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author:("Sun, routing")
1.  BPDA2d—a 2D global optimization-based Bayesian peptide detection algorithm for liquid chromatograph–mass spectrometry 
Bioinformatics  2011;28(4):564-572.
Motivation: Peptide detection is a crucial step in mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics. Most existing algorithms are based upon greedy isotope template matching and thus may be prone to error propagation and ineffective to detect overlapping peptides. In addition, existing algorithms usually work at different charge states separately, isolating useful information that can be drawn from other charge states, which may lead to poor detection of low abundance peptides.
Results: BPDA2d models spectra as a mixture of candidate peptide signals and systematically evaluates all possible combinations of possible peptide candidates to interpret the given spectra. For each candidate, BPDA2d takes into account its elution profile, charge state distribution and isotope pattern, and it combines all evidence to infer the candidate's signal and existence probability. By piecing all evidence together—especially by deriving information across charge states—low abundance peptides can be better identified and peptide detection rates can be improved. Instead of local template matching, BPDA2d performs global optimization for all candidates and systematically optimizes their signals. Since BPDA2d looks for the optimal among all possible interpretations of the given spectra, it has the capability in handling complex spectra where features overlap. BPDA2d estimates the posterior existence probability of detected peptides, which can be directly used for probability-based evaluation in subsequent processing steps. Our experiments indicate that BPDA2d outperforms state-of-the-art detection methods on both simulated data and real liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry data, according to sensitivity and detection accuracy.
Availability: The BPDA2d software package is available at
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
PMCID: PMC3278754  PMID: 22155863
2.  A systematic model of the LC-MS proteomics pipeline 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 6):S2.
Mass spectrometry is a complex technique used for large-scale protein profiling with clinical and pharmaceutical applications. While individual components in the system have been studied extensively, little work has been done to integrate various modules and evaluate them from a systems point of view.
In this work, we investigate this problem by putting together the different modules in a typical proteomics work flow, in order to capture and analyze key factors that impact the number of identified peptides and quantified proteins, protein quantification error, differential expression results, and classification performance. The proposed proteomics pipeline model can be used to optimize the work flow as well as to pinpoint critical bottlenecks worth investing time and resources into for improving performance. Using the model-based approach proposed here, one can study systematically the critical problem of proteomic biomarker discovery, by means of simulation using ground-truthed synthetic MS data.
PMCID: PMC3481448  PMID: 23134670
3.  BPDA - A Bayesian peptide detection algorithm for mass spectrometry 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11:490.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an essential analytical tool in proteomics. Many existing algorithms for peptide detection are based on isotope template matching and usually work at different charge states separately, making them ineffective to detect overlapping peptides and low abundance peptides.
We present BPDA, a Bayesian approach for peptide detection in data produced by MS instruments with high enough resolution to baseline-resolve isotopic peaks, such as MALDI-TOF and LC-MS. We model the spectra as a mixture of candidate peptide signals, and the model is parameterized by MS physical properties. BPDA is based on a rigorous statistical framework and avoids problems, such as voting and ad-hoc thresholding, generally encountered in algorithms based on template matching. It systematically evaluates all possible combinations of possible peptide candidates to interpret a given spectrum, and iteratively finds the best fitting peptide signal in order to minimize the mean squared error of the inferred spectrum to the observed spectrum. In contrast to previous detection methods, BPDA performs deisotoping and deconvolution of mass spectra simultaneously, which enables better identification of weak peptide signals and produces higher sensitivities and more robust results. Unlike template-matching algorithms, BPDA can handle complex data where features overlap. Our experimental results indicate that BPDA performs well on simulated data and real MS data sets, for various resolutions and signal to noise ratios, and compares very favorably with commonly used commercial and open-source software, such as flexAnalysis, OpenMS, and Decon2LS, according to sensitivity and detection accuracy.
Unlike previous detection methods, which only employ isotopic distributions and work at each single charge state alone, BPDA takes into account the charge state distribution as well, thus lending information to better identify weak peptide signals and produce more robust results. The proposed approach is based on a rigorous statistical framework, which avoids problems generally encountered in algorithms based on template matching. Our experiments indicate that BPDA performs well on both simulated data and real data, and compares very favorably with commonly used commercial and open-source software. The BPDA software can be downloaded from
PMCID: PMC3098078  PMID: 20920238
4.  Impact of Missing Value Imputation on Classification for DNA Microarray Gene Expression Data—A Model-Based Study 
Many missing-value (MV) imputation methods have been developed for microarray data, but only a few studies have investigated the relationship between MV imputation and classification accuracy. Furthermore, these studies are problematic in fundamental steps such as MV generation and classifier error estimation. In this work, we carry out a model-based study that addresses some of the issues in previous studies. Six popular imputation algorithms, two feature selection methods, and three classification rules are considered. The results suggest that it is beneficial to apply MV imputation when the noise level is high, variance is small, or gene-cluster correlation is strong, under small to moderate MV rates. In these cases, if data quality metrics are available, then it may be helpful to consider the data point with poor quality as missing and apply one of the most robust imputation algorithms to estimate the true signal based on the available high-quality data points. However, at large MV rates, we conclude that imputation methods are not recommended. Regarding the MV rate, our results indicate the presence of a peaking phenomenon: performance of imputation methods actually improves initially as the MV rate increases, but after an optimum point, performance quickly deteriorates with increasing MV rates.
PMCID: PMC3171429  PMID: 20224634

Results 1-4 (4)