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1.  Clinical Whole-Exome Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Mendelian Disorders 
The New England journal of medicine  2013;369(16):1502-1511.
Whole-exome sequencing is a diagnostic approach for the identification of molecular defects in patients with suspected genetic disorders.
We developed technical, bioinformatic, interpretive, and validation pipelines for whole-exome sequencing in a certified clinical laboratory to identify sequence variants underlying disease phenotypes in patients.
We present data on the first 250 probands for whom referring physicians ordered whole-exome sequencing. Patients presented with a range of phenotypes suggesting potential genetic causes. Approximately 80% were children with neurologic pheno-types. Insurance coverage was similar to that for established genetic tests. We identified 86 mutated alleles that were highly likely to be causative in 62 of the 250 patients, achieving a 25% molecular diagnostic rate (95% confidence interval, 20 to 31). Among the 62 patients, 33 had autosomal dominant disease, 16 had auto-somal recessive disease, and 9 had X-linked disease. A total of 4 probands received two nonoverlapping molecular diagnoses, which potentially challenged the clinical diagnosis that had been made on the basis of history and physical examination. A total of 83% of the autosomal dominant mutant alleles and 40% of the X-linked mutant alleles occurred de novo. Recurrent clinical phenotypes occurred in patients with mutations that were highly likely to be causative in the same genes and in different genes responsible for genetically heterogeneous disorders.
Whole-exome sequencing identified the underlying genetic defect in 25% of consecutive patients referred for evaluation of a possible genetic condition. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute.)
PMCID: PMC4211433  PMID: 24088041
2.  The N-BAR Domain Protein, Bin3, Regulates Rac1- and Cdc42-Dependent Processes in Myogenesis 
Developmental biology  2013;382(1):160-171.
Actin dynamics are necessary at multiple steps in the formation of multinucleated muscle cells. BAR domain proteins can regulate actin dynamics in several cell types, but have been little studied in skeletal muscle. Here, we identify novel functions for the N-BAR domain protein, Bridging integrator 3 (Bin3), during myogenesis in mice. Bin3 plays an important role in regulating myofiber size in vitro and in vivo. During early myogenesis, Bin3 promotes migration of differentiated muscle cells, where it colocalizes with F-actin in lamellipodia. In addition, Bin3 forms a complex with Rac1 and Cdc42, Rho GTPases involved in actin polymerization, which are known to be essential for myotube formation. Importantly, a Bin3-dependent pathway is a major regulator of Rac1 and Cdc42 activity in differentiated muscle cells. Overall, these data classify N-BAR domain proteins as novel regulators of actin-dependent processes in myogenesis, and further implicate BAR domain proteins in muscle growth and repair.
PMCID: PMC3783639  PMID: 23872330
BAR domain; myogenesis; Rac1; Cdc42; F-actin; muscle regeneration
3.  Atlas2 Cloud: a framework for personal genome analysis in the cloud 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 6):S19.
Until recently, sequencing has primarily been carried out in large genome centers which have invested heavily in developing the computational infrastructure that enables genomic sequence analysis. The recent advancements in next generation sequencing (NGS) have led to a wide dissemination of sequencing technologies and data, to highly diverse research groups. It is expected that clinical sequencing will become part of diagnostic routines shortly. However, limited accessibility to computational infrastructure and high quality bioinformatic tools, and the demand for personnel skilled in data analysis and interpretation remains a serious bottleneck. To this end, the cloud computing and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) technologies can help address these issues.
We successfully enabled the Atlas2 Cloud pipeline for personal genome analysis on two different cloud service platforms: a community cloud via the Genboree Workbench, and a commercial cloud via the Amazon Web Services using Software-as-a-Service model. We report a case study of personal genome analysis using our Atlas2 Genboree pipeline. We also outline a detailed cost structure for running Atlas2 Amazon on whole exome capture data, providing cost projections in terms of storage, compute and I/O when running Atlas2 Amazon on a large data set.
We find that providing a web interface and an optimized pipeline clearly facilitates usage of cloud computing for personal genome analysis, but for it to be routinely used for large scale projects there needs to be a paradigm shift in the way we develop tools, in standard operating procedures, and in funding mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3481437  PMID: 23134663
4.  The PHD and Chromo Domains Regulate the ATPase Activity of the Human Chromatin Remodeler CHD4 
Journal of Molecular Biology  2012;422(1-2):3-17.
The NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex serves as a crucial epigenetic regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and hematopoietic development by coupling the deacetylation and demethylation of histones, nucleosome mobilization, and the recruitment of transcription factors. The core nucleosome remodeling function of the mammalian NuRD complex is executed by the helicase-domain-containing ATPase CHD4 (Mi-2β) subunit, which also contains N-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) and chromo domains. The mode of regulation of chromatin remodeling by CHD4 is not well understood, nor is the role of its PHD and chromo domains. Here, we use small-angle X-ray scattering, nucleosome binding ATPase and remodeling assays, limited proteolysis, cross-linking, and tandem mass spectrometry to propose a three-dimensional structural model describing the overall shape and domain interactions of CHD4 and discuss the relevance of these for regulating the remodeling of chromatin by the NuRD complex.
Graphical Abstract
► The ATPase CHD4 mediates nucleosome remodeling by the NuRD complex. ► We present a three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering model of CHD4 and define its interdomain interactions. ► Cross-linking and limited proteolysis studies validate our model. ► Functional and binding assays suggest a regulatory role for the PHD and chromo domains.
PMCID: PMC3437443  PMID: 22575888
CHD, chromo domain helicase DNA binding; NuRD, nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase; PHD, plant homeodomain; SAXS, small-angle X-ray scattering; LC–MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; DUF, domain of unknown function; TEV, tobacco etch virus; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; BSA, bovine serum albumin; Bistris, 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol; NuRD complex; chromatin remodeling; chromo domain helicase DNA-binding protein 4; histone; transcriptional regulation

Results 1-4 (4)