We evaluated Toll-like receptor (TLR) function in primary human dendritic cells from 104 young (age 21–30) and older (≥ 65 years) individuals. We used multicolor flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining of myeloid (mDC) and plasmacytoid (pDC) DCs and found substantial decreases in older, compared to young individuals in TNF-α, IL-6 and/or IL-12 (p40) production in mDCs and in TNF-α and IFN-α production in pDCs in response to TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR3, TLR5, and TLR8 engagement in mDCs and TLR7 and TLR9 in pDCs. These differences were highly significant after adjustment for heterogeneity between young and older groups (e.g. gender, race, body mass index [BMI], number of comorbid medical conditions) using mixed effect statistical modeling. Studies of surface and intracellular expression of TLR proteins, and of TLR gene expression in purified mDCs and pDCs revealed potential contributions for both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in these age-associated effects. Moreover, intracellular cytokine production in the absence of TLR ligand stimulation was elevated in cells from older, compared to young individuals, suggesting a dysregulation of cytokine production that may limit further activation by TLR engagement. Our results provide evidence for immunosenescence in dendritic cells; notably, defects in cytokine production were strongly associated with poor antibody response to influenza immunization, a functional consequence of impaired TLR function in the aging innate immune response.
Many types of human tumor cells have overexpressed pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). However, the mechanism underlying this increased PKM2 expression remains to be defined. We demonstrate here that EGFR activation induces PLCγ1-dependent PKCε monoubiquitylation at Lys321 mediated by RINCK1 ubiquitin ligase. Monoubiquitylated PKCε interacts with a ubiquitin-binding domain in NEMO zinc finger and recruits the cytosolic IKK complex to the plasma membrane, where PKCε phosphorylates IKKβ at Ser177 and activates IKKβ. Activated RelA interacts with HIF1α, which is required for RelA to bind the PKM2 promoter. PKCε- and NF-κB-dependent PKM2 upregulation is required for EGFR-promoted glycolysis and tumorigenesis. In addition, PKM2 expression correlates with EGFR and IKKβ activity in human glioblastoma specimens and with grade of glioma malignancy. These findings highlight the distinct regulation of NF-κB by EGF, in contrast to TNFα, and the importance of the metabolic cooperation between the EGFR and NF-κB pathways in PKM2 upregulation and tumorigenesis.
EGFR; PKM2; PKCε; NF-κB; RelA; NEMO; IKKβ; HIF1α; monoubiquitylation; phosphorylation; glycolysis; tumorigenesis
Reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography (RP–IPC) is coupled on-line with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) through an interface comprising a four-way switch valve and an anion exchange column. Regeneration of the anion exchange column can be accomplished on-line by switching the four-way switch valve to interconnect the column to a regeneration solution. Positioning the anion exchange column between the RP–IPC and ESI–MS instruments allows the ion-pairing reagent (IPR) sodium octane sulfonate to be removed. The IPC–ESI–MS method enabled us to separate and detect four intermediates of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation. In particular, 6-hydroxydopamine, which is short-lived and highly neurotoxic, was detected and quantified. Together with the separation of other intermediates, gaining insight into the mechanism and kinetics of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation becomes possible.
Reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography; Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry; Dopamine oxidation; 6-Hydroxydopamine; Short-lived intermediates
The alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNT) is the fundamental requirement to ensure their excellent functions but seems to be desolated in recent years. A facile method, hot-press combined with peel-off (HPPO), is introduced here, through which CNT can be successfully vertically aligned on the polymeric membrane substrate. Shear force and mechanical stretch are proposed to be the main forces to align the tubes perpendicular to the substrate surface during the peel-off process. The alignment of CNT keeps its orientation in a thin hybrid membrane by dip-coating cellulose acetate dope solution. It is expected that the stable alignment of CNT by HPPO would contribute to the realization of its potential applications.
Tumour suppressor ING4 is one of ING family genes, which are involved in cell cycle arrest, gene transcription regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis. ING4 inhibition has been reported in various tumours, including gliomas, breast tumours, and stomach adenocarcinoma. The aim was to evaluate ING4 expression in lung cancers.
Method and results
By immunohistochemistry of 246 lung tumour tissues, reduced ING4 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression were both revealed in lung cancer and associated with tumour grade. Interestingly, compared with normal tissues, we found more tumours with ING4 expression in the cytoplasm higher than in the nucleus. Nuclear ING4 inhibition correlated with the tumour stage and lymph node metastasis. Consistent with these findings, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting demonstrated decreased ING4 mRNA and expression in 100% (50 / 50) tumour tissues. Furthermore, ING4 expression was lower in grade III than in grades I–II tumours. Reduced ING4 mRNA correlated with lymph node metastasis.
Our results indicate that overall inhibition of ING4 expression and ING4 expression higher in cytoplasm than in nucleus of tumour cells may be involved in the initiation and progression of lung cancers, and thus, analysis for ING4 expression may be useful as a clinical diagnostic and prognostic tool for lung cancer.
PMID: 20716169 CAMSID: cams3768
ING4 expression; lung cancer; mRNA; tumour suppressor gene
Interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-A (GABAA) receptors is recognized as an important component of the mechanism of propofol, a sedative-hypnotic drug commonly used as anesthetic. However the contribution of GABAA receptors to the central nervous system suppression is still not well understood, especially in the thalamocortical network. In the present study, we investigated if intracerebral injection of bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) into the thalamus ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM, a thalamus specific relay nuclei that innervated S1 mostly) could reverse propofol-induced cortical suppression, through recording the changes of both spontaneous and somatosensory neural activities in rat’s somatosensory cortex (S1). We found that after injection of bicuculline into VPM, significant increase of neural activities were observed in all bands of local field potentials (total band, 182±6%), while the amplitude of all components in somatosensory evoked potentials were also increased (negative, 121±9% and positive, 124±6%).These data support that the potentiation of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition in a thalamic specific relay system seems to play a crucial role in propofol-induced cortical suppression in the somatosensory cortex of rats.
Streptomyces phage φBT1 integrates its genome into the attB site of the host chromosome with the attP site to generate attL and attR. The φBT1 integrase belongs to the large serine recombinase subfamily which directly binds to target sites to initiate double strand breakage and exchange. A recombination directionality factor (RDF) is commonly required for switching integration to excision. Here we report the characterization of the RDF protein for φBT1 recombination. The RDF, is a phage-encoded gp3 gene product (28 KDa), which allows efficient active excision between attL and attR, and inhibits integration between attB and attP; Gp3 can also catalyze topological relaxation with the integrase of supercoiled plasmids containing a single excision site. Further study showed that Gp3 could form a dimer and interact with the integrase whether it bound to the substrate or not. The synapse formation of attL or attR alone with integrase and Gp3 showed that synapsis did not discriminate between the two sites, indicating that complementarity of central dinucleotides is the sole determinant of outcome in correct excision synapses. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo evidence support that the RDFs of φBT1 and φC31 were fully exchangeable, despite the low amino acid sequence identity of the two integrases.
The presence of diabetes and plasma glucose concentration on admission are associated with adverse outcomes after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), as high glucose can induce vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. This study explored the relative associations among admission plasma glucose level, soluble Fas (sFas) concentration, and long-term survival in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
This prospective cohort study include 83 patients with acute STEMI. Based on their admission plasma glucose levels (7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L as the limits for low and high levels, respectively), patients were allocated into one of three groups: normal glucose (n = 33), median glucose (n = 24), and high glucose (n = 26). The admission plasma level of sFas was measured with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients were followed up for an average of 89 ± 20 months for all causes of death and cardiovascular death.
sFas levels were significantly higher in the high glucose group compared to the normal glucose group (5.87 ± 1.70 mmol/L vs. 3.07 ± 0.93 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). The sFas level was positively associated with the admission plasma glucose level. The correlation coefficient (R) was 0.747, and R2 was 0.559. Mortality was significantly higher in the high glucose group compared to the normal glucose group (19.2% vs. 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.05).
In patients with acute STEMI, plasma glucose level was high on admission, and sFas apoptosis levels were increased. Long-term follow-up revealed that a high admission plasma glucose level was associated with higher mortality compared to a normal admission glucose level.
Myocardial infarction; Glucose; Apoptosis; Mortality
The involvement of platelets in tumor progression is well recognized. The depletion of circulating platelets or pharmacologic inhibitors of platelet activation decreases the metastatic potential of circulating tumor cells in metastasis mouse models. The platelet ADP receptor P2Y12 amplifies the initial hemostatic responses activated by a variety of platelet agonists and stabilizes platelet aggregation, playing a crucial role in granule secretion, integrin activation and thrombus formation. However, the relationship between P2Y12 and tumor progression is not clear. In our study, the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) spontaneous metastatic mouse model was used to evaluate the role of P2Y12 in metastasis. The results demonstrated that P2Y12 deficiency significantly reduced pulmonary metastasis. Further studies indicated that P2Y12 deficiency diminished the ability of LLC cells to induce platelet shape change and release of active TGFβ1 by a non-contact dependent mechanism resulting in a diminished, platelet-induced EMT-like transformation of the LLC cells, and that transformation probably is a prerequisite of LLC cell metastasis. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated an obvious P2Y12 deficiency related attenuation of recruitment of VEGFR1+ bone marrow derived cell clusters, and extracellular matrix fibronectin deposition in lungs, which presumably are required for pre-metastatic niche formation. In contrast to the LLC cells, non-epithelial melanoma B16 cells induced platelet aggregation in a cell number and P2Y12-dependent manner. Also, a platelet induced EMT-like transformation of B16 cells is dependent on P2Y12. In agreement with the LLC cell model, platelet P2Y12 deficiency also results in significantly less lung metastasis in the B16 melanoma experimental metastasis model. These results demonstrate that P2Y12 is a safe drug target for anti-thrombotic therapy, and that P2Y12 may serve as a new target for inhibition of tumor metastasis.
Urinary function can be protected following open lateral node dissection (LND) with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) for advanced rectal cancer. However data regarding urinary function after laparoscopic LND with PANP have not been reported. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of laparoscopic LND with PANP on urinary function in male patients with rectal cancer.
Urine flowmetry was performed using an Urodyn flowmeter. Patients were also asked to complete the standardized International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire before surgery and 6 months after. In total, this study consisted of 60 males with advanced rectal cancer.
No significant differences were seen in maximal urinary flow rate, voided volume or residual volume before and after surgery. The total IPSS score increased significantly after surgery and at least 41 patients (68.3%) reported there was no change in one of the seven IPSS questions.
Laparoscopic LND with PANP was relatively safe in preserving urinary function.
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary tumor of the central nervous system. The drug temozolomide (TMZ) prolongs lifespan in many glioblastoma patients. The sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to TMZ is interfered by many factors, such as the expression of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and activation of AKT signaling. We have recently identified the interaction between netrin-4 (NTN4) and integrin beta-4 (ITGB4), which promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation via activating AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. In the current work we have explored the effect of NTN4/ITGB4 interaction on TMZ induced glioblastoma cell senescence. We report here that the suppression of either ITGB4 or NTN4 in glioblastoma cell lines significantly enhances cellular senescence. The sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ was primarily determined by the expression of MGMT. To omit the effect of MGMT, we concentrated on the cell lines devoid of expression of MGMT. NTN4 partially inhibited TMZ induced cell senescence and rescued AKT from dephosphorylation in U251MG cells, a cell line bearing decent levels of ITGB4. However, addition of exogenous NTN4 displayed no significant effect on TMZ induced senescence rescue or AKT activation in U87MG cells, which expressed ITGB4 at low levels. Furthermore, overexpression of ITGB4 combined with exogenous NTN4 significantly attenuated U87MG cell senescence induced by TMZ. These data suggest that NTN4 protects glioblastoma cells from TMZ induced senescence, probably via rescuing TMZ triggered ITGB4 dependent AKT dephosphorylation. This suggests that interfering the interaction between NTN4 and ITGB4 or concomitant use of the inhibitors of the AKT pathway may improve the therapeutic efficiency of TMZ.
To perform a meta-analysis exploring the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and tumor cellularity in patients.
Materials and Methods
We searched medical and scientific literature databases for studies discussing the correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients. Only studies that were published in English or Chinese prior to November 2012 were considered for inclusion. Summary correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate potential heterogeneity.
Of 189 studies, 28 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 729 patients. The pooled r for all studies was −0.57 (95% CI: −0.62, −0.52), indicating notable heterogeneity (P<0.001). After the sensitivity analysis, two studies were excluded, and the pooled r was −0.61 (95% CI: −0.66, −0.56) and was not significantly heterogeneous (P = 0.127). Regarding tumor type subgroup analysis, there were sufficient data to support a strong negative correlation between the ADC and cellularity for brain tumors. There was no notable evidence of publication bias.
There is a strong negative correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients, particularly in the brain. However, larger, prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings in other cancer types.
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that autoantibodies against M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2-AAB) are associated with severe preeclampsia and increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.
We conducted a case–control study comparing 60 women with severe preeclampsia to 60 women with normal pregnancy and 60 non-pregnant controls. A peptide, corresponding to amino acid sequences of the second extracellular loops of the M2 receptor, was synthesized as antigen to test for the presence of autoantibodies, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency and titer of M2-AAB were compared in the 3 groups. The risk of adverse perinatal outcomes among women with severe preeclampsia in the presence of M2-AAB was estimated.
M2-AAB were positive in 31.7% (19/60) of patients with severe preeclampsia, in 10.0% (6/60) (p = 0.006) of normal pregnant women and in 8.3% (5/60) (p = 0.002) of non-pregnant controls. The presence of M2-AAB was associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy complications (OR, 3.6; 95%CI, 1.0-12.6; p = 0.048), fetal growth restriction (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 2.0-23.0; p = 0.002), fetal distress (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.7-26.6; p = 0.007), low Apgar score (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4-20.7; p = 0.017), and perinatal death (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0-17.6; p = 0.044) among women with severe preeclampsia.
This study demonstrates, for the first time, an increase in M2-AAB in patients with severe preeclampsia. Women with severe preeclampsia who are M2-AAB positive are at increased risk for neonatal mortality and morbidity. We posit that M2-AAB may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia.
Pregnancy; Hypertension; Antibodies
Autoantibodies specific to the angiotensin II type I receptor (anti-AT1-AR) have been implicated in the pathology of congestive heart failure (CHF). Anti-AT1-AR may be associated with left ventricular function in CHF patients treated with perindopril.
Synthetic angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) peptides served as the target antigen. ELISA was used to screen the sera of 156 CHF patients, which were divided into positive and negative groups based on their anti-AT1-AR reactivity. Echocardiography and a 6-minute walk test were performed at baseline and after one year of perindopril therapy. The end-point events were compared over a 5-year follow-up.
Final analysis covered 138 patients, including 82 positive and 56 negative. The frequency and geometric mean titre of anti-AT1-AR were significantly lower in the positive group after one year of treatment (all P < 0.01, from 100% to 73.2% and from 1:125.3 ± 1.0 to 1:69.2 ± 1.1). Of these, 22 patients showed no antibodies. Both groups showed improvement in left ventricular end-diastole, end-systolic dimensions, ejection fraction, and a 6-minute walk test by perindopril in combination with standard treatment regime for one year (all P < 0.01). However, the 82 patients positive for anti-AT1-AR showed more pronounced improvement than the 56 negative patients (all P < 0.05). However, after 5 years of follow-up, the rate of all causes and cardiovascular mortality attributable to any cause and the re-hospitalisation rate showed no significant differences between the two groups (all P > 0.05).
Perindopril treatment significantly decreased the frequency and geometric mean titre in patients positive for anti-AT1-AR, even to complete ablation. These patients showed greater improvement in left ventricular remodeling and heart function than negative that in patients after one year of perindopril treatment in combination with standard treatment, but no significant differences in endpoint events were observed in the following 5 years. Anti-AT1-AR might be a useful biomarker of over-activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for clinical medication.
Anti-AT1-AR; Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; Biomarker
Burn-induced gut dysfunction plays an important role in the development of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is critical in paracelluar barrier functions via regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. Previous studies have also demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can repress HIF-1α. This study aims to examine whether valproic acid (VPA), a HDACI, protects against burn-induced gut barrier dysfunction via repressing HIF-1α-dependent upregulation of VEGF and MLCK expression.
Rats were subjected to third degree 55% TBSA burns and treated with/ without VPA (300mg/kg). Intestinal barrier dysfunction was evaluated by permeability of intestinal mucosa to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and histologic evaluation. Histone acetylation, tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), VEGF, MLCK and HIF-1α were measured. In addition, CaCO2 cells were transfected with siRNA directed against HIF-1α and were stimulated with CoCl2 (1mM) for 24 hours with/without VPA (2mM) followed by analysis of HIF-1α, MLCK, VEGF and ZO-1.
Burn insults resulted in a significant increase in intestinal permeability and mucosal damage, accompanied by a significant reduction in histone acetylation, ZO-1, upregulation of VEGF, MLCK expression, and an increase in HIF-1α accumulation. VPA significantly attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability, mucosa damage, histone deacetylation and changes in ZO-1 expression. VPA also attenuated the increased VEGF, MLCK and HIF-1α protein levels. VPA reduced HIF-1α, MLCK and VEGF production and prevented ZO-1 loss in CoCl2-stimulated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, transfection of siRNA directed against HIF-1α led to inhibition of MLCK and VEGF production, accompanied by upregulation of ZO-1.
These results indicate that VPA can protect against burn-induced gut barrier dysfunction. These protective effects may be due to its inhibitory action on HIF-1α, leading to a reduction in intestinal VEGF and MLCK expression and minimizing ZO-1 degradation.
To determine whether enzyme therapy with imiglucerase/alglucerase demonstrates dose-response relationships with doses and disease parameters used in routine clinical practice for Gaucher disease type 1 patients.
Analyses included all patients with Gaucher disease type 1 on enzyme therapy and with intact spleens in the large observational database of the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry. Propensity scoring was used to match patients between enzyme therapy dose groups categorized as Group A (5 U to <29 U/kg/2 weeks), Group B (29 U to <48 U/kg/2 weeks), Group C (48 U to <75 U/kg/2 weeks). Hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and hepatic and splenic volumes were assessed after initiation of enzyme therapy using nonlinear mixed effects models. The maximal effect (Emax) and half-time to Emax (T50) of enzyme therapy for each parameter were compared across dosing groups.
Propensity score matching resulted in three comparable groups of 122 patients each (enzyme therapy in Groups A, B, and C). Dose-response relationships were found with regard to Emax and T50 over 96 months for each disease parameter.
Enzyme therapy with imiglucerase/alglucerase displays a dose-dependent improvement in hematological and visceral parameters in Gaucher disease type 1 patients. Group C displayed greater treatment effects than Groups A or B. Propensity score matching and nonlinear mixed effects model analyses provide a prototype for assessment of treatment outcomes based on observational data from international rare disease registries.
propensity scoring; inborn errors of metabolism; lysosomal storage disease; sphingolipids
Tidal (12.4 hr) cycles of behavior and physiology adapt intertidal organisms to temporally complex coastal environments, yet their underlying mechanism is unknown. However, the very existence of an independent “circatidal” clock has been disputed, and it has been argued that tidal rhythms arise as a submultiple of a circadian clock, operating in dual oscillators whose outputs are held in antiphase i.e., ∼12.4 hr apart.
We demonstrate that the intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra (Leach) exhibits robust tidal cycles of swimming in parallel to circadian (24 hr) rhythms in behavioral, physiological and molecular phenotypes. Importantly, ∼12.4 hr cycles of swimming are sustained in constant conditions, they can be entrained by suitable stimuli, and they are temperature compensated, thereby meeting the three criteria that define a biological clock. Unexpectedly, tidal rhythms (like circadian rhythms) are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of Casein kinase 1, suggesting the possibility of shared clock substrates. However, cloning the canonical circadian genes of E. pulchra to provide molecular markers of circadian timing and also reagents to disrupt it by RNAi revealed that environmental and molecular manipulations that confound circadian timing do not affect tidal timing. Thus, competent circadian timing is neither an inevitable nor necessary element of tidal timekeeping.
We demonstrate that tidal rhythms are driven by a dedicated circatidal pacemaker that is distinct from the circadian system of E. pulchra, thereby resolving a long-standing debate regarding the nature of the circatidal mechanism.
•The intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra exhibits circadian and tidal phenotypes•We have cloned and characterized the canonical circadian factors of Eurydice•While sensitive to CK1 inhibition, circadian and tidal clocks can be dissociated•Eurydice has a dedicated circatidal clock independent of its circadian clock
Objective: Information regarding the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is important for understanding the functional abnormalities of the gut. Because fertilized chicken eggs provide easy access to embryos, chicken models have been widely used to study embryonic development of myenteric plexus; however, no study has been focused on the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of developing chickens in the postnatal period. Methods: Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were made in 7-d, 15-d, and 40-d old (adult) chickens of either sex (n=15). The myenteric plexus was studied after nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry using light microscopy, digital photography, and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The numbers of positively stained neurons and ganglia were counted in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, and colon in the different age groups. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD), and statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: The positively stained neurons showed various morphologies and staining intensities, and formed bead-shaped and U-shaped arrangements in the myenteric plexus. The densities of neurons and ganglia increased with age. However, the number of positive neurons per ganglion increased. The number of NADPH-d-positive neurons was highest in the colon, followed by the ileum, the jejunum, the duodenum, and the caeca in all age groups. Conclusions: Developmental changes in the myenteric plexus of chickens continue in the postnatal period, indicating that the maturation process of the gastrointestinal function is gradual. In addition, no significant difference is happening among different intestinal segments during postnatal development, suggesting that the function of different intestinal segments had been determined after birth.
NADPH-d histochemistry; Enteric nervous system (ENS); Development; Myenteric plexus; Chicken
We propose in this paper a biosensor scheme based on coupled plasmon-waveguide resonance (CPWR) excited fluorescence spectroscopy. A symmetrical structure that offers higher surface electric field strengths, longer surface propagation lengths and depths is developed to support guided waveguide modes for the efficient excitation of fluorescence. The optimal parameters for the sensor films are theoretically and experimentally investigated, leading to a detection limit of 0.1 nM (for a Cy5 solution). Multiplex analysis possible with the fluorescence detection is further advanced by employing the hyperspectral fluorescence technique to record the full spectra for every pixel on the sample plane. We demonstrate experimentally that highly overlapping fluorescence (Cy5 and Dylight680) can be distinguished and ratios of different emission sources can be determined accurately. This biosensor shows great potential for multiplex detections of fluorescence analytes.
CPWR excited fluorescence; hyperspectral fluorescence analysis; multi-channel
The aim of this study was to detect the expression of microRNA-200c and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the mesothelial cells of the peritoneal dialysate effluent fluid of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and to investigate the association between microRNA-200c and peritoneal mesothelial cell EMT. Twelve patients who had recently started continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD start group) and 16 patients who had been undergoing peritoneal dialysis for >6 months (PD >6 months group) were randomly chosen for the isolation, culture and identification of effluent cells. qPCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of microRNA-200c and the levels of four cellular marker proteins, E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin (FN) and COL-1, in effluent cells. The results showed that the effluent cells in peritoneal dialysis were peritoneal mesothelial cells. The level of E-cadherin protein expression was significantly lower in the PD >6 months group than in the PD start group, while vimentin, FN and COL-1 protein expression levels were significantly increased in the PD >6 months group. microRNA-200c in the PD >6 months group was significantly downregulated. The E-cadherin protein expression level was significantly decreased and vimentin, FN and COL-1 protein expression levels were significantly increased in the PD >6 months group. The level of microRNA-200c was significantly reduced in the PD > 6 months group, suggesting that microRNA-200c may be associated with EMT.
peritoneal dialysis; peritoneal fibrosis; microRNA-200c
DYT1 dystonia, a common and severe primary dystonia, is caused by a 3-bp deletion in TOR1A which encodes torsinA, a protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Several cellular functions are altered by the mutant protein, but at a systems level the link between these and the symptoms of the disease is unclear. The most effective known therapy for DYT1 dystonia is use of anticholinergic drugs. Previous studies have revealed that in mice, transgenic expression of human mutant torsinA under a non-selective promoter leads to abnormal function of striatal cholinergic neurons. To investigate what pathological role torsinA plays in cholinergic neurons, we created a mouse model in which the Dyt1 gene, the mouse homolog of TOR1A, is selectively deleted in cholinergic neurons (ChKO animals). These animals do not have overt dystonia, but do have subtle motor abnormalities. There is no change in the number or size of striatal cholinergic cells or striatal acetylcholine content, uptake, synthesis, or release in ChKO mice. There are, however, striking functional abnormalities of striatal cholinergic cells, with paradoxical excitation in response to D2 receptor activation and loss of muscarinic M2/M4 receptor inhibitory function. These effects are specific for cholinergic interneurons, as recordings from nigral dopaminergic neurons revealed normal responses. Amphetamine stimulated dopamine release was also unaltered. These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of Dyt1 deletion on striatal cholinergic function. Therapies directed at modifying the function of cholinergic neurons may prove useful in the treatment of the human disorder.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or disease of small airways. It has been reported that the genetic variation may play a role in the development and severity of COPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in interleukin (IL)-12A and IL-12B were associated with COPD in a Chinese population. The IL-12A rs2243115 and IL-12B rs3212227 polymorphisms were genotyped by performing polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 298 patients with COPD and 346 healthy controls. We observed that the frequencies of GT and GT+GG of IL-12A rs2243115 were significantly different from TT in the COPD group and the control group (GT vs. TT: odds ratio [OR]=2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55–3.57, p<0.001; GT+GG vs. TT: OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.63–3.71, p<0.001). These data suggest that the IL-12A rs2243115 polymorphism may contribute to genetic susceptibility to COPD in a Chinese population.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused by both environmental factors (such as smoking) and underlying genetic polymorphisms. In this article, a role of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-12, is shown to be associated with the risk of disease.
Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) coordinates the cardiac contraction cycle and is dysregulated in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Treatment with triethylenetetramine (TETA), a divalent-copper-selective chelator, improves cardiac structure and function in patients and rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the molecular basis of this action is uncertain. Here, we used TETA to probe potential linkages between left-ventricular (LV) copper and Ca2+ homeostasis, and cardiac function and structure in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
We treated streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a TETA-dosage known to ameliorate LV hypertrophy in patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy. Drug treatment was begun either one (preventative protocol) or eight (restorative protocol) weeks after diabetes induction and continued thereafter for seven or eight weeks, respectively. Total copper content of the LV wall was determined, and simultaneous measurements of intracellular calcium concentrations and isometric contraction were made in LV trabeculae isolated from control, diabetic and TETA-treated diabetic rats.
Total myocardial copper levels became deficient in untreated diabetes but were normalized by TETA-treatment. Cardiac contractility was markedly depressed by diabetes but TETA prevented this effect. Neither diabetes nor TETA exerted significant effects on peak or resting [Ca2+]i. However, diabetic rats showed extensive cardiac remodelling and decreased myofibrillar calcium sensitivity, consistent with observed increases in phosphorylation of troponin I, whereas these changes were all prevented by TETA.
Diabetes causes cardiomyopathy through a copper-mediated mechanism that incorporates myocardial copper deficiency, whereas TETA treatment prevents this response and maintains the integrity of cardiac structure and myofibrillar calcium sensitivity. Altered calcium homeostasis may not be the primary defect in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Rather, a newly-described copper-mediated mechanism may cause this disease.
Copper homeostasis; Calcium homeostasis; Anti-oxidant defence; Cardiac contraction; Cardiovascular disease; Copper deficiency; Copper excess; Cardiomyopathy; Diabetes mellitus; Essential trace nutrient; Experimental therapeutics; Left-ventricular dysfunction; Left-ventricular remodelling; Calcium responsiveness; Myocardium; Myocardial calcium sensitivity; QT interval; Triethylenetetramine; Troponin
How to resect the caudate lobe safely is a major challenge to current liver surgery which requires further study.
Nine cases (6 hepatic cell carcinoma, 2 cavernous hemangioma and 1 intrahepatic cholangiocacinoma) were performed using the anterior transhepatic approach in the isolated complete caudate lobe resection. During the operation, we used the following techniques: the intraoperative routine use of Peng’s multifunction operative dissector (PMOD), inflow and outflow of hepatic blood control, low central venous pressure and selective use of liver hanging maneuver.
There were no perioperative deaths observed after the operation. The median operating time was 230 ± 43.6 minutes, the median intraoperative blood loss was 606.6 ± 266.3 ml and the median length of postoperative hospital stay was 12.6 ± 2.9 days. The incidence of complications was 22.22% (2/9).
PMOD and “curettage and aspiration” technique can be of great help of in the dissection of vessels and parenchyma, clearly making caudate lobe resection safer, easier and faster.