Cathepsin D (CD) plays an important role in both biological and pathological processes, although the cleavage characteristics and substrate selection of CD have yet to be fully explored. We employed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the CD cleavage sites in bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the hydrophobic residues at P1 were not only a preferential factor for CD cleavage but that the hydrophobicity at P1’ also contributed to CD recognition. The concept of hydrophobic scores of neighbors (HSN) was proposed to describe the hydrophobic microenvironment of CD recognition sites. The survey of CD cleavage characteristics in several proteins suggested that the HSN was a sensitive indicator for judging the favorable sites in peptides for CD cleavage, with HSN values of 0.5–1.0 representing a likely threshold. Ovalbumin (OVA), a protein resistant to CD cleavage in its native state, was easily cleaved by CD after denaturation, and the features of the cleaved peptides were quite similar to those found in BSA, where a higher HSN value indicated greater cleavability. We further conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to find more proteins that were insensitive to CD cleavage in CD-knockdown cells. Based on an analysis of secondary and three-dimensional structures, we postulated that intact proteins with a structure consisting of all α-helices would be relatively accessible to CD cleavage.
Our previous study has found that the abundance of peritumoral CD68+ macrophages was associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection. However, CD68 staining could not discriminate the protumoral or tumoricidal subpopulations from pan-macrophages. CD163 is a marker of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, the clinical significance of CD163+ cells in tumors and peritumoral liver tissues was evaluated in a cohort of 295 patients with HCC after curative resection. We found that the density of CD163+ cells was well correlated with that of CD68+ cells in both tumors and peritumoral liver tissues but was much more. Immunostaining on consecutive sections and flow cytometry assay on surgical resected specimens further supported the findings that the CD163+ cells was more abundant than CD68+ cells. The density of peritumoral CD68+ cells was associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively), whereas the CD163+ cells have no prognostic values either in tumors or in peritumoral liver tissues. In another cohort of 107 HCC patients, preoperative plasma concentration of soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) was associated with active hepatitis-related factors but not associated with the markers of tumor invasion. In conclusion, both the CD163+ cells local infiltration and plasma sCD163 were of limited significance in HCC, and they were more likely markers related to active hepatitis rather than tumor progression.
Interferon (IFN)-α is effective in inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biologic mechanisms of IFN-α treatment in lung metastasis are not yet clear.
The effect of IFN-α treatment was studied by using an orthotopic xenograft model and measuring tumor size and lung metastasis. Pretreatment with IFN-α before implantation of tumor was done to explore the effect of IFN-α on lung tissues. Cytokines and macrophages were measured by immunohistochemistry and/or PCR assay, using human origin or mouse origin primers to differentiate the sources. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were also assayed by flow cytometry.
IFN-α treatment did not decrease the number of CTCs (0.075%±0.020% versus 0.063%±0.018%, P = 0.574, IFN-α–treated versus control groups), but did decrease the number and size of lung metastasis (number: 1.75±1.0 versus 28.0±6.3, P = 0.008; size [pixels]: 116.8±72.2 versus 5226.4±1355.7, P = 0.020), and inhibited macrophage infiltration (0.20%±0.04% versus 1.36%±0.21%, P = 0.0058) and alteration of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression (mean integrated optical density (IOD): 5.1±1.7 versus 21.9±0.4, P<0.000) in the lung, which was independent of the primary tumor.
IFN-α inhibited lung metastasis by directly modulating the lung microenvironment.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common endocrine form of secondary hypertension, and one of the most common subtypes of sporadic PA is aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Recently, two somatic mutations of the KCNJ5 gene were implicated in APA, and two germline mutations were associated with familial hyperaldosteronism III.
This case-control study was designed to investigate the relationship between genetic variations in the KCNJ5 gene and sporadic PA patients in Xinjiang, China.
Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the KCNJ5 gene (rs6590357, rs4937391, rs3740835, rs2604204, and rs11221497) were detected in patients with sporadic PA (n = 235) and essential hypertension (EH; n = 913) by the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method.
The EH group and the PA group showed significant differences in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of rs4937391 and rs2604204 in total and male subjects (P<0.05), as well as rs3740835 in male subjects (P<0.05). However, only the association between the rs2604204 genotype and male sporadic PA remained significant after Bonferroni’s correction (P<0.01). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the CC genotype of rs2604204 was a risk factor for male patients with sporadic PA, after adjusting for age and body mass index (odds ratio = 2.228, 95% CI: 1.300–3.819, P = 0.004).
The genetic variant rs2604204 of KCNJ5 is associated with sporadic PA in Chinese males, suggesting that KCNJ5 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic PA in these particular patients.
The core protein (HBc) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated in the malignant transformation of chronically-infected hepatocytes and displays pleiotropic functions, including RNA- and DNA-binding activities. However, the mechanism by which HBc interacts with the human genome to exert effects on hepatocyte function remains unknown. This study investigated the distribution of HBc binding to promoters in the human genome and evaluated its effects on the related genes’ expression.
Whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray (ChIP-on-chip) analysis was used to identify HBc-bound human gene promoters. Gene Ontology and pathway analyses were performed on related genes. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was used to verify ChIP-on-chip results. Five novel genes were selected for luciferase reporter assay evaluation to assess the influence of HBc promoter binding. The HBc antibody immunoprecipitated approximately 3100 human gene promoters. Among these, 1993 are associated with known biological processes, and 2208 regulate genes with defined molecular functions. In total, 1286 of the related genes mediate primary metabolic processes, and 1398 encode proteins with binding activity. Sixty-four of the promoters regulate genes related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and 41 regulate Wnt/beta-catenin pathway genes. The reporter gene assay indicated that HBc binding up-regulates proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (SRC), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (NTRK2), and down-regulates v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene (HRAS).
HBc has the ability to bind a large number of human gene promoters, and can disrupt normal host gene expression. Manipulation of the transcriptional profile in HBV-infected hepatocytes may represent a key pathogenic mechanism of HBV infection.
Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis B core protein; Chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray; ChIP-on-chip; Gene expression; DNA-protein interaction
Postoperative interferon-α(IFN-α) treatment delays hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) recurrence and prolongs patient survival, and may thus be an effective form of adjuvant therapy. However, clinical observations found that HCC recurs in some patients within 8 months of IFN-α treatment being discontinued. We investigated whether HCC regrowth appears after IFN-α is discontinued, whether re-initiated IFN-α is effective, and the underlying mechanisms of IFN-α treatment.
The human HCC nude mouse model LCI-D20 was used to study the effects of IFN-α treatment, discontinued IFN-α treatment, and re-initiated IFN-α treatment on tumor growth. Tumor weight, microvessel density(MVD), serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor cell apoptosis were analyzed. Angiogenesis-related factors were studied using cDNA microarray in different tumor samples and confirmed using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and Western blotting assays. Finally, imatinib was added with re-initiated IFN-α treatment to improve efficacy.
IFN-α (1.5×107 U/kg/day for 20 days) suppressed HCC growth by 60.3% and decreased MVD by 52.2% compared with the control. However, tumor regrowth occurred after IFN-α was discontinued, and re-initiated IFN-α treatment was not effective for inhibiting tumor growth or reducing MVD compared with a saline-treated group. cDNA microarray showed VEGF was down-regulated while platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) was up-regulated when IFN-α treatment was re-initiated. These findings were further confirmed with RT-PCR and Western blotting assay. The combination of imatinib with re-initiated IFN-α reduced HCC weight by 30.7% and decreased MVD by 31.1% compared with IFN-α treatment only (P=0.003 and 0.015, respectively).
Tumor regrowth occurred after IFN-α treatment was discontinued. Re-initiated IFN-α treatment was not effective and was associated with up-regulation of PDGF-A, while the VEGF remained suppressed. The combination of a PDGF-receptor inhibitor with IFN-α improved the effect of the re-initiated treatment.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Interferon-α; Platelet-derived growth factor-A; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Microvessel density
Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality of any malignant tumor. To improve efficacy and reduce toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to integrate traditional and conventional medicine. Two hundred and forty patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to tetrandrine plus GP or GP only. We infused gemcitabine on days 1 and 8; cisplatin on day 1. The tetrandrine group received continuous i.v. infusion for 10 days, with treatment repeated every 21 days. After 2 consecutive treatment cycles, we used RECIST criteria to evaluate short-term efficacy. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed according to Karnofsky score (KPS) and body weight change. We used NCI CTC 3.0 to evaluate treatment toxicity. The short-term objective response rate was 36.1% in the tetrandrine group and 24.3% in the controls (P=0.057). The short-term disease control rate was 63.9% in the tetrandrine group and 52.3% in the controls (P=0.081). The 1-year survival rates were 45.7% and 31.3%, respectively (P=0.059). KPS scores improved by 49.1% and 32.4%, respectively (P=0.012). Body weight increased by 28.7% in the tetrandrine group and 16.2% in the controls (P=0.027). The incidence of grade 2-4 leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, and vomiting in the tetrandrine group was 38.0%, 19.4%, 46.3%, and 16.7%, respectively; the control group figures were 53.2%, 34.2%, 63.0% and 27.9% (P<0.05). Tetrandrine may improve short-term efficacy and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC. Tetrandrine may also mitigate adverse reactions to chemotherapy and improve QOL for patients with NSCLC.
tetrandrine; non-small cell lung cancer; GP regimen; chemotherapy
Protein-DNA interactions play a crucial role in the life of biological organisms in controlling transcription, regulation, as well as DNA recombination and repair. The deep understanding of these processes, which requires the atomic description of the interactions occurring between the proteins and their DNA partners is often limited by the absence of a 3D structure of such complexes.
In this study, using a method combining sequence homology, structural analogy modeling and biochemical data, we first build the 3D structure of the complex between the poorly-characterized PerR-like regulator Slr1738 and its target DNA, which controls the defences against metal and oxidative stresses in Synechocystis. In a second step, we propose an expanded version of the Slr1738-DNA structure, which accommodates the DNA binding of Slr1738 multimers, a feature likely operating in the complex Slr1738-mediated regulation of stress responses. Finally, in agreement with experimental data we present a 3D-structure of the Slr1738-DNA complex resulting from the binding of multimers of the FUR-like regulator onto its target DNA that possesses internal repeats.
Using a combination of different types of data, we build and validate a relevant model of the tridimensional structure of a biologically important protein-DNA complex. Then, based on published observations, we propose more elaborated multimeric models that may be biologically important to understand molecular mechanisms.
In the title heterodinuclear complex, [CuNa(C8H7O3)2(ClO4)(CH3OH)]n, the CuII ion is five-coordinated by four O atoms from two 2-formyl-6-methoxyphenolate anions and one O atom from a perchlorate anion in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The Na+ ion is six-coordinated by four O atoms from two 2-formyl-6-methoxyphenolate ligands, one O atom of a methanol molecule and one O atom of a perchlorate anion. The perchlorate anions link the Na+ and CuII ions, forming a chain along . O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the chains. π–π interactions are present between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.566 (2) and 3.702 (2) Å]. The O atoms of the perchlorate anion are disordered over two sets of sites, with an occupancy ratio of 0.481 (8):0.519 (8).
In the dinuclear salen-type title complex, [CuNa(BF4)(C18H18N2O4)(CH3OH)], the CuII atom is chelated by two O atoms and two N atoms of the deprotonated Schiff base in a square-planar geometry. The Na atom is seven-coordinate as it is linked to four O atoms of the same Schiff base ligand, one O atom of the methanol and two tetrafluoridoborate F atoms. The remaining two F atoms of the anion are disordered over two sites in a 0.598 (18):0.402 (18) ratio.
The understanding of the distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes and the occult hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma may shed light into the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of the study is to investigate hepatitis B virus genotypes distribution, the high-risk genotypes and the occult infection in north-western China's hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Hepatitis B virus genotypes A-D of hepatocellular carcinoma tumor tissues and serum samples in 268 north-western China hepatocellular carcinoma patients were detected by fluorescence polarization assay. The hepatitis B virus genotypes in serum and matched primary tumor tissue samples were compared. Hepatitis B surface antigen and α-fetoprotein in serum were detected. Occult hepatitis B virus infections were analyzed. The relationship between hepatitis B virus genotypes and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed statistically using SPSS v.10.0.
Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 83.6% of 268 patients, whereas serum hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 78.7%. The hepatitis B virus genotypes in serum were consistent with the results in matched tumor tissue. Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotype B and C were detected respectively in 11.6% and 54.5% of the patients. Mixed intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotypes were detected in 13.4% of 268 patients. There was not mixed hepatitis B virus infection in Edmondonson grade I. The patients with mixed HBV genotypes exhibited statistically significant different Edmondson grade than the patients with single type HBV infection (p < 0.05). Hepatitis B surface antigens were positive in 77.2% of 268 patients. Hepatitis B virus genotype C was detected in 64.7% of occult infected patients. There was no significant differences of patients' ages and α-fetoprotein level in different groups of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotypes (p > 0.05).
Hepatitis B virus genotype C was associated closely with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients in north-western China. There was a relatively high prevalence of mixed hepatitis B virus infection in Edmondonson grade III-IV.
hepatitis B virus genotype; hepatocellular carcinoma; fluorescence polarization; north-western China
Peritumoral colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) is associated with intrahepatic metastasis, tumor recurrence, and patient survival after hepatectomy, highlighting the critical role of the peritumoral liver milieu in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. CSF-1R may become a potential therapeutic target for postoperative adjuvant treatment.
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its prognostic values are unclear. This study evaluated the prognostic values of the intratumoral and peritumoral expression of CSF-1R in HCC patients after curative resection.
Tissue microarrays containing material from cohort 1 (105 patients) and cohort 2 (32 patients) were constructed. Immunohistochemistry was performed and prognostic values of these and other clinicopathological data were evaluated. The CSF-1R mRNA level was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in cohort 3 (52 patients).
Both the CSF-1R density and its mRNA level were significantly higher in peritumoral liver tissue than in the corresponding tumor tissue. CSF-1R was distributed in a gradient in the long-distance peritumoral tissue microarray, with its density decreasing as the distance from the tumor margin increased. High peritumoral CSF-1R was significantly associated with more intrahepatic metastases and poorer survival. Peritumoral CSF-1R was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival and time to recurrence and affected the incidence of early recurrence. However, intratumoral CSF-1R did not correlate with any clinicopathological feature. Peritumoral CSF-1R was also associated with both overall survival and time to recurrence in a subgroup with small HCCs (≤5 cm).
Peritumoral CSF-1R is associated with intrahepatic metastasis, tumor recurrence, and patient survival after hepatectomy, highlighting the critical role of the peritumoral liver milieu in HCC progression. CSF-1R may become a potential therapeutic target for postoperative adjuvant treatment.
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Microenvironment; Peritumoral liver tissue; Prognosis
Lithogenic bile is the major cause of cholesterol gallstone, but its pathogenesis is not well understood. The hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol is believed to be an important cause of lithogenic bile. Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (SCP2) participates in cholesterol trafficking and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and may play a key role in cholesterol gallstone formation.
21 cholesterol gallstone genealogies were studied to investigate the expression of SCP2 gene in liver tissue of hereditary and non-hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients as well as non-gallstone patients. The mRNA expression of liver SCP2 in 28 hereditary patients, 30 non-hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients and 32 non-gallstone patients was measured by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of liver SCP2 was also detected in all the patients by Western blotting. At the same time, the bile was also analyzed with biochemical techniques and the Cholesterol Saturation Index (CSI) was calculated.
The mRNA and protein expression of SCP2 was significantly increased in cholesterol gallstone patients compared to those of non-gallstone patients. Moreover, SCP2 was expressed at higher levels in hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients than that of non-hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients. There was significant difference observed in CSI between cholesterol gallstone patients and non-gallstone patients, but not in CSI between hereditary and non-hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients.
SCP2 was overexpressed in hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients compared to non-hereditary cholesterol gallstone patients. This finding indicated that SCP2 might be one of the genetic factors contributing to cholesterol gallstone formation, which was always accompanied by the increase of bile lithogenicity.
Antiangiogenesis is a promising therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the effects are difficult to be evaluated. Pazopanib (GW786034B) is a pan-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, the antitumor effects or antiangiogenic effects haven't been investigated in HCC.
In vitro direct effects of pazopanib on human HCC cell lines and endothelial cells were evaluated. In vivo antitumor effects were evaluated in three xenograft nude mice models. In the subcutaneous HCCLM3 model, intratumoral blood perfusion was detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), and serial quantitative parameters were profiled from the time-intensity curves of ultrasonograms.
In vitro proliferation of various HCC cell lines were not inhibited by pazopanib. Pazopanib inhibited migration and invasion and induced apoptosis significantly in two HCC cell lines, HCCLM3 and PLC/PRF/5. Proliferation, migration, and tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited by pazopanib in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo tumor growth was significantly inhibited by pazopanib in HCCLM3, HepG2, and PLC/PRF/5 xenograft models. Various intratumoral perfusion parameters changed over time, and the signal intensity was significantly impaired in the treated tumors before the treatment efficacy on tumor size could be observed. Mean transit time of the contrast media in hotspot areas of the tumors was reversely correlated with intratumoral microvessel density.
Antitumor effects of pazopanib in HCC xenografts may owe to its antiangiogenic effects, and the in vivo antiangiogenic effects could be evaluated by quantitative CEUS.
Estrogen has important roles in the initiation and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Regulators of the estrogen receptor (ER) are tissue- and cell-specific. We evaluated the effect of estrogen antagonist, raloxifene (Ral), on the prevention and treatment of BPH by investigating its effect on the proliferation of two different prostate cell lines: a stromal cell line, WPMY-1, and a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line, BPH-1. We additionally evaluated its effect on prostatic hyperplasia induced by estrogen and androgen in a rat model. The effect of Ral on the prevention of prostatic hyperplasia was analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining and quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and α-smooth muscle actin. In vitro and in vivo, tamoxifen (Tam), another anti-estrogen drug, and finasteride (Fin), a drug for the clinical treatment of BPH, served as efficacy controls. The in vitro data showed that neither Ral nor Tam alone affected the proliferation of WPMY-1 and BPH-1, but both antagonized the effect of oestradiol in promoting the proliferation of the two cells. Results from the IHC staining of the rat prostates indicated that, similar to Tam and Fin, Ral inhibited the proliferation of stromal cells in vivo. Interestingly, in contrast to Tam, both Ral and Fin inhibited the proliferation of epithelial cells. Furthemore, Ral treatment much strongly decreased the number of prostatic acini and the surrounding layers of smooth muscle cells than Fin (P < 0.05). Our data showed for the first time that Ral may have a role in the response of the rat prostate to selective ER modulators.
estrogen; prostatic hyperplasia; raloxifene; rats
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer related mortality, any improvements in therapeutic strategies are urgently required. In this study we generated a novel 'suicide gene' armed oncolytic adenoviral vector and investigated its antitumor effect both in vitro and in vivo.
Since the up-regulated expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a hallmark of alltypes of NSCLC, we chose hTERT promoter to transcriptionally control E1A gene expression to obtain adenoviral replication in NSCLC. In order to further enhance anti-tumor effect of this oncolytic adenoviral vector, we inserted a 'suicide gene' i.e. Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSV-TK) into oncolytic adenoviral vector to engineer a novel armed oncolytic adenoviral vector 'Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK'.
Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK efficiently killed different types of tumor cells including two types of NSCLC cells in vitro, causing no damage to normal primary fibroblasts. Furthermore, Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK infection combined with administration of prodrug gancyclovir (GCV) resulted in more potent cytotoxicity on NSCLC cells, and synergistically suppressed human NSCLC tumor growth in nude mice.
The results from this study showed that Ad.hTERT-E1A-TK/GCV could be a potent but safe anti-tumor strategy for NSCLC biotherapy.
To detect whether there is Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) colonization in the pharynx mucous membrane of healthy people and whether chronic pharyngitis is related to H pylori infection.
Fifty cases of chronic pharyngitis refractory over three months were prospectively studied from March 2004 to August 2004 in the otolaryngology outpatient department of the Second Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University. Template-directed dye-terminator incorporated with fluorescence polarization detection (TDI-FP) and modified Giemsa stain were used to examine pharynx mucous membrane tissue for H pylori colonization in the patients with chronic pharyngitis and the healthy people as a control group.
In the control group, no people were detected to have H pylori in the pharynx. In contrast, in 50 cases with chronic pharyngitis, 19 (38.0%) cases were H pylori positive with a TDI-FP assay and 4 (8%) cases were TDI-FP positive with Giemsa staining in the pharynx. Sixteen of the 50 pharyngitis cases had stomach ailment history, 11 cases (68.8%) of these 16 patients were determined to be H pylori positive in the pharynx with the TDI-FP assay. χ2 test showed that this infection rate was remarkably higher (P = 0.0007) than that in the cases without stomach ailment history. Giemsa staining showed that 3 cases (18.8%) of the patients with stomach ailment history were infected with H pylori in the pharynx, which was remarkably higher (P = 0.042) than that in the patients without stomach ailment history (1 case, which was 2.9%).
H pylori may not be detected in the pharynx of healthy people. Chronic pharyngitis may be related to H pylori infection. The infection rate with H pylori in the pharynx is higher in patients with stomach ailment histories than in patients without stomach ailment histories, suggesting that chronic pharyngitis may be related to stomach ailment history.
Chronic pharyngitis; H pylori; Modified Giemsa stain
It is known that human benign prostatic hyperplasia might arise from an estrogen/androgen (E/T) imbalance. We studied the response of castrated rat prostate to different ratios of circulating E/T. The castrated male Wistar rats were randomly injected with E/T at different ratios for 4 weeks. The prostates of E/T (1:100) group showed a distinct prostatic hyperplasia response by prostatic index, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). In this group, cells positive for Vimentin, non-muscle myosin heavy chain (NMMHC) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) increased in the stroma and epithelium. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) and NMMHC increased. So E/T at a ratio of 1:100 can induce a stromal hyperplastic response in the prostate of castrated rats. The main change observed was an increase of smooth muscle cells, whereas some epithelial changes were also seen in the rat prostates.
androgens; castration; estrogen; prostatic hyperplasia; rat; stromal cells
The title compound, C13H17N5, is a Schiff base synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(diethylamino)benzaldehyde. The triazole ring forms a dihedral angle of 5.77 (16)° with the benzene ring. The crystal structure is stabilized by an intermolecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bond.
In a preliminary study, we observed that TGF-β1 induced both proliferation and growth arrest in prostatic stromal cells, depending on the concentration of TGF-β1 used in the culture medium. In this study, we explored possible mechanisms of this dual effect of TGF-β. Primary cultures of prostatic stromal cells, established from clinical surgical specimens and treated with low doses of TGF-β1 (0.001–0.01 ng/ml), resulted in an increase in cell proliferation. The addition of neutralizing antibody against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, but not anti-PDGF-AA, abrogated this stimulatory effect of TGF-β1. TGF-β1 treatment resulted in a dose-related increase in PDGF-BB production as measured by ELISA. Cells underwent growth arrest at high concentrations of TGF-β1 (1.0 and 10 ng/ml). An inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk), p15INK4b, was up-regulated at both transcript and protein levels in these cultures by TGF-β1 in a dose-related manner as determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The transcript, but not the protein, for another cdk inhibitor, p21Cip1, was up-regulated with treatment of TGF-β1 to these cells. Levels of other cdk inhibitors, such as p16INK4a and p27Kip1, were constitutively expressed in prostatic stromal cells and were not significantly affected by TGF-β1 treatment. Finally, the growth arrest effect of TGF-β1 was abrogated when antisense oligonucleotides to p15INH4b, but not p21Cip1, were added to the culture medium. These data indicate that the dual effect of TGF-β1 is mediated, at least, by up-regulation of PDGF-BB and p15INK4b, respectively.
BPH, Benign prostatic hyperplasia; cdk, cyclin-dependent kinase; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; Smad, signaling molecules identified downstream of TGFβ superfamily ligands
3′-Phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to the PAPases of yeasts and plants, was identified from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Phylogenic analysis indicated that proteins related to PAPases from several cyanobacteria were found in different clades, suggesting multiple origins of PAPases in cyanobacteria. The HalA polypeptide from A. platensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and used for the characterization of its biochemical properties. HalA was dependent on Mg2+ for its activity and could use PAP or 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate as a substrate. HalA is sensitive to Li+ (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.6 mM) but only slightly sensitive to Na+ (IC50 = 600 mM). The salt sensitivity of HalA was thus different from that of most of its eukaryotic counterparts, which are much more sensitive to both Li+ and Na+, but was comparable to the PAPase AtAHL (Hal2p-like protein) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The properties of HalA could help us to understand the structure-function relationship underlying the salt sensitivity of PAPases. The expression of halA improved the Li+ tolerance of E. coli, suggesting that the sulfur-assimilating pathway is a likely target of salt toxicity in bacteria as well.