Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare hospital and home care employers' rankings of both the importance and the feasibility of workforce strategies for recruiting and retaining rehabilitation professionals. Methods: An online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all employers of rehabilitation professionals in Ontario hospitals (n=144) and Community Care Access Centre home care providers (n=34). Importance and feasibility rankings were based on the percentage of high ratings; 95% CIs were used to determine significant differences between hospital and home care rankings of recruitment and retention strategies. Results: The response rate was 50% (72/144) from hospitals and 73.5% (25/34) from home-care settings. The recruitment and retention strategies considered most important and feasible for rehabilitation therapists, regardless of setting, were communication between employer and worker, compensation packages, access to research, and professional development in budget planning. Tangible resources, support personnel, work safety, and marketing rehabilitation careers to high school students were ranked significantly higher by hospitals than by home care providers. Conclusions: Similarities exist between hospital and home care employers in terms of the importance and feasibility of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. However, when developing a rehabilitation health human resources plan, the strategies identified as different between hospital and home care settings should be taken into account.
health manpower; home care services; rehabilitation; personnel selection; recrutement; rétention; stratégies de ressources humaines; réadaptation; hôpitaux; soins à domicile
Specially trained physiotherapists (advanced practice physiotherapists (APP)) are working in orthopaedic clinics to improve access to orthopaedic services and support chronic disease management. Little attention has been paid to the impact APPs may have on non-surgical patients. In non-surgical patients with hip or knee arthritis consulting an APP in an orthopaedic clinic, the objectives were to: 1) describe patients’ recall of APP recommendations, use of self-management strategies, and barriers to management six weeks following consultation; and, 2) compare exercise behaviour and self-efficacy at baseline and six weeks.
This was a single group pre-and post-intervention study of patients who saw an APP when consulting the orthopaedic departments of two hospitals. At baseline and six weeks participants completed the adapted Stanford Exercise Behaviour Scale (response options: none, < 60 minutes/week, 1–3 hours/week or > 3 hours/week), and the Chronic Disease Self-efficacy Scale (range 1–10; higher scores indicate higher self-efficacy). At follow-up participants completed questions on recall of APP recommendations, use of self-management strategies and barriers to management. Seventy three non-surgical patients with hip or knee arthritis participated, a response rate of 89% at follow-up. Seventy one percent of patients reported that the APP recommended exercise, of whom 83% reported exercising to manage their arthritis since the visit. Almost 50% reported an increase in time spent stretching; over 40% reported an increase in time spent walking or doing strengthening exercises at follow-up. Common barriers to arthritis management were time, cost and other health problems. Mean chronic disease self-efficacy scores significantly improved from 6.3 to 7.2 (p < 0.001). The mean difference was 0.95 (95% CI 0.43, 1.62); the effect size was 0.51.
This pilot study of an APP intervention for non-surgical patients referred for orthopaedic consultation showed promising results, particularly for enhancing use of conservative management strategies such as exercise.
Arthritis; Physiotherapists; Advanced practice; Non-surgical; Self-management behaviours; Orthopaedics
To improve clinicians' ability to predict outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to help classify patients within clinical trials, we have created a novel prediction model relating acute clinical and imaging information to functional outcome at 1 year. Data were obtained from two large prospective SCI datasets. Functional independence measure (FIM) motor score at 1 year follow-up was the primary outcome, and functional independence (score ≥6 for each FIM motor item) was the secondary outcome. A linear regression model was created with the primary outcome modeled relative to clinical and imaging predictors obtained within 3 days of injury. A logistic model was then created using the dichotomized secondary outcome and the same predictor variables. Model validation was performed using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Of 729 patients, 376 met the inclusion criteria. The mean FIM motor score at 1 year was 62.9 (±28.6). Better functional status was predicted by less severe initial American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale grade, and by an ASIA motor score >50 at admission. In contrast, older age and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics consistent with spinal cord edema or hemorrhage predicted worse functional outcome. The linear model predicting FIM motor score demonstrated an R-square of 0.52 in the original dataset, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.52,0.53) across the 200 bootstraps. Functional independence was achieved by 148 patients (39.4%). For the logistic model, the area under the curve was 0.93 in the original dataset, and 0.92 (95% CI 0.92,0.93) across the bootstraps, indicating excellent predictive discrimination. These models will have important clinical impact to guide decision making and to counsel patients and families.
clinical prediction model; functional outcome; spinal cord injury
To define pain and physical function cutpoints that would, coupled with structural severity, define a surrogate measure of “need for joint replacement surgery,” for use as an outcome measure for potential structure-modifying interventions for osteoarthritis (OA).
New scores were developed for pain and physical function in knee and hip OA. A cross-sectional international study in 1909 patients was conducted to define data-driven cutpoints corresponding to the orthopedic surgeons’ indication for joint replacement. A post hoc analysis of 8 randomized clinical trials (1379 patients) evaluated the prevalence and validity of cutpoints, among patients with symptomatic hip/knee OA.
In the international cross-sectional study, there was substantial overlap in symptom levels between patients with and patients without indication for joint replacement; indeed, it was not possible to determine cutpoints for pain and function defining this indication. The post hoc analysis of trial data showed that the prevalence of cases that combined radiological progression, high level of pain, and high degree of function impairment was low (2%–12%). The most discriminatory cutpoint to define an indication for joint replacement was found to be [pain (0–100) + physical function (0–100) > 80].
These results do not support a specific level of pain or function that defines an indication for joint replacement. However, a tentative cutpoint for pain and physical function levels is proposed for further evaluation. Potentially, this symptom level, coupled with radiographic progression, could be used to define “nonresponders” to disease-modifying drugs in OA clinical trials.
OSTEOARTHRITIS; SEVERITY; PAIN; FUNCTION; STRUCTURE OUTCOME MEASURE
Web-based questionnaires have become popular, however, access to the Internet can be biased regarding age, gender, and education, among other factors. Therefore, it is unknown whether this is a reasonable avenue to administer a questionnaire to patients or whether Web-based can be a reliable alternative to paper-based.
We determined whether the Internet version of the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score is reproducible compared with the paper-based version and the compliance and completion rates.
Patients and Methods
The study population consisted of 81 adults who had had surgery for a musculoskeletal tumor of the lower extremity more than 12 months earlier. The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score was administered by paper at a baseline interview and then readministered via Internet 7 to 14 days later to those with access.
Sixty of the 81 patients (74%) were able to use the Internet. Increasing age and lower education levels were correlated with a lower likelihood of using the Internet. Questionnaires were done online and on paper by 56 patients but 10 were excluded because of self-reported change in circumstances. The mean TESS was 85.7 (range, 41.1–100; SD, 17.26) for the paper-based questionnaire and 85.2 (range, 42.5–100; SD, 17.47) for the Internet-based questionnaire. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97.
The questionnaire can be transferred successfully to the Internet and can be used reliably instead of a paper-based instrument. Recruitment to use an Internet-based questionnaire is limited only by the percentage of patients able to access and use the Internet.
The course and outcomes of hip fracture patients are often complicated by the presence of dementia and delirium, referred to as cognitive impairment (CI), which limits access to in-patient rehabilitation. In response to this concern, members of our team developed and piloted an in-patient rehabilitation model of care (Patient-Centred Rehabilitation Model; PCRM) targeting patients with hip fracture and CI (PCRM-CI). We are now conducting a 3-year study comparing an inpatient rehabilitation model of care for community dwelling individuals with hip fracture and CI (PCRM-CI) to usual care to determine whether it results in improved mobility at the time of discharge from inpatient rehabilitation.
A non-equivalent pre-post design is being used to evaluate the PCRM-CI compared to usual care. All community dwelling (private home or retirement home) patients following a hip fracture are eligible to participate. Recruitment of both cohorts is taking place at two facilities. Target accrual is 70 hip fracture patients in the PCRM-CI cohort and 70 patients in the usual care cohort. We are also recruiting 70 health care providers (HCPs), who are being trained to implement the PCRM-CI, and their unit managers. Patient data are collected at baseline, discharge, and 6 months post-discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation program. Evaluations include mobility, physical function, and living arrangement. Additional outcome variables are being collected from medical records and from the patients via their proxies. Data on the prevalence and severity of dementia and delirium are being collected. Staff data are collected at baseline and one year after implementation of the model to determine change in staff knowledge and attitudes toward patients with hip fracture and CI. Bi-monthly semi-structured interviews with unit managers have been conducted to examine factors and barriers influencing the model implementation. Data collection began in 2009 and is expected to be completed in 2012. The control cohort of 70 patients has been recruited, and 45 patients have been accrued to the intervention group to date.
Evaluation of this model of care is timely given the increasing proportion of persons with cognitive impairment and hip fractures.
The study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier NCT01566136.
Hip fractures; Dementia; Delirium; Cognitive impairment; Rehabilitation; Models of care; Mobility outcomes; Evaluation; Controlled investigation
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a paediatric cardiopulmonary physiotherapy (CPT) discharge tool. We report on the initial stages of its development and the tool's sensibility (face/content validity, feasibility, and ease of usage).
Methods: Using a modified Delphi technique, a panel of paediatric physiotherapy clinicians and academic leaders in the area of CPT (n=25) was recruited. Four rounds of discussion among the members of the Delphi panel focused on (1) generation of discharge items, (2) reduction of items, (3) discussion of contentious items and refinement of criterion definitions, and (4) determination of scoring options for the test instrument. The sensibility of a draft of the tool was assessed using a sample of convenience (n=15).
Results: Six items (auscultation, discharge planning, mobility, oxygen saturation, secretion clearance, and signs of respiratory distress) were identified for inclusion in the tool. The global mean of all sensibility domains was 6.4 (median=6.6) of a possible 7.0.
Conclusion: Using a modified Delphi process, we developed a six-item paediatric CPT discharge planning tool with good face and content validity. Future work will determine the scoring method for using this tool, interrater reliability, and predictive validity to facilitate optimal timing of hospital discharge for paediatric CPT patients.
cardiorespiratory physiotherapy; Delphi technique; discharge criteria; measurement; tool development; critères de congé; élaboration d'un outil; mesure; physiothérapie cardiorespiratoire; technique Delphi
There is little prior research on the burden of arthritis in the developing world. We sought to document how patients with advanced arthritis living in the Dominican Republic are affected by and cope with their disease.
We conducted semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with economically disadvantaged Dominican patients with advanced knee and/or hip arthritis in the Dominican Republic. The interviews, conducted in Spanish, followed a moderator's guide that included topics such as the patients' understanding of disease etiology, their support networks, and their coping mechanisms. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim in Spanish, and systematically analyzed using content analysis. We assessed agreement in coding between two investigators.
18 patients were interviewed (mean age 60 years, median age 62 years, 72% women, 100% response rate). Patients invoked religious and environmental theories of disease etiology, stating that their illness had been caused by God's will or through contact with water. While all patients experienced pain and functional limitation, the social effects of arthritis were gender-specific: women noted interference with homemaking and churchgoing activities, while men experienced disruption with occupational roles. The coping strategies used by patients appeared to reflect their beliefs about disease causation and included prayer and avoidance of water.
Patients' explanatory models of arthritis influenced the psychosocial effects of the disease and coping mechanisms used. Given the increasing reach of global health programs, understanding these culturally influenced perceptions of disease will be crucial in successfully treating chronic diseases in the developing world.
Purpose: To identify the educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and total knee replacement surgery.
Methods: A qualitative research design using a semi-standardized interviewing method was employed. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants, who were eligible if they were scheduled to undergo total hip or total knee replacement or had undergone total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. A comparative contrast method of analysis was used.
Results: Of 22 potential participants who were approached, 15 participated. Five were booked for upcoming total hip or total knee replacement and 10 had undergone at least one total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. Several themes related to specific educational needs and factors affecting educational needs, including access, preoperative phase, surgery and medical recovery, rehabilitation process and functional recovery, fears, and expectations counterbalanced with responsibility, emerged from the interviews.
Conclusions: Educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and knee replacement surgery encompass a broad range of topics, confirming the importance of offering an all-inclusive information package regarding total hip and total knee replacement.
educational needs; patient education; qualitative research; total hip arthroplasty; total knee arthroplasty; arthroplastie totale de la hanche; arthroplastie totale du genou; besoins éducatifs; éducation des patients; recherche qualitative
Rotator-cuff pathology is the most common cause of pain and disability in the shoulder. Examining the combined effect of biological and societal factors on disability would potentially identify existing differences between men and women with rotator cuff pathology which would help to provide suggestions for better models of care. Purpose of this study was to determine the overall differences in disability between men and women and to examine the relationship between factors that represent sex (biological factors) and gender (non-biological factors) with disability and satisfaction with surgical outcome 6 months after rotator cuff surgery.
Patients with impingement syndrome and/or rotator cuff tear who underwent rotator cuff surgery completed the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, the American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome measures prior to surgery and 6 months post-operatively. They also rated their satisfaction with surgery at their follow-up appointment.
Results and Discussion
One hundred and seventy patients entered into the study (85 men and 85 women). One hundred and sixty patients (94%) completed the 6-month assessment. Women reported more disability both prior to and after surgery. Disability at 6 months was associated with pain-limited range of motion, participation limitation, age and strength. Satisfaction with surgery was associated with level of reported disability, expectations for improved pain, pain-limited range of motion and strength.
The results of this study indicate that women with rotator cuff pathology suffer from higher levels of pre- and post-operative disability and sex and gender qualities contribute to these differences. Gender-sensitive approach will help to identify existing differences between men and women which will help to promote more effective and tailored care by health professionals.
Both primary total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty relieve pain, restore function, and increase mobility. Despite these successes, there is controversy as to whether THA or TKA provides greater or similar improvement. We therefore compared primary THA and TKA patient results in terms of (1) willingness to have surgery again; (2) WOMAC change score; (3) whether expectations were met; and (4) satisfaction. Patients undergoing primary THA were more willing to undergo their surgery again (THA 96%, TKA 89%), demonstrated greater WOMAC change scores, more frequently reported their expectations were met (THA 78%, TKA 70%), and expressed greater overall satisfaction (THA 89%, TKA 81%). In addition, patients undergoing THA expressed higher satisfaction with pain reduction while performing activities (ie, walking, stairs, and sitting/lying) and their ability to perform daily activities (ie, stairs, transportation, getting up, lying in bed, and light domestic duties) when compared with patients undergoing TKA. Our data suggest primary THA offers superior short-term outcomes when compared with primary TKA.
Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Despite substantial advances in primary TKA, numerous studies using historic TKA implants suggest only 82% to 89% of primary TKA patients are satisfied. We reexamined this issue to determine if contemporary TKA implants might be associated with improved patient satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional study of patient satisfaction after 1703 primary TKAs performed in the province of Ontario. Our data confirmed that approximately one in five (19%) primary TKA patients were not satisfied with the outcome. Satisfaction with pain relief varied from 72–86% and with function from 70–84% for specific activities of daily living. The strongest predictors of patient dissatisfaction after primary TKA were expectations not met (10.7× greater risk), a low 1-year WOMAC (2.5× greater risk), preoperative pain at rest (2.4× greater risk) and a postoperative complication requiring hospital readmission (1.9× greater risk).
Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The annual incidence of revision hip replacements has increased in both Canada and United States, particularly in younger adults. Patients following revision hip replacements often require longer hospital length of stay (LOS) but little is known about predictors of inpatient rehabilitation LOS in this group of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-demographic, pre-surgery, surgery and post-surgery related factors that might influence rehabilitation LOS of inpatients following revision hip replacements.
This study included inpatients discharged from a musculoskeletal ward between 2002 and 2006 following rehabilitation revision hip replacement. Data sources included the National Reporting System, a standardized, provincial administrative database and augmented by chart abstraction. The collected elements included the outcome LOS and the following independent variables: age, sex, support at home, environmental barriers, language barrier, number of revision surgeries on the affected hip, comorbidity, previous orthopaedic surgeries in the lower extremities (L/ES), the hip component(s) revised, weight-bearing status, hemoglobin level, complications, days lapsed from surgery to rehabilitation admission and admission scores on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Simple linear regression was used to take forward any predictors significant at p < .10 level. Variables that satisfied the significance level were grouped in blocks and entered for regression analyses.
The 275 patients in this sample had a mean age of 69 years; 62% were female and the mean LOS was 29.6 days. Statistically significant predictors of longer LOS were low admission FIM score, female sex, revision of only the femoral component, 2 or more prior surgeries in the L/Es and 2 or more hip revisions (redo revision). The final model explained 28% of variance in inpatient LOS.
A score of 9-14 points lower in admission FIM, female sex, revision of only the femoral component, prior surgeries in the L/Es and redo hip revision are all independent factors associated with 4-6 days longer LOS. These results may facilitate an understanding of bed flow. Additionally, patients with one or a combination of the above characteristics may benefit from enhanced care plans that facilitate achievement of rehabilitation goals for discharge home.
The incidence of hip fractures is increasing within the aging population. We investigated the overall rate of in-hospital mortality following hip fracture and how this mortality rate compares across academic and community hospitals.
We reviewed prospectively collected data from 17 hospitals in southern Ontario as part of a project to evaluate a new streamlined clinical care pathway developed for acute care of elderly patients with hip fractures. We collected demographic data, prefracture living status, acute care mortality and time to surgery, and we compared these data between community and academic hospitals.
Between March 2007 and February 2008, 2178 consecutive patients were admitted with a hip fracture to 13 community and 4 academic hospitals. The mean age was 79 years and 72% were women. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 5.0%, with no difference between patients treated in academic versus community hospitals (p = 0.56). We found a greater rate of acute care in-hospital mortality for patients admitted from dependent-living facilities compared with those who were living independently (risk ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.42–0.96).
Acute care in-hospital mortality following hip fractures remains high and is consistent across academic and community hospitals. With the rising incidence of hip fractures, we need to improve the models of care for these patients to reduce mortality and to maximize functional outcomes while maintaining efficient use of limited health care resources.
Despite the multitude of health challenges faced by adults living with HIV, we know of no HIV-specific instrument developed for the purpose of describing the health-related consequences of HIV, a concept known as disability. In a previous phase of research, adults living with HIV conceptualized disability as symptoms/impairments, difficulties carrying out day-to-day activities, challenges to social inclusion, and uncertainty that may fluctuate on a daily basis and over the course of living with HIV. In this paper, we describe the extent to which existing HIV-specific health-status instruments capture the experience of disability for adults living with HIV.
We searched databases from 1980 to 2006 for English language, HIV-specific, self-reported questionnaires consisting of at least two items that were tested for reliability and validity. We then conducted a content analysis to assess how well existing questionnaires describe disability as defined by the Episodic Disability Framework, a framework that conceptualizes this experience from the perspective of adults living with HIV. We matched items of the instruments with categories of the framework to evaluate the extent to which the instruments capture major dimensions of disability in the framework.
We reviewed 4274 abstracts, of which 30 instruments met the inclusion criteria and were retrieved. Of the four major dimensions of disability, symptoms/impairments were included in all 30 instruments, difficulties with day-to-day activities in 16, challenges to social inclusion in 16, and uncertainty in 9. Seven instruments contained at least 1 item from all 4 dimensions of disability (breadth) however, the comprehensiveness with which the dimensions were represented (depth) varied among the instruments.
In general, symptoms/impairments and difficulties carrying out day-to-day activities were the disability dimensions characterized in greatest depth while uncertainty and challenges to social inclusion were less well represented. Although none of the instruments described the full breadth and depth of disability as conceptualized by the Episodic Disability Framework, they provide a foundation from which to build a measure of disability for adults living with HIV.
An increasing number of individuals may be living with the health-related consequences of HIV and its associated treatments, a concept we term disability. However, the context in which disability is experienced from the HIV perspective is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to describe the contextual factors that influence the experiences of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV.
We conducted four focus groups and 15 face-to-face interviews with 38 men and women living with HIV. We asked participants to describe their health-related challenges, the physical, social and psychological areas of their life affected, and the impact of these challenges on their overall health. We also conducted two validity check focus groups with seven returning participants. We analyzed data using grounded theory techniques to develop a conceptual framework of disability for adults living with HIV, called the Episodic Disability Framework.
Contextual factors that influenced disability were integral to participants' experiences and emerged as a key component of the framework. Extrinsic contextual factors included social support (support from friends, family, partners, pets and community, support from health care services and personnel, and programme and policy support) and stigma. Intrinsic contextual factors included living strategies (seeking social interaction with others, maintaining a sense of control over life and the illness, "blocking HIV out of the mind", and adopting attitudes and beliefs to help manage living with HIV) and personal attributes (gender and aging). These factors may exacerbate or alleviate dimensions of HIV disability.
This framework is the first to consider the contextual factors that influence experiences of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. Extrinsic factors (level of social support and stigma) and intrinsic factors (living strategies and personal attributes) may exacerbate or alleviate episodes of HIV-related disability. These factors offer a broader understanding of the disability experience and may suggest ways to prevent or reduce disability for adults living with HIV.
Most joint-replacement surgeries are currently performed in community hospitals. We sought to determine whether the functional outcomes of joint-replacement surgery differ between academic and community hospitals.
We surveyed 471 patients for demographic data, Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores at baseline and at 3-month and 1-year follow-up. We assessed patient satisfaction at 1 year with a single survey question.
Community hospital patients (n = 269) were significantly older and had greater comorbidity than academic hospital patients (n = 202; p < 0.05). We found no difference in WOMAC scores, SF-36 scores or in patient satisfaction between hospitals at 1-year follow-up (p > 0.05). Adjusted analysis showed that patients undergoing surgery in an academic or community hospitals have the same functional outcomes.
There is no significant difference in the functional outcomes of joint-replacement surgery between academic and community hospitals. Further work will involve evaluating cost of care differences between these types of hospitals.
The ongoing process of population aging is associated with an increase in prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions with a concomitant increase in the demand of orthopaedic services. Shortages of orthopaedic services have been documented in Canada and elsewhere. This population-based study describes the number of patients seen by orthopaedic surgeons in office and hospital settings to set the scene for the development of strategies that could maximize the availability of orthopaedic resources.
Administrative data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and Canadian Institute for Health Information hospital separation databases for the 2005/06 fiscal year were used to identify individuals accessing orthopaedic services in Ontario, Canada. The number of patients with encounters with orthopaedic surgeons, the number of encounters and the number of surgeries carried out by orthopaedic surgeons were estimated according to condition groups, service location, patient's age and sex.
In 2005/06, over 520,000 Ontarians (41 per 1,000 population) had over 1.3 million encounters with orthopaedic surgeons. Of those 86% were ambulatory encounters and 14% were in hospital encounters. The majority of ambulatory encounters were for an injury or related condition (44%) followed by arthritis and related conditions (37%). Osteoarthritis accounted for 16% of all ambulatory encounters. Orthopaedic surgeons carried out over 140,000 surgeries in 2005/06: joint replacement accounted for 25% of all orthopaedic surgeries, whereas closed repair accounted for 16% and reductions accounted for 21%. Half of the orthopaedic surgeries were for arthritis and related conditions.
The large volume of ambulatory care points to the significant contribution of orthopaedic surgeons to the medical management of chronic musculoskeletal conditions including arthritis and injuries. The findings highlight that surgery is only one component of the work of orthopaedic surgeons in the management of these conditions. Policy makers and orthopaedic surgeons need to be creative in developing strategies to accommodate the growing workload of orthopaedic surgeons without sacrificing quality of care of patients with musculoskeletal conditions.
The word "sex" refers to biological differences between men and women. Gender refers to roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. Traditionally, treatment decisions have been based on patient's sex without including the gender. Assessment of disability secondary to musculoskeletal problems would not be complete or accurate unless potentially relevant biological and non-biological aspects of being a man or woman are taken into consideration. The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate the difference in pre-operative characteristics between men and women who were candidates for rotator cuff surgery; and, 2) assess the relationship between level of disability and factors that represent sex and factors that signify gender.
This was a cross-sectional study. The primary outcome measure of disability was a disease-specific outcome measure, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, and independent variables were sex, age, hand dominance, shoulder side involvement, BMI, co-morbidity, medication use, work status, smoking habits, strength, range of motion, level of pathology, concurrent osteoarthritis, expectations for recovery, and participation restriction. Parametric, non-parametric, univariable, subgroup, and multivariable analyses were conducted.
One hundred and seventy patients were included in the study. The mean age was 57 ± 11, 85 were females. Women reported higher levels of disability despite similar or lower levels of pathology. Scores of the WORC were strongly influenced by factors that represented "gender" such as participation restriction (F = 28.91, p < 0.0001) and expectations for improved activities of daily living (F = 5.80, p = 0.004). Painfree combined range of motion, which represented an interaction between "sex" and "gender" was also associated with disability after being adjusted for all other relevant baseline factors (F = 25.82, p < 0.0001).
Gender-related factors such as expectations and participation limitations have an independent impact on disability in men and women undergoing rotator cuff related surgery.
There is no published evidence of how patient concerns change during the first six weeks following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An understanding of the recovery process from the patient's perspective will inform clinicians on how to best educate patients about their post-operative concerns. Our objectives were to (1) quantify the level of importance for each of 32 previously identified concerns pre-operatively, and across the first six weeks following primary TKA and, (2) convey this change in importance post-operatively using the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
The objectives were achieved using a repeated measures design. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 54 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA at a hospital in Ontario, Canada. Pre-operatively and at two, four and six weeks post-operatively subjects rated the level of importance for each of the 32 previously identified patient concerns
The importance rating of patient concerns in all four ICF components changed from before surgery to two weeks after surgery. Patient concerns in the Participation component became increasingly important after the first two weeks following surgery. Post-operatively from week two to week four, changes in importance ratings were also found in the Body Function and Activity components, but not in the Environmental Factors component.
Changes in patient concerns mirror their early recovery from TKA surgery. Consistent with this, Participation restrictions become increasingly important to patients after discharge from acute care suggesting that clinicians should think of managing patient expectations for return to societal roles early in post-operative rehabilitation.
Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts.
A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions.
A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training.
Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development.
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy, in developed countries HIV increasingly is perceived as a long-term illness. Individuals may experience health-related consequences of HIV and its associated treatments, a concept that may be termed disability. To date, a comprehensive framework for understanding the health-related consequences experienced by people living with HIV has not been developed. The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptual framework of disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV.
We conducted four focus groups and 15 face-to-face interviews with 38 adults living with HIV. We asked participants to describe their health-related challenges, their physical, social and psychological areas of life affected, and impact on their overall health. We analyzed data using grounded theory techniques. We also conducted two validity check focus groups with seven returning participants.
Disability was conceptualized by participants as multi-dimensional and episodic characterized by unpredictable periods of wellness and illness. The Episodic Disability Framework consisted of three main components: a) dimensions of disability that included symptoms and impairments, difficulties carrying out day-to-day activities, challenges to social inclusion, and uncertainty that may fluctuate on a daily basis and over the course of living with HIV, b) contextual factors that included extrinsic factors (social support and stigma) and intrinsic factors (living strategies and personal attributes) that may exacerbate or alleviate disability, and c) triggers that initiate momentous or major episodes of disability such as receiving an HIV diagnosis, starting or changing medications, experiencing a serious illness, and suffering a loss of others.
The Episodic Disability Framework considers the variable nature of disability, acknowledges uncertainty as a key component, describes contextual factors that influence experiences of disability, and considers life events that may initiate a major or momentous episode. This framework presents a new way to conceptualize disability based on the experience of living with HIV.
To date, no researchers have investigated patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An understanding of patient concerns at a time when physical therapists are involved in the treatment of these patients will aid clinicians in providing patient-centered care. Linking of items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) allows for comparison and sharing of data amongst researchers, as the ICF is the accepted framework for evaluating disability in rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to identify patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary TKA and link these concerns to components of the ICF and map them to commonly used outcome measures.
Individual interviews were conducted to identify patient concerns during their recovery following primary TKA. Concerns identified by patients were analysed for content and linked to the components of the ICF using the operational definitions of the ICF components. These concerns were mapped to the WOMAC, KOOS and Oxford Knee Scale.
Thirty patients (18 female) with an average age (SD) of 68.4 (11.1) years completed the study. Patients identified 32 concerns. Twenty-two percent (n = 7) of the concerns linked to Body Function and Structure, 47% (n = 15) to Activity, 13% (n = 4) to Participation, and 13% (n = 4) to the Environmental Factors component of the ICF. Six percent (n = 2) of the concerns did not link to the ICF. Of the 32 concerns identified by patients 14 mapped to the KOOS, 11 to the WOMAC and 4 to the Oxford Knee Scale.
Patient concerns linked to four different components of the ICF indicating that patients are involved in or are thinking of multiple aspects of life even in this early phase of recovery. The KOOS was found to be the most appropriate for use based on the patients' perspective. However, less than half of the concerns identified by patients were covered by the KOOS, WOMAC or Oxford Knee Scale indicating that other existing measures that evaluate the concepts identified as important to patients should be considered when evaluating outcomes during this acute phase of recovery following primary TKA.
Modern psychometric methods based on item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop adaptive measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Adaptive assessment requires an item bank for each domain of HRQL. The purpose of this study was to develop item banks for five domains of HRQL relevant to arthritis.
About 1,400 items were drawn from published questionnaires or developed from focus groups and individual interviews and classified into 19 domains of HRQL. We selected the following 5 domains relevant to arthritis and related conditions: Daily Activities, Walking, Handling Objects, Pain or Discomfort, and Feelings. Based on conceptual criteria and pilot testing, 219 items were selected for further testing. A questionnaire was mailed to patients from two hospital-based clinics and a stratified random community sample. Dimensionality of the domains was assessed through factor analysis. Items were analyzed with the Generalized Partial Credit Model as implemented in Parscale. We used graphical methods and a chi-square test to assess item fit. Differential item functioning was investigated using logistic regression.
Data were obtained from 888 individuals with arthritis. The five domains were sufficiently unidimensional for an IRT-based analysis. Thirty-one items were deleted due to lack of fit or differential item functioning. Daily Activities had the narrowest range for the item location parameter (-2.24 to 0.55) and Handling Objects had the widest range (-1.70 to 2.27). The mean (median) slope parameter for the items ranged from 1.15 (1.07) in Feelings to 1.73 (1.75) in Walking. The final item banks are comprised of 31–45 items each.
We have developed IRT-based item banks to measure HRQL in 5 domains relevant to arthritis. The items in the final item banks provide adequate psychometric information for a wide range of functional levels in each domain.