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1.  Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes 
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.
doi:10.1155/2013/375893
PMCID: PMC3596923  PMID: 23533689
2.  High glucose concentrations induce TNF-α production through the down-regulation of CD33 in primary human monocytes 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:19.
Background
CD33 is a membrane receptor containing a lectin domain and a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) that is able to inhibit cytokine production. CD33 is expressed by monocytes, and reduced expression of CD33 correlates with augmented production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. However, the role of CD33 in the inflammation associated with hyperglycemia and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, we studied CD33 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion in freshly isolated monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia, monocytes from healthy donors were cultured with different glucose concentrations (15-50 mmol/l D-glucose), and CD33 expression and inflammatory cytokine production were assessed. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein-3 (SOCS-3) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also evaluated to address the cellular mechanisms involved in the down-regulation of CD33.
Results
CD33 expression was significantly decreased in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes, and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were detected in the plasma of patients compared to healthy donors. Under high glucose conditions, CD33 protein and mRNA expression was significantly decreased, whereas spontaneous TNF-α secretion and SOCS-3 mRNA expression were increased in monocytes from healthy donors. Furthermore, the down-regulation of CD33 and increase in TNF-α production were prevented when monocytes were treated with the antioxidant α-tocopherol and cultured under high glucose conditions.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that hyperglycemia down-regulates CD33 expression and triggers the spontaneous secretion of TNF-α by peripheral monocytes. This phenomenon involves the generation of ROS and the up-regulation of SOCS-3. These observations support the importance of blood glucose control for maintaining innate immune function and suggest the participation of CD33 in the inflammatory profile associated with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-19
PMCID: PMC3353220  PMID: 22500980
Antioxidant; Cytokines; Monocytes; ROS; Siaglec-3; Type 2 diabetes
3.  Role of Phagosomes and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II (MHC-II) Compartment in MHC-II Antigen Processing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages  
Infection and Immunity  2006;74(3):1621-1630.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides in phagosomes inside macrophages. In this study, we analyzed the kinetics and location of M. tuberculosis peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) complexes in M. tuberculosis-infected human macrophages. M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes were detected with polyclonal autologous M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells or F9A6 T hybridoma cells specific for M. tuberculosis antigen (Ag) 85B (96-111). Macrophages processed heat-killed M. tuberculosis more rapidly and efficiently than live M. tuberculosis. To determine where M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes were formed intracellularly, macrophages incubated with heat-killed M. tuberculosis were homogenized, and subcellular compartments were separated on Percoll density gradients analyzed with T cells. In THP-1 cells, M. tuberculosis Ag 85B (96- 111)-DR1 complexes appeared initially in phagosomes, followed by MHC class II compartment (MIIC) and the plasma membrane fractions. In monocyte-derived macrophages, M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes appeared only in MIIC fractions and subsequently on the plasma membrane. Although phagosomes from both cell types acquired lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) and MHC-II, THP-1 phagosomes that support formation of M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes had increased levels of both LAMP-1 and MHC-II. Thus, M. tuberculosis phagosomes with high levels of MHC-II and LAMP-1 and MIIC both have the potential to form peptide-MHC-II complexes from M. tuberculosis antigens in human macrophages.
doi:10.1128/IAI.74.3.1621-1630.2006
PMCID: PMC1418651  PMID: 16495533

Results 1-3 (3)