The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang.
4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated.
The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥ 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women.
Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
The identification of egg extracts with the ability to maintain and enhance the survival and differentiation of cells would be widely useful in cellular biology research. In this study, we compared the different abilities of spleen cells to survive and differentiate in vivo after permeabilization by five different types of egg extracts. Five types of egg extracts were prepared. The spleen cells from male GFP-transgenic mice were permeabilized by the extracts for 30 min, cultured for 12 days, and then transfused into irradiated female mice. At varying days after transplantation, the percentage of GFP-expressing surviving spleen cells was detected in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry. At 120 days after transplantation, bone marrow cells from the female mice were analyzed for the presence of cells containing the Y chromosome. Surviving GFP-positive spleen cells that had been permeabilized with either chicken-egg-white or whole-egg extracts could be detected in the female mice after transplantation. A lower percentage of GFP-positive cells was also detected after permeabilization by the other extracts tested, and no GFP-positive cells were found in the female mouse transfused with spleen cells permeabilized with Hank’s Buffered Salt Solution (HBSS) as a control. At 120 days after transplantation, the percentage of cells containing a Y chromosome in the bone marrow positively correlated with the percentage of GFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. After permeabilization by chicken-egg-white or whole-egg extracts, spleen cells demonstrated significantly enhanced survival and differentiation functions compared with the spleen cells treated with the other egg extracts tested. These results show that chicken-egg-white and whole-egg extracts have roles in maintaining and enhancing the survival and differentiation of spleen cells. Therefore, these two types of extracts may be of future use in maintaining the function of stem cells.
GFP-transgenic mice; Spleen cells; Extracts; Cell survival; Cell differentiation
Stem cell transplantation has been investigated for repairing damaged tissues in various injury models. Monitoring the safety and fate of transplanted cells using noninvasive methods is important to advance this technique into clinical applications.
In this study, lower-limb ischemia models were generated in nude mice by femoral artery ligation. As negative-contrast agents, positively charged magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated Fe2O3) were investigated in terms of in vitro labeling efficiency, effects on human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) proliferation, and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualization. Ultimately, the mice were sacrificed for histological analysis three weeks after transplantation.
With efficient labeling, aminopropyltriethoxysilane-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (APTS-MNPs) did not significantly affect hMSC proliferation. In vivo, APTS-MNP-labeled hMSCs could be monitored by clinical 3 Tesla MRI for at least three weeks. Histological examination detected numerous migrated Prussian blue-positive cells, which was consistent with the magnetic resonance images. Some migrated Prussian blue-positive cells were positive for mature endothelial cell markers of von Willebrand factor and anti-human proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In the test groups, Prussian blue-positive nanoparticles, which could not be found in other organs, were detected in the spleen.
APTS-MNPs could efficiently label hMSCs, and clinical 3 Tesla MRI could monitor the labeled stem cells in vivo, which may provide a new approach for the in vivo monitoring of implanted cells.
hind-limb ischemia; magnetic resonance imaging; iron oxide particles; stem cell implant
One of the most significant evolutionary changes underlying the highly developed cognitive abilities of humans is the greatly enlarged brain volume. In addition to being far greater than in most other species, the volume of the human brain exhibits extensive variation and distinct sexual dimorphism in the general population. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying normal variation as well as the observed sex difference in human brain volume. Here we show that interleukin-3 (IL3) is strongly associated with brain volume variation in four genetically divergent populations. We identified a sequence polymorphism (rs31480) in the IL3 promoter which alters the expression of IL3 by affecting the binding affinity of transcription factor SP1. Further analysis indicated that IL3 and its receptors are continuously expressed in the developing mouse brain, reaching highest levels at postnatal day 1–4. Furthermore, we found IL3 receptor alpha (IL3RA) was mainly expressed in neural progenitors and neurons, and IL3 could promote proliferation and survival of the neural progenitors. The expression level of IL3 thus played pivotal roles in the expansion and maintenance of the neural progenitor pool and the number of surviving neurons. Moreover, we found that IL3 activated both estrogen receptors, but estrogen didn’t directly regulate the expression of IL3. Our results demonstrate that genetic variation in the IL3 promoter regulates human brain volume and reveals novel roles of IL3 in regulating brain development.
Stem cell therapy has shown great promise for regenerative repair of injured or diseased tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have become increasingly attractive candidates for cellular therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proven to be effective in tracking magnetic-labeled cells and evaluating their clinical relevance after cell transplantation. This study investigated the feasibility of imaging green fluorescent protein-expressing ADSCs (GFP-ADSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, and tracked them in vivo with noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging after cell transplantation in a model of mouse carotid artery injury.
GFP-ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of GFP mice and labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. Intracellular stability, proliferation, and viability of the labeled cells were evaluated in vitro. Next, the cells were transplanted into a mouse carotid artery injury model. Clinical 3 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed immediately before and 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days after cell transplantation. Prussian blue staining and histological analysis were performed 7 and 30 days after transplantation.
GFP-ADSCs were found to be efficiently labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, with no effect on viability and proliferation. Homing of the labeled cells into the injured carotid artery tissue could be monitored by magnetic resonance imaging.
Magnetically labeled ADSCs with expression of GFP can home into sites of vascular injury, and may provide new insights into understanding of cell-based therapy for cardiovascular lesions.
adipose-derived stem cells; carotid artery injury; magnetic resonance imaging; iron oxide particles; cell therapy
Serum uric acid (SUA) is a cardiovascular risk marker associated with inflammation. The serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is an inflammatory factor and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and SUA levels has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA levels and SAA genetic polymorphisms.
All participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12218 of the SAA1 gene was genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The association of SUA levels with genotypes was assessed by using the general liner mode.
The SNP rs12218 was associated with SUA levels by analyses of a dominate model (P = 0.002) and additive model (P = 0.005), and the difference remained significant after adjustment of sex, age, obesity, ethnicity, HDL-C, alcohol intake, smoking, and creatinine (P = 0.006 and P = 0.023, respectively). The TT genotype was associated with an increased SUA concentration of 39.34 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.61–75.06, P = 0.031) compared with the CC genotype, and the TT genotype was associated with an increased SUA concentration of 2.48 mmol/L (95% CI, 6.86–38.10; P = 0.005) compared with the CT genotype.
The rs12218 SNP in the SAA1 gene was associated with SUA levels in Chinese subjects, indicating that carriers of the T allele of rs12218 have a high risk of hyperuricemia.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of type 2 diabetes and to determine the status of type 2 diabetes awareness, treatment, and control in Xinjiang, China. Our data came from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14 122 persons (5583 Hans, 4620 Uygurs, and 3919 Kazaks) completed the survey and examination. Diabetes was defined by the American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria.
Overall, 9.26% of the Han, 6.23% of the Uygur, and 3.65% of the Kazak adults aged ≥35 years had diabetes. Among diabetes patients, only 53.0% were aware of their blood glucose level, 26.7% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 10.4% achieved blood glucose control in Han, 35.8% were aware of their blood glucose level, 7.3% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 3.13% achieved blood glucose control in Uygur, and 23.8% were aware of their blood glucose level, 6.3% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 1.4% achieved blood glucose control in Kazak, respectively.
Our results indicate that diabetes is highly prevalent in Xinjiang. The percentages of those with diabetes who are aware, treated, and controlled are unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve prevention, detection, and treatment of diabetes in Xinjiang, the west China.
IgE has a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic responses through its ability to activate mast cells via the receptor FcεR1. In addition to mast cells, many cell types implicated in atherogenesis express FcεR1, but whether IgE has a role in this disease has not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that serum IgE levels are elevated in patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris. We found that IgE and the FcεR1 subunit FcεR1α were present in human atherosclerotic lesions and that they localized particularly to macrophage-rich areas. In mice, absence of FcεR1α reduced inflammation and apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques and reduced the burden of disease. In cultured macrophages, the presence of TLR4 was required for FcεR1 activity. IgE stimulated the interaction between FcεR1 and TLR4, thereby inducing macrophage signal transduction, inflammatory molecule expression, and apoptosis. These IgE activities were reduced in the absence of FcεR1 or TLR4. Furthermore, IgE activated macrophages by enhancing Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) activity. Inactivation of NHE1 blocked IgE-induced macrophage production of inflammatory molecules and apoptosis. Cultured human aortic SMCs (HuSMCs) and ECs also exhibited IgE-induced signal transduction, cytokine expression, and apoptosis. In human atherosclerotic lesions, SMCs and ECs colocalized with IgE and TUNEL staining. This study reveals what we believe to be several previously unrecognized IgE activities that affect arterial cell biology and likely other IgE-associated pathologies in human diseases.
Streptomyces bingchenggensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium producing the commercially important anthelmintic macrolide milbemycins. Besides milbemycins, the insecticidal polyether antibiotic nanchangmycin and some other antibiotics have also been isolated from this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis. The availability of the genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis should enable us to understand the biosynthesis of these structurally intricate antibiotics better and facilitate rational improvement of this strain to increase their titers.
In the crystal structure of the title 1:1 adduct, C12H8N2·C14H6O7, the carboxyl groups are involved in intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further linked by intermolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. C—H⋯O interactions also occur between the 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4,5-dicarboxynaphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic anhydride (H2NTC) molecules. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits π–π interactions of the phen⋯phen and H2NTC⋯H2NTC types with centroid–centroid distances of 3.579 (3) and 3.774 (3) Å, respectively.
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. It is mainly characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or low-trauma osteoporotic fractures (OF), both of which have strong genetic determination. The specific genes influencing these phenotypic traits, however, are largely unknown. Using the Affymetrix 500K array set, we performed a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 700 elderly Chinese Han subjects (350 with hip OF and 350 healthy matched controls). A follow-up replication study was conducted to validate our major GWAS findings in an independent Chinese sample containing 390 cases with hip OF and 516 controls. We found that a SNP, rs13182402 within the ALDH7A1 gene on chromosome 5q31, was strongly associated with OF with evidence combined GWAS and replication studies (P = 2.08×10−9, odds ratio = 2.25). In order to explore the target risk factors and potential mechanism underlying hip OF risk, we further examined this candidate SNP's relevance to hip BMD both in Chinese and Caucasian populations involving 9,962 additional subjects. This SNP was confirmed as consistently associated with hip BMD even across ethnic boundaries, in both Chinese and Caucasians (combined P = 6.39×10−6), further attesting to its potential effect on osteoporosis. ALDH7A1 degrades and detoxifies acetaldehyde, which inhibits osteoblast proliferation and results in decreased bone formation. Our findings may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a major health concern worldwide. It is a highly heritable disease characterized mainly by low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporotic fractures. However, the specific genetic variants determining risk for low BMD or OF are largely unknown. Here, taking advantage of recent technological advances in human genetics, we performed a genome-wide association study and follow-up validation studies to identify genetic variants for osteoporosis. By examining a total of 11,568 individuals from Chinese and Caucasian populations, we discovered a susceptibility gene, ALDH7A1, which is associated with hip osteoporotic fracture and BMD. ALDH7A1 might inhibit osteoblast proliferation and decrease bone formation. Our finding opens a new avenue for exploring the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.
Background and Purpose
Treatment outcomes vary greatly in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of radiation and chemotherapy drug action pathway gene polymorphisms on the survival of patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with cisplatin- and fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy.
Material and Methods
Four hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with locoregionally advanced NPC were prospectively recruited. We utilized a pathway approach and examined 18 polymorphisms in 13 major genes. Polymorphisms were detected using the LDR-PCR technique. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to detect potential gene-gene interaction.
After adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival was significantly decreased in patients with the MPO rs2243828 CT/CC genotype (HR=2.453, 95% CI, 1.687-3.566, P<0.001). The ERCC1 rs3212986 CC (HR=1.711, 95% CI, 1.135-2.579, P=0.010), MDM2 rs2279744 GT/GG (HR=1.743, 95% CI, 1.086-2.798, P=0.021), MPO rs2243828 CT/CC (HR=3.184, 95% CI, 2.261-4.483, P<0.001) and ABCB1 rs2032582 AT/AA (HR=1.997, 95% CI, 1.086-3.670, P=0.026) genotypes were associated with poor progression-free survival. Prognostic score models based on independent prognostic factors successfully classified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Furthermore, MDR analysis showed no significant interaction between polymorphisms.
Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with survival in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with cisplatin- and fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. Combining clinical prognostic factors with genetic information was valuable in identifying patients with different risk.
Studies of linkage and association in various ethnic populations have revealed many predisposing genes of multiple neurotransmitter systems for alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, evidence often is contradictory regarding the contribution of most candidate genes to the susceptibility of AUD. We, therefore, performed a case-control study to investigate the possible associations of genes selected from multiple neurotransmitter systems with AUD in a homogeneous Tibetan community population in China. AUD cases (N = 281) with an alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) score ≥10, as well as healthy controls (N = 277) with an AUDIT score ≤5, were recruited. All participants were genotyped for 366 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 34 genes selected from those involved in neurotransmitter systems. Association analyses were performed using PLINK version 1.07 software. Allelic analyses before adjustment for multiple tests showed that 15 polymorphisms within seven genes were associated with AUD (p<0.05). After adjustment for the number of SNPs genotyped within each gene, only the association of a single marker (rs10044881) in HTR4 remained statistically significant. Haplotype analysis for two SNPs in HTR4 (rs17777298 and rs10044881) showed that the haplotype AG was significantly associated with the protective effect for AUD. In conclusion, the present study discovered that the HTR4 gene may play a marked role in the pathogenesis of AUD. In addition, this Tibetan population sample marginally replicated previous evidence regarding the associations of six genes in AUD.
Autophagy can be tumor suppressive as well as promotive in regulation of tumorigenesis and disease progression. Accordingly, the prognostic significance of autophagy key regulator Beclin 1 was varied among different tumors. Here, we detected the clinicopathological and prognostic effect of Beclin 1 in the subtypes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC). Beclin 1 expression level was detected by immunohistochemistry staining in 106 ICC and 74 ECC patients. We found that Beclin 1 was lowly expressed in 126 (70%) cholangiocarcinoma patients, consist of 72 ICC and 54 ECC. Moreover, the cholangiocarcinoma patients with lymph node metastasis (N1) had a lower Beclin 1 level than that of N0 subgroup (P=0.012). However, we did not detect any correlations between Beclin 1 and other clinicopathological features, including tumor subtypes, vascular invasion, HBV infection, liver cirrhosis, cholecystolithiasis and TNM stage. Survival analysis showed that, compared with the high expression subset, Beclin 1 low expression was correlated with a poorer 3-year progression-free survival (PFS, 69.1% VS 46.8%, P=041) for cholangiocarcinoma. Importantly, our stratified univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed that Beclin 1 lowly expressed ICC had an inferior PFS as well as overall survival than ECC, particularly than that of Beclin 1 highly expressed ECC patients. Thus, our study demonstrated that Beclin 1low expression, correlated with lymph node metastasis, and might be a negative prognostic biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma. Combined Beclin 1 level with the anatomical location might lead to refined prognosis for the subtypes of ICC and ECC.
It is known that psychological stress affects reproduction in women, but it is unknown whether the effect is by impairing implantation. Although studies suggest that long periods of auditory or restraint stress may inhibit implantation in rats and mice, the exact stage of pregnancy at which stress impairs implantation is unclear. Furthermore, whether stress impairs implantation by decreasing the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), estrogen and/or progesterone and whether by acting on embryos or on the uterus need further investigations. In this study, a 24-h restraint stress was initiated at 15:30 of day 3 (regimen 1) or at 07:30 (regimen 2) or 15:30 of day 4 (regimen 3) of pregnancy (vaginal plug = day 1) to observe effects of restraint stress applied at different peri-implantation stages on implantation. Among the three regimens, whereas regimens 1 and 3 affected neither term pregnancy nor litter size, regimen 2 reduced both. Further observations indicated that regimen 2 of restraint stress also delayed blastocyst hatching and the attachment reaction, decreased serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, and down regulated the expression of HB-EGF in both the endometrium and blastocysts. Taken together, the results suggested that restraint stress inhibited mouse implantation in a temporal window-dependent manner and by impairing blastocyst activation and hatching and uterine receptivity via down-regulating HB-EGF, estrogen and progesterone. Thus, the stress applied within the implantation window impaired implantation by acting on both embryos and the uterus.
The antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects of adiponectin make it a desirable drug target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the adiponectin-based drug development approach turns out to be difficult due to extremely high serum levels of this adipokine. On the other hand, a significant correlation between adiponectin multimerization and its insulin-sensitizing effects has been demonstrated, suggesting a promising alternative therapeutic strategy. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein in fat (fDsbA-L) exhibited increased levels of total and the high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. The fDsbA-L mice also displayed resistance to diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis compared with WT control mice. The protective effects of DsbA-L overexpression on diet-induced insulin resistance, but not increased body weight and fat cell size, were significantly decreased in adiponectin-deficient fDsbA-L mice (fDsbA-L/Ad−/−). In addition, the fDsbA-L/Ad−/− mice displayed greater activity and energy expenditure compared with adiponectin knockout mice under a high-fat diet. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DsbA-L protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through adiponectin-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, upregulation of DsbA-L could be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only proven effective treatment for both end-stage and metabolic liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative for OLT, but the lack of available donor livers has hampered its clinical application. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from many multi-potential stem cells can help repair damaged liver tissue. Yet almost suitable cells currently identified for human use are difficult to harvest and involve invasive procedures. Recently, a novel mesenchymal stem cell derived from human menstrual blood (MenSC) has been discovered and obtained easily and repeatedly. In this study, we examined whether the MenSCs are able to differentiate into functional HLCs in vitro. After three weeks of incubation in hepatogenic differentiation medium containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4), and oncostain M (OSM), cuboidal HLCs were observed, and cells also expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes including albumin (ALB), α-fetoprotein (AFP), cytokeratin 18/19 (CK18/19), and cytochrome P450 1A1/3A4 (CYP1A1/3A4). Differentiated cells further demonstrated in vitro mature hepatocyte functions such as urea synthesis, glycogen storage, and indocyanine green (ICG) uptake. After intrasplenic transplantation into mice with 2/3 partial hepatectomy, the MenSC-derived HLCs were detected in recipient livers and expressed human ALB protein. We also showed that MenSC-derived HLC transplantation could restore the serum ALB level and significantly suppressed transaminase activity of liver injury animals. In conclusion, MenSCs may serve as an ideal, easily accessible source of material for tissue engineering and cell therapy of liver tissues.
Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MenSC); Differentiation; Hepatocyte; Intrasplenic transplantation; Partial hepatectomy
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antimicrobial agents and have demonstrated efficient inhibitory activity against various viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and Tacaribe virus. In this study, we investigated if AgNPs could have antiviral and preventive effects in A/Human/Hubei/3/2005 (H3N2) influenza virus infection. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with AgNP-treated H3N2 influenza virus showed better viability (P<0.05 versus influenza virus control) and no obvious cytopathic effects compared with an influenza virus control group and a group treated with the solvent used for preparation of the AgNPs. Hemagglutination assay indicated that AgNPs could significantly inhibit growth of the influenza virus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (P<0.01 versus the influenza virus control). AgNPs significantly reduced cell apoptosis induced by H3N2 influenza virus at three different treatment pathways (P<0.05 versus influenza virus control). H3N2 influenza viruses treated with AgNPs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and found to interact with each other, resulting in destruction of morphologic viral structures in a time-dependent manner in a time range of 30 minutes to 2 hours. In addition, intranasal AgNP administration in mice significantly enhanced survival after infection with the H3N2 influenza virus. Mice treated with AgNPs showed lower lung viral titer levels and minor pathologic lesions in lung tissue, and had a marked survival benefit during secondary intranasal passage in vivo. These results provide evidence that AgNPs have beneficial effects in preventing H3N2 influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo, and demonstrate that AgNPs can be used as potential therapeutics for inhibiting outbreaks of influenza.
silver nanoparticles; influenza virus; H3N2; antiviral activity
The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP kinetics predict the overall survival in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) patients.
A total of 116 mNPC patients from January 2006 to July 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum CRP level was measured at baseline and thereafter at the start of each palliative chemotherapy cycle for all patients.
Patients with higher values of baseline CRP (≥ 3.4 mg/L) had significantly worse survival than those with lower baseline CRP values (< 3.4 mg/L). Patients were divided into four groups according to baseline CRP and CRP kinetics: (1) patients whose CRP < 3.4 mg/L and never elevated during treatment; (2) patients whose CRP < 3.4 mg/L and elevated at least one time during treatment; (3) patients whose CRP ≥ 3.4 mg/L and normalized at least one time during treatment; and (4) patients whose CRP ≥ 3.4 mg/L and never normalized during treatment. The patients were further assigned to non-elevated, elevated, normalized, and non-normalized CRP groups. Overall survival rates were significantly different among the four groups, with three-year survival rates of 68%, 41%, 33%, and 0.03% for non-elevated, elevated, normalized, and non-normalized CRP groups respectively. When compared with the non-elevated group, hazard ratios of death were 1.69, 2.57, and 10.34 in the normalized, elevated, and non-normalized groups (P < 0.001).
Baseline CRP and CRP kinetics may be useful to predict the prognosis of metastatic NPC patients treated with palliative chemotherapy and facilitate individualized treatment. A prospective study to validate this prognostic model is still needed however.
Taibai Mountain is the highest peak of Qinling Mountain Ridge, a climate and geographical demarcation of the southern and northern China. Collembolan species of family Entomobryidae are reported from this region for the first time in this paper. Two new species, Homidia taibaiensis
sp. n. and Sinella triseta
sp. n. of Entomobryinae are described. Illustrations and differences with similar species are provided.
Entomobryinae; new species; chaetotaxy; Qinling
influenza; surveillance; serology; avian-like influenza A(H1N1); viruses
C5L2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has been demonstrated to be a ligand for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of a novel variation (901A > G) of C5L2 gene with coronary artery disease (CAD).
We identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (901G > A), in exon 2 using a polymerase chain reaction direct-sequencing method. This nucleotide change causes the amino-acid order from Arginine to glutaminate at codon 300. We analyzed the relationship between this SNP and CAD in two independent case–control studies: one was in a Han population (492 CAD patients and 577 control subjects) and the other was in a Uygur population (319 CAD patients and 554 control subjects).
The frequency of AG genotype in CAD subjects was less than that in the control subjects not only in Han (1.8% vs 8.6%, P < 0.001, OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.068 ~ 0.302) but also in Uygur population (0.9% vs 5.2%, P = 0.001, OR = 0.246, 95% CI: 0.072 ~ 0.837). After adjustment for known CAD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, age and gender, the difference remained significant.
The 901G > A polymorphism of C5L2 may be a genetic maker of CAD in the Han and Uygur population in western China.
Acylation stimulating protein; C5L2; Triglyceride synthesis; Coronary artery disease
Many physicians are reluctant to treat elderly glioblastoma (GBM) patients as aggressively as younger patients, which is not evidence based due to the absence of validated data from primary studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide valid evidence for the use of the aggressive combination of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) in elderly GBM patients.
A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Studies comparing combined RT/TMZ with RT alone in elderly patients (≥65 years) with newly diagnosed GBM were eligible for inclusion.
No eligible randomized trials were identified. Alternatively, a meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies (NRSs) was performed, with 16 studies eligible for overall survival (OS) analysis and nine for progression-free survival (PFS) analysis. Combined RT/TMZ was shown to reduce the risk of death and progression in elderly GBM patients compared with RT alone (OS hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–0.72; PFS: HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.41–0.84). Evaluable patients were reported to tolerate combined treatment but certain toxicities, and especially hematological toxicities, were more frequently observed. Limited data on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter status and quality of life were reported.
The meta-analysis of NRSs provided level 2a evidence (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine) that combined RT/TMZ conferred a clear survival benefit on a selection of elderly GBM patients who had a favorable prognosis (e.g., extensive resection, favorable KPS). Toxicities were more frequent but acceptable. Future randomized trials are warranted to justify a definitive conclusion.
Background. Syphilis has made a rapid resurgence in China, especially among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs).
Methods. Two cities in each of 3 provinces in South China were chosen and allocated to intervention or control arms. The intervention consisted of enhancing community-based syphilis screening outreach intervention with comprehensive sexually transmitted infection services at designated clinics while the control maintained routine intervention activities. Generalized linear modeling was used to examine effect of the intervention on incident syphilis infection.
Results. A total of 8275 women were eligible, and 3597 women enrolled (n = 2011 in control arm, n = 1586 in intervention arm) in the study. The median follow-up duration was 375 days (interquartile range, 267–475). Syphilis incidence density in the intervention group was reduced by 70% (95% confidence interval, 53%–81%) compared with the incidence in the control arm. The syphilis prevention intervention benefits were robust among FSWs at low-tier venues, individuals with less than high school education, migrants, and women who did not report condom use during the last episode of sex.
Conclusions. Integrated sexually transmitted infection and human immunodeficiency virus prevention strategies substantially reduce syphilis incidence among FSWs, especially among those at low-tier venues. This intervention suggests the need for scaling up comprehensive FSW programs in China.
AIM: To summarize our experience in the application of Crurasoft® for antireflux surgery and hiatal hernia (HH) repair and to introduce the work of Chinese doctors on this topic.
METHODS: Twenty-one patients underwent HH repair with Crurasoft® reinforcement. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and HH-related symptoms including heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia, and abdominal pain were evaluated preoperatively and 6 mo postoperatively. A patient survey was conducted by phone by one of the authors. Patients were asked about “recurrent reflux or heartburn” and “dysphagia”. An internet-based Chinese literature search in this field was also performed. Data extracted from each study included: number of patients treated, hernia size, hiatorrhaphy, antireflux surgery, follow-up period, recurrence rate, and complications (especially dysphagia).
RESULTS: There were 8 type I, 10 type II and 3 type III HHs in this group. Mean operative time was 119.29 min (range 80-175 min). Intraoperatively, length and width of the hiatal orifice were measured, (4.33 ± 0.84 and 2.85 ± 0.85 cm, respectively). Thirteen and eight Nissen and Toupet fundoplications were performed, respectively. The intraoperative complication rate was 9.52%. Despite dysphagia, GERD-related symptoms improved significantly compared with those before surgery. The recurrence rate was 0% during the 6-mo follow-up period, and long-term follow-up disclosed a recurrence rate of 4.76% with a mean period of 16.28 mo. Eight patients developed new-onset dysphagia. The Chinese literature review identified 12 papers with 213 patients. The overall recurrence rate was 1.88%. There was no esophageal erosion and the rate of dysphagia ranged from 0% to 24%.
CONCLUSION: The use of Crurasoft® mesh for HH repair results in satisfactory symptom control with a low recurrence rate. Postoperative dysphagia continues to be an issue, and requires more research to reduce its incidence.
Hiatal hernia; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Anti-reflux surgery; Mesh; Prosthetic