression. Intramyocardial delivery of apelin-BMCs in post-MI mice resulted in a significant increase number of APJ+/c-kit+/Sca1+ cells in the injected area compared to GFP-BMCs treated post-MI mice. Treatment with apelin-BMCs increased expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 in post-MI mice. Apelin-BMCs treatment also significantly increased angiogenesis and attenuated cardiac fibrosis formation in post-MI mice. Most importantly, treatment with apelin-BMCs significantly improved left ventricular (LV) systolic function in post-MI mice. Mechanistically, Apelin-BMCs treatment led to a significant increase in Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) expression and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Treatment of cultured BMCs with apelin also increased Notch3 expression and Akt phosphorylation. Apelin treatment further attenuated stress-induced apoptosis whereas knockout of Sirt3 abolished anti-apoptotic effect of apelin in cultured BMCs. Moreover, knockout of Sirt3 significantly attenuated apelin-BMCs-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis in post-MI mice. Knockout of Sirt3 further blunted apelin-BMCs-mediated improvement of cardiac repair and systolic functional recovery in post-MI mice. These data suggest that apelin improves BMCs therapy on cardiac repair and systolic function in post-MI mice. Upregulation of Sirt3 may contribute to the protective effect of apelin-BMCs therapy.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the enhancement patterns and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer using intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). In this Ethics Committee-approved prospective study, five hundred fifty two patients with gastric cancer who gave informed consent were examined preoperatively with CEUS. The enhancement pattern of each tumor was analyzed visually. Gross and histopathological findings on the postoperative specimens were compared with the preoperative CEUS findings. The most common CEUS pattern in differentiated gastric cancer was homogeneous enhancement, whereas heterogeneous enhancement was the most common pattern in undifferentiated gastric cancer. The proportion of heterogeneous enhancement was significantly different between the two histological subtypes (Chi- square = 146.735, P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of early heterogeneous enhancement on CEUS in diagnosing undifferentiated gastric cancer were 78.84% and 72.59% respectively. Gastric cancers with heterogeneous enhancement were more often Borrmann III and IV macroscopic types than those with homogeneous enhancement (66.56% vs. 30.80%, P<0.001), more commonly T3 and T4 depth of invasion than those with homogeneous enhancement (71.52% vs. 59.60%, P<0.05), more often showed lymphatic invasion than those with homogeneous enhancement (84.44% vs. 76.40%, P<0.05), and were less likely to receive curative gastrectomy than those with homogeneous enhancement (74.83% vs. 86.40%, P<0.005). The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were both almost perfect for assessing enhancement patterns, with Kappa values of 0.916 (P<0.001) for intra-observer and 0.842 (P<0.001) for inter-observer reproducibility. CEUS provided detailed information about tumor vascularity and contrast enhancement patterns in gastric cancer. CEUS is promising as a new and useful method to predict the histological type of gastric cancer.
Glycoconjugates at the cell surface are crucial for cells to communicate with each other and the extracellular microenvironment. While it is generally accepted that glycans are vectorial biopolymers, their information content is unclear. This report provides evidence that distinct N-glycan structures influence the spatial arrangement of two integral membrane glycoproteins, Kv3.1 and E-cadherin, at the adherent membrane which in turn alter cellular properties. Distinct N-glycan structures were generated by heterologous expression of these glycoproteins in parental and glycosylation mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Unlike the N-linked glycans, the O-linked glycans of the mutant cell lines are similar to those of the parental cell line. Western and lectin blots of total membranes and GFP immunopurified samples, combined with glycosidase digestion reactions, were employed to verify the glycoproteins had predominantly complex, oligomannose, and bisecting type N-glycans from Pro-5, Lec1, and Lec10B cell lines, respectively. Based on total internal reflection fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy techniques, and cellular assays of live parental and glycosylation mutant CHO cells, we propose that glycoproteins with complex, oligomannose or bisecting type N-glycans relay information for localization of glycoproteins to various regions of the plasma membrane in both a glycan-specific and protein-specific manner, and furthermore cell-cell interactions are required for deciphering much of this information. These distinct spatial arrangements also impact cell adhesion and migration. Our findings provide direct evidence that N-glycan structures of glycoproteins contribute significantly to the information content of cells.
Martentoxin, a 4,046 Da polypeptide toxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch, has been demonstrated to block large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels; however, its biological roles are still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of martentoxin on regulating the production of nitric oxide induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that, 1, 10 and 100 µmol/L martentoxin decreased nitric oxide production by HUVECs exposed to 10 ng/mL TNF for 6, 12 and 24 hours. We further demonstrated that martentoxin inhibited the activity of iNOS and retarded the down-regulation of eNOS mRNA induced by TNF-α. Therefore, martentoxin could be a potential therapeutic agent for vascular diseases.
martentoxin; Buthus martensiiKarsch; nitric oxide; human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)
Hybrid weakness (HW) is an important postzygotic isolation which occurs in both intra- and inter-specific crosses. In this study, we described a novel low temperature-dependent intrasubspecific hybrid weakness in the F1 plants derived from the cross between two indica rice varieties Taifeng A and V1134. HW plants showed growth retardation, reduced panicle number and pale green leaves with chlorotic spots. Cytological assay showed that there were reduced cell numbers, larger intercellular spaces, thicker cell walls, and abnormal development of chloroplast and mitochondria in the mature leaves from HW F1 plants in comparison with that from both of the parental lines. Genetic analysis revealed that HW was controlled by two complementary dominant genes Hw3 from V1134 and Hw4 from Taifeng A. Hw3 was mapped in a 136 kb interval between the markers Indel1118 and Indel1117 on chromosome 11, and Hw4 was mapped in the region of about 15 cM between RM182 and RM505 on chromosome 7, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that only LOC_Os11g44310, encoding a putative calmodulin-binding protein (OsCaMBP), differentially expressed among Taifeng A, V1134 and their HW F1. No recombinant was detected using the markers designed based on the sequence of LOC_Os11g44310 in the BC1F2 (Taifeng A//Taifeng A/V1134) population. Hence, LOC_Os11g44310 was probably the candidate gene of Hw3. Gene amplification suggested that LOC_Os11g44310 was present in V1134 and absent in Taifeng A. BLAST search revealed that LOC_Os11g44310 had one copy in the japonica genomic sequence of Nipponbare, and no homologous sequence in the indica reference sequence of 9311. Our results indicate that Hw3 is a novel gene for inducing hybrid weakness in rice.
Although laparoscopic liver resection has developed rapidly and gained widespread acceptance for the treatment of benign liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma with a small tumor size, its usefulness for the treatment of large tumors is less clear, due to concerns about compromising oncological principles and patient safety. The purpose of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic liver resection for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with a tumor size of 5–10 cm.
From March 2007 to December 2011, we performed liver resection in 275 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with a tumor size of 5–10 cm. Laparoscopic liver resection was performed in 97 patients (Lap-Hx group) and open liver resection was performed in 178 patients (Open-Hx group). Operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion rate, and length of postoperative hospital stay were compared between the two groups. Early and intermediate-term postoperative outcomes were also compared.
Only one liver resection was performed for every patient with HCC in the present study.No operative deaths occurred in either group. Nine of the laparoscopic procedures were converted to open resection (conversion rate 9.28%). There were no significant differences in mean operative time (245±105 min vs 225±112 min; P = .469), mean estimated intraoperative blood loss (460±426 mL vs 454±365 mL; P = .913), or blood transfusion rate (4.6%, 4/88) vs (2.8%, 5/178)(P = .480) between the Lap-Hx and Open-Hx groups. However, postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the Lap-Hx group than the Open-Hx group (8.2±3.6 days vs 13.5±3.8 days; P = .028). There was a lower rate of postoperative complications in the Lap-Hx group than the Open-Hx group (9% vs 30%; P = .001), but there were no severe complications in either group. The median overall follow-up time was 21 months (range 2–50 months) and the median follow-up of time of survivors was 23 months. The median follow-up time was 25 months in the Lap-Hx group and 20 months in the Open-Hx group. The follow-up rate was 95% (84 patients) in the Lap-Hx group and 95% (169 patients) in the Open-Hx group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups (P = .20). Tumor recurrence occurred in 17 patients (20%) in the Lap-Hx group and 35 patients (21%) in the Open-Hx group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups (P = .876). A total of 33 patients (13%) died during the study period, including 12 patients (14%) in the Lap-Hx group and 21 patients (12%) in the Open-Hx group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups (P = .695). There were also no significant differences in the 1-year rates of overall survival (94% vs 95%; P = .942) or disease-free survival (93% vs 92%; P = .941), or the 3-year rates of overall survival (86% vs 88%; P = .879) or disease-free survival (66% vs 67%; P = .931), between the Lap-Hx and Open-Hx groups.
Laparoscopic liver resection is safe and feasible in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with a tumor size of 5–10 cm. Laparoscopic liver resection can avoid some of the disadvantages of open resection, and is beneficial in selected patients based on preoperative liver function, tumor size and location.
An imbalance in the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is significant in the onset and progression of vascular diseases, including arteriosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Rosuvastatin, a selective inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, has pharmacological properties including the ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, slow atherosclerosis progression and improve coronary heart disease outcomes. However, little is known concerning the molecular mechanism by which rosuvastatin affects vascular cell dynamics. In this study, we studied the inhibitory role of rosuvastatin on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. MTT data showed that rosuvastatin markedly inhibited the proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs in a time-dependent manner. VSMCs are able to dedifferentiate into a proliferative phenotype in response to PDGF-BB stimulation; however, rosuvastatin effectively attenuated this phenotype switching. Moreover, we also showed that rosuvastatin significantly suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration, which may be a result of its inhibitory effect on the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9. Investigation into the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that rosuvastatin inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway by downregulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK, although the phosphorylation level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) was not altered following rosuvastatin treatment. In conclusion, the present study showed that rosuvastatin suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, indicating that rosuvastatin has the potential to become a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis and restenosis.
rosuvastatin; vascular smooth muscle cell; platelet-derived growth factor; proliferation; migration; mitogen-activated protein kinase
To reconstruct the lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells and rabbit cornea stroma in vitro using tissue engineering technology.
Human amnia taken from uncomplicated caesarean sections were digested by collagenase to obtain HAE cells, and the cells were cultured to proliferate. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were removed by n-heptanol to make lamellar matrix sheets. The second passage of HAE cells were cultured on the corneal stroma sheets for 1 or 2 days, then transferred to an air-liquid interface environment to culture for 2 weeks. Tissue engineered lamellar cornea (TELC) morphology was observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; its ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); corneal epithelial cell-specific keratin 3 and keratin 12 were detected with immunofluorescence microscopy.
HAE cells grew on the rabbit corneal stroma, forming a monolayer after 1-2 days. About 4-5 layers of epithelial cells developed after 2 weeks of air-liquid interface cultivation, a result similar to normal corneal epithelium. Rabbit corneal stromal cells were significantly reduced after one week, then almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks. TEM showed desmosomes between the epithelial cells; hemidesmosomes formed between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. SEM revealed that the HAE cells which grew on the lamellar cornea had abundant microvilli. The tissue-engineered cornea expressed keratin 3 and keratin 12, as detected by immunofluorescence assay.
Functional tissue-engineered lamellar corneal grafts can be constructed in vitro using HAE cells and rabbit corneal stroma.
amniotic epithelial cells; cornea; tissue engineering; keratin
To compare the efficacy of the sole intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT) versus intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) alone or IVB combined with IVT in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).
Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches of database and manually searching. Methodological quality of the literatures was valuated according to the Jadad Score. RevMan 5.1.0 was used to do the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was determined and sensitivity was conducted.
Six studies were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. The results of our analysis showed IVT had a statistically significant improvement in vision over the IVB at 1 month and 3 months (P<0.01). However, the reduction was not significant regarding central macular thickness (CMT) during the earlier (1 month and 3 months) follow-up period (P=0.12, P=0.41, respectively). At later visit (6 months), IVT had a significant decrease in CMT when compared to IVB (P<0.01) while no significant improvement in visual acuity (VA) was observed (P=0.14). The incidence of intraocular hypertension was 13/102 in IVT group during follow-up period while 0/103 in IVB group. The difference was significant (P<0.01). With regards to IVT versus IVB combined with IVT, there were no significant differences in CMT at 1 month (P=0.86) and 3 months (P=0.06). The incidence of intraocular hypertension was 6/67 in IVT group during follow-up period while 4/66 in IVB+IVT group. But the difference was not significant (P=0.53).
Current evidence shows IVT is superior in improving VA at earlier follow-up (1 month and 3 months) and in reducing CMT at later follow-up (6 months) for DME. At other time, it is in favor of IVT treatment but there are no statistically significances. However, IVT has the side-effect of ocular hypertension. There is no adequate evidence of the benefit adding IVB to IVT in contrast to IVT alone.
triamcinolone; bevacizumab; diabetic macular edema; meta-analysis
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway has a pivotal role in tumor suppression and yet, paradoxically, in tumor promotion. Functional context dependent insights into the TGF-β pathway are crucial in developing TGF-β-based therapeutics for cancer.
This review discusses the molecular mechanism of the TGF-β pathway and describes the different ways of tumor suppression by TGF-β. It is then explained how tumors can evade these effects and how TGF-β contributes to further growing and spreading of some of the tumors. In the last part of the review, the data on targeting TGF-β pathway for cancer treatment is assessed. This review focuses on anti-TGF-β based treatment and other options targeting activated pathways in tumors where the TGF-β tumor suppressor pathway is lost. Pre-clinical as well up to date results of the most recent clinical trials are given.
Targeting the TGF-β pathway can be a promising direction in cancer treatment. However, several challenges still exist, the most important are differentiating between the carcinogenic effects of TGF-β and its other physiological roles, and delineating the tumor suppressive versus the tumor promoting roles of TGF-β in each specific tumor. Future studies are needed in order to find safer and more effective TGF-β-based drugs.
cancer; TGF-β; tumor promotion; tumor suppression
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a unique type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs, including weight loss, fever, chills, anemia, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. The histological features of AITL are also distinctive. Pure red cell aplasia is a bone marrow failure characterized by progressive normocytic anemia and reticulocytopenia without leucopenia or thrombocytopenia. However, AITL with abdominal pain and pure red cell aplasia has rarely been reported. Here, we report a rare case of AITL-associated pure red cell aplasia with abdominal pain. The diagnosis was verified by a biopsy of the enlarged abdominal lymph nodes with immunohistochemical staining.
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma; Anemia; Pure red cell aplasia; Abdominal pain
Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) has traditionally been defined as chronic pancreatitis in the absence of any obvious precipitating factors (e.g. alcohol abuse) and family history of the disease. Studies over the past 15 years have revealed that ICP has a highly complex genetic architecture involving multiple gene loci. Here, we have attempted to provide a conservative assessment of the major genetic causes of ICP in a sample of 253 young French ICP patients. For the first time, conventional types of mutation (comprising coding sequence variants and variants at intron/exon boundaries) and gross genomic rearrangements were screened for in all four major pancreatitis genes, PRSS1, SPINK1, CTRC and CFTR. For the purposes of the study, synonymous, intronic and 5'- or 3'-untranslated region variants were excluded from the analysis except where there was persuasive evidence of functional consequences. The remaining sequence variants/genotypes were classified into causative, contributory or neutral categories by consideration of (i) their allele frequencies in patient and normal control populations, (ii) their presumed or experimentally confirmed functional effects, (iii) the relative importance of their associated genes in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis and (iv) gene-gene interactions wherever applicable. Adoption of this strategy allowed us to assess the pathogenic relevance of specific variants/genotypes to their respective carriers to an unprecedented degree. The genetic cause of ICP could be assigned in 23.7% of individuals in the study group. A strong genetic susceptibility factor was also present in an additional 24.5% of cases. Taken together, up to 48.2% of the studied ICP patients were found to display evidence of a genetic basis for their pancreatitis. Whereas these particular proportions may not be extrapolable to all ICP patients, the approach employed should serve as a useful framework for acquiring a better understanding of the role of genetic factors in causing this oligogenic disease.
The female of Sinopoda serrata (Wang, 1990) is described for the first time from Tiantangzhai National Forest Park, Hubei province, China. This species has been recorded from the region of Central China. Morphological descriptions and illustrations of this species are given.
Taxonomy; biodiversity; systematics; huntsman spiders
This study aimed to establish a minimally invasive and easily controllable focal cerebral ischemia model in rabbits using interventional techniques for use in the study of thrombolytic treatment, and to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the technique. Under the guidance of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), focal cerebral infarction was produced by blocking the middle cerebral artery with arterial emboli to establish a rabbit brain artery occlusion model. DSA and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to observe the cerebral vascular obstruction infarction, while modified Bederson scoring was used to evaluate the neurological impairment. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after surgery and brain tissues were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and pathological changes. The rabbit brain artery occlusion models were successfully established and the animals survived following embolization. Cerebral infarctions were observed in the brains of all animal models. The focal cerebral infarction rabbit model established by vascular interventional techniques is simple, minimally invasive and reliable, and may be used for early diagnosis of cerebral infarction and clinical thrombolysis studies.
acute cerebral infarction model; rabbit; digital subtraction; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; animal model
AIM: To investigate the potential roles of Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) on the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells and its molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: A recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing human DLL4 gene was constructed and transfected into the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. Clones with up-regulated DLL4 were selected and amplified. The effect of DLL4 up-regulation on gastric cancer cell growth was assessed using cell growth assay. The migration and invasion were assessed using a transwell migration assay and matrigel invasion assay. Matrix metalloproteinases were detected using the zymogram technique. Cells were implanted subcutaneously into male BALB/c nu/nu mice. Tumor volumes were then calculated and compared. DLL4 staining in the implanted tumor was performed using immunohistochemistry technique.
RESULTS: Growth curves over a six-day time course showed significantly promoted cell proliferation of SGC7901 cells with up-regulated DLL4. DLL4 up-regulation in SGC7901 cells promoted the migration (205.4 ± 15.2 vs 22.3 ± 12.1, P < 0.05) and invasion (68.8 ± 5.3 vs 18.2 ± 6.0, P < 0.05) in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo (2640.5 ± 923.6 mm3
vs 1115.1 ± 223.8 mm3, P < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly increased mRNA level and increased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) proenzyme were observed in SGC7901 cells with up-regulated DLL4. However, increased MMP-9 mRNA level but decreased extracellular MMP-9 proenzyme level was observed.
CONCLUSION: Our observations indicated a mechanism by which activation of DLL4-mediated Notch signaling promotes the expression and secretion of MMP-2 proenzyme and influences the progress of gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; Delta-like ligand 4/Notch; Matrix metalloproteinase; Migration; Invasion
Patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma exhibit poor long-term prognosis due to the lack of therapeutic strategies that effectively block tumor progression. We have previously characterized the Ms cells as a highly metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line that expresses high levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Here, we studied the effect of suppressing TGF-β1 by RNA silencing on the invasive and metastatic potential of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Cell motility, substratum adhesion and transmembrane invasion were estimated by migration, matrigel adhesion and metrigel invasion assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity were determined using gelatin gel zymography. Mice lung metastatic model was used to test the matastatic ability. Lung metastatic tumors were experimentally induced by mice tail vein inoculation of cancer cells.
TGF-β1 silencing inhibits cell motility, substratum adhesion and transmembrane invasion. In vivo, a significant decrease in lung metastasis was observed when mice received tail vein injections of TGF-β1-silenced mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, as compared to controls.
These results unveil a critical role for TGF-β1 in the progression of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and suggest that patients with this malignancy may benefit from therapeutic inhibition of the effectors of the TGF-β1 pathway.
Tumor progression; Metastasis; Salivary gland cancer; Extracellular matrix; Matrix metalloproteinase