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1.  Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis cp09 mutant and cp40 recombinant protein partially protect mice against caseous lymphadenitis 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10(1):965.
Background
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease that affects small ruminants and is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This disease is responsible for high economic losses due to condemnation and trim of infected carcasses, decreased leather and wool yield, loss of sales of breeding stock and deaths from internal involvement. Treatment is costly and ineffective; the most cost-effective strategy is timely immunisation. Various vaccine strategies have been tested, and recombinant vaccines are a promising alternative. Thus, in this study, different vaccine formulations using a recombinant protein (rCP40) and the CP09 live recombinant strain were evaluated. Five groups of 10 mice each were immunised with saline (G1), rCP40 (G2), CP09 (G3), a combination of CP09 and rCP40 (G4) and a heterologous prime-boost strategy (G5). Mice received two immunisations within 15 days. On day 30 after primary immunisation, all groups were challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain. Mice were monitored and mortality was recorded for 30 days after challenge.
Results
The G2, G4 and G5 groups showed high levels of IgG1 and IgG2a; G2 presented significant IgG2a production after virulent challenge in the absence of IgG1 and IgG3 induction. Thirty days after challenge, the mice survival rates were 20 (G1), 90 (G2), 50 (G3), 70 (G4) and 60% (G5).
Conclusions
rCP40 is a promising target in the development of vaccines against caseous lymphadenitis.
doi:10.1186/s12917-014-0304-6
PMCID: PMC4297461  PMID: 25527190
Caseous lymphadenitis; Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; Recombinant vaccines; Live attenuated vaccines
2.  Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain 210932 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(6):e01233-14.
In this work, we present the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans strain 210932, isolated from a human. The species is an emergent pathogen that infects a variety of wild and domesticated animals and humans. It is associated with a growing number of cases of a diphtheria-like disease around the world.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.01233-14
PMCID: PMC4246169  PMID: 25428977
3.  Differential transcriptional profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in response to abiotic stresses 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:14.
Background
The completion of whole-genome sequencing for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 has contributed to major advances in research aimed at understanding the biology of this microorganism. This bacterium causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death. In the current study, we simulated the conditions experienced by the bacteria during host infection. By sequencing transcripts using the SOLiDTM 3 Plus platform, we identified new targets expected to potentiate the survival and replication of the pathogen in adverse environments. These results may also identify possible candidates useful for the development of vaccines, diagnostic kits or therapies aimed at the reduction of losses in agribusiness.
Results
Under the 3 simulated conditions (acid, osmotic and thermal shock stresses), 474 differentially expressed genes exhibiting at least a 2-fold change in expression levels were identified. Important genes to the infection process were induced, such as those involved in virulence, defence against oxidative stress, adhesion and regulation, and many genes encoded hypothetical proteins, indicating that further investigation of the bacterium is necessary. The data will contribute to a better understanding of the biology of C. pseudotuberculosis and to studies investigating strategies to control the disease.
Conclusions
Despite the veterinary importance of C. pseudotuberculosis, the bacterium is poorly characterised; therefore, effective treatments for caseous lymphadenitis have been difficult to establish. Through the use of RNAseq, these results provide a better biological understanding of this bacterium, shed light on the most likely survival mechanisms used by this microorganism in adverse environments and identify candidates that may help reduce or even eradicate the problems caused by this disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-14
PMCID: PMC3890534  PMID: 24405787
Differential gene expression; Transcripts; RNAseq; SOLID™; Stress; C. pseudotuberculosis
4.  An iron-acquisition-deficient mutant of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis efficiently protects mice against challenge 
Veterinary Research  2014;45(1):28.
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects sheep and goats worldwide, and its etiological agent is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Despite the economic losses caused by CLA, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and current immune prophylaxis against infection has been unable to reduce the incidence of CLA in goats. Recently, 21 different mutant strains of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by random mutagenesis. In this study, these previously generated mutants were used in mice vaccination trials to develop new immunogens against CLA. Based on this analysis, CZ171053, an iron-acquisition-deficient mutant strain, was selected. After challenge with a virulent strain, 80% of the animals that were immunized with the CZ171053 strain survived. Furthermore, this vaccination elicited both humoral and cellular responses. Intracellular survival of the bacterium was determined using murine J774 cells; in this assay, the CZ171053 had reduced intracellular viability. Because iron acquisition in intracellular bacteria is considered one of their most important virulence factors during infection, these results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of this mutant against CLA.
doi:10.1186/1297-9716-45-28
PMCID: PMC4234458  PMID: 24597857
5.  Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp31, Isolated from an Egyptian Buffalo 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(23):6663-6664.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects many animal species, causing economically significant livestock diseases and losses. Therefore, the genomic sequencing of various lines of this organism, isolated from different hosts, will aid in the development of diagnostic methods and new prevention and treatment strategies and improve our knowledge of the biology of this microorganism. In this study, we present the genome of C. pseudotuberculosis Cp31, isolated from a buffalo in Egypt.
doi:10.1128/JB.01782-12
PMCID: PMC3497519  PMID: 23144408
6.  Genome Sequence of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp316 Strain, Isolated from the Abscess of a Californian Horse 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(23):6620-6621.
The bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects livestock, particularly sheep, goats, and horses, in several countries, including Australia, Brazil, the United States, and Canada, resulting in significant economic losses. In the present study, we describe the complete genome of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp316 strain, biovar equi, isolated from the abscess of a North American horse.
doi:10.1128/JB.01616-12
PMCID: PMC3497548  PMID: 23144380
7.  The Pan-Genome of the Animal Pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Reveals Differences in Genome Plasticity between the Biovar ovis and equi Strains 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53818.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs). With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053818
PMCID: PMC3544762  PMID: 23342011
8.  The Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in silico predicted pan-exoproteome 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 5):S6.
Background
Pan-genomic studies aim, for instance, at defining the core, dispensable and unique genes within a species. A pan-genomics study for vaccine design tries to assess the best candidates for a vaccine against a specific pathogen. In this context, rather than studying genes predicted to be exported in a single genome, with pan-genomics it is possible to study genes present in different strains within the same species, such as virulence factors. The target organism of this pan-genomic work here presented is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in goat and sheep, which causes significant economic losses in those herds around the world. Currently, only a few antigens against CLA are known as being the basis of commercial and still ineffective vaccines. In this regard, the here presented work analyses, in silico, five C. pseudotuberculosis genomes and gathers data to predict common exported proteins in all five genomes. These candidates were also compared to two recent C. pseudotuberculosis in vitro exoproteome results.
Results
The complete genome of five C. pseudotuberculosis strains (1002, C231, I19, FRC41 and PAT10) were submitted to pan-genomics analysis, yielding 306, 59 and 12 gene sets, respectively, representing the core, dispensable and unique in silico predicted exported pan-genomes. These sets bear 150 genes classified as secreted (SEC) and 227 as potentially surface exposed (PSE). Our findings suggest that the main C. pseudotuberculosis in vitro exoproteome could be greater, appended by a fraction of the 35 proteins formerly predicted as making part of the variant in vitro exoproteome. These genomes were manually curated for correct methionine initiation and redeposited with a total of 1885 homogenized genes.
Conclusions
The in silico prediction of exported proteins has allowed to define a list of putative vaccine candidate genes present in all five complete C. pseudotuberculosis genomes. Moreover, it has also been possible to define the in silico predicted dispensable and unique C. pseudotuberculosis exported proteins. These results provide in silico evidence to further guide experiments in the areas of vaccines, diagnosis and drugs. The work here presented is the first whole C. pseudotuberculosis in silico predicted pan-exoproteome completed till today.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-S5-S6
PMCID: PMC3476999  PMID: 23095951
9.  Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain CIP 52.97, Isolated from a Horse in Kenya 
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(24):7025-7026.
In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism.
doi:10.1128/JB.06293-11
PMCID: PMC3232848  PMID: 22123771
10.  Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:120.
Background -
Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants.
Results -
We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways.
Conclusion -
Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-120
PMCID: PMC2666766  PMID: 19302712
11.  Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:71.
Background
Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate). The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins.
Results
Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases.
Conclusion
An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified. Additionally, the protein kinases were annotated based on a phylogenetic approach. The experimental design and statistical analysis applied proved robust to unravel genes associated with a diverse array of conditions attributing novel functions to previously unknown or undefined genes. The data consolidated in the SUCAST database resource can guide further studies and be useful for the development of improved sugarcane varieties.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-71
PMCID: PMC1852312  PMID: 17355627

Results 1-11 (11)